Polyamine-Modified Gold Nanoparticles Readily Adsorb on Cell Membranes for Bioimaging.
ABSTRACT: The surface modification of nanoparticles (NPs) can enhance cellular and intracellular targeting. A new type of polyamine-modified gold NPs (AuNPs) are designed and synthesized, which can be selectively absorbed onto the cell membrane. AuNPs with an average diameter of 4.0 nm were prepared and modified with polyamine (R-4C) through amidation. In order to detect the distribution of NPs within cells by fluorescence imaging, AuNP@MPA-R-4C was functionalized with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). The fluorescence-labled NPs AuNP@MPA-R-4C-FITC demonstrated minimal cytotoxicity in several cell lines. Both confocal laser scanning microscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that AuNP@MPA-R-4C-FITC was distributed on the cell membrane. Compared with the free organic dye, the modified AuNPs showed significantly increased accumulation on the cell membrane after treatment for only 10 min. These results suggested that AuNP@MPA-R-4C-FITC can be used as a bioprobe targeting the cell membrane for various biological applications.
Project description:Functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been successfully used in many fields as a result of having low cytotoxicity, good biocompatibility, excellent optical properties, and their ability to target cancer cells. Here, we synthesized AuNP carriers that were modified by hyaluronic acid (HA), polyethylene glycol (PEG), and adipic dihydrazide (ADH). The antitumor drug doxorubicin (Dox) was loaded into AuNP carriers and attached chemically. The Au nanocomposite AuNPs@MPA-PEG-HA-ADH-Dox was able to disperse uniformly in aqueous solution, with a diameter of 15 nm. The results of a 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay indicated that AuNP carriers displayed very little toxicity toward cells in high doses, although the antitumor properties of Au nanocomposites were significantly enhanced. Cellular uptake experiments demonstrated that AuNPs modified with hyaluronic acid were more readily ingested by HepG2 and HCT-116 cells, as they have a large number of CD44 receptors. A series of experiments measuring apoptosis such as Rh123 and annexin V-FITC staining, and analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) analysis, indicated that apoptosis played a role in the inhibition of cell proliferation by AuNPs@MPA-PEG-HA-ADH-Dox. Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was the principal mechanism by which the Au nanocomposites inhibited cell proliferation, leading to apoptosis. Thus, the Au nanocomposites, which allowed cell imaging in real-time and induced apoptosis in specific cell types, represent theragnostic agents with potential for future clinical applications in bowel cancer.
Project description:A gold nanoparticle (AuNP) has a localized surface plasmon resonance peak depending on its size, which is often utilized for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). To obtain information on the cholesterol (Chol)-incorporated lipid membranes by SERS, AuNPs (5, 100 nm) were first functionalized by 1-octanethiol and then modified by lipids (AuNP@lipid). In membrane surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (MSERS), both signals from 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) and Chol molecules were enhanced, depending on preparation conditions (size of AuNPs and lipid/AuNP ratio). The enhancement factors (EFs) were calculated to estimate the efficiency of AuNPs on Raman enhancement. The size of AuNP100nm@lipid was 152.0 ± 12.8 nm, which showed an surface enhancement Raman spectrum with an EF2850 value of 111 ± 9. The size of AuNP5nm@lipid prepared with a lipid/AuNP ratio of 1.38 × 104 (lipid molecule/particle) was 275.3 ± 20.2 nm, which showed the highest enhancement with an EF2850 value of 131 ± 21. On the basis of fluorescent probe analyses, the membrane fluidity and polarity of AuNP@lipid were almost similar to DOPC/Chol liposome, indicating an intact membrane of DOPC/Chol after modification with AuNPs. Finally, the membrane properties of AuNP@lipid systems were also discussed on the basis of the obtained MSERS signals.
Project description:Polymeric coatings are commonly applied to impart functionality and colloidal stability to engineered nanoparticles. In natural environments, transformations of the coating can modify the particle transport behavior, but the mechanisms and outcomes of these transformations have not yet been thoroughly evaluated. This study investigates the photo-transformations of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) coatings on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, representing light exposure in surface waters or other sunlit environments, and the impact on the AuNP colloidal stability. Multiple orthogonal characterization methods were applied to interrogate UV-induced transformations and their consequences. Rapid oxidation of the PVP coating occurred upon UV exposure. The transformed PVP largely persisted on the AuNP surface, albeit in a collapsed polymer layer around the AuNP surface. This transformation resulted in drastically diminished colloidal stability of the AuNPs, consistent with loss of steric stabilization. While the residual coating modified the interaction of the AuNPs with calcium counterions, it did not prevent subsequent stabilization by humic acid. This study demonstrates the importance of both chemical and physical coating transformations on nanoparticles, and hence the need for orthogonal and complementary characterization methods to fully characterize the coating transformations. Finally, the specific transformations of the PVP-coated AuNPs investigated here are discussed more broadly with respect to generalizability to other polymer-coated NPs and the implications for their fate in sunlit or other reactive environments.
Project description:Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) can cross the blood brain barrier, thus can be used as nanocarriers in brain drug delivery. However, the effect of bare and polyethylene glycol-modified (PEGylated) AuNPs on normal neural function has not been extensively investigated. In this study, bioelectrical properties of neuronal functions of male BALB/c mice were explored ex vivo and in vivo by using 5 nm bare AuNPs and PEGylated AuNPs. Electrophysiological properties of neurons from hippocampal CA1 region sections were recorded by patch clamp method. Ex vivo, firing rate of action and membrane potentials in response to negative current stimuli significantly altered only after bare AuNP exposure compared to control (p < 0.05). After in vivo injections, anxiety levels of animals were similar. Amplitude of action potentials reduced only in bare AuNP group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, excitability of hippocampal neurons is increasing with bare AuNP exposure, and PEGylation might be more biocompatible for medical applications. Gold nanoparticles, Polyethylene glycol, Action potential, Functional neurotoxicity, Electrophysiology.
Project description:Here, we report the synthesis and functionalization of five different shapes of Au nanoparticles (NPs), namely nanorods, tetrahexahedral, bipyramids, nanomakura, and spheres with PEG and poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)-acrylic acid (pNIPAm-AAc) hydrogels. The anisotropic NPs are synthesized using seed-mediated growth in the presence of silver. The NPs have been characterized using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), zeta potential measurements, UV-Visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis), and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (S(T)EM). Cyt C was loaded into the PEG-hydrogel-coated AuNPs using a modified breathing-in method. Loading efficiencies (up to 80%), dependent on particle geometry, concentration, and hydrogel content, were obtained. Release experiments conducted at high temperature (40 °C) and acidic pH (3) showed higher release for larger sizes of PEG-hydrogel-coated AuNPs, with temporal transition from spherical to thin film release geometry. AuNP shape, size, number density, and hydrogel content are found to influence the loading as well as release kinetics of Cyt C from these systems.
Project description:Introduction:Humans are intentionally exposed to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) where they are used in variety of biomedical applications as imaging and drug delivery agents as well as diagnostic and therapeutic agents currently in clinic and in a variety of upcoming clinical trials. Consequently, it is critical that we gain a better understanding of how physiochemical properties such as size, shape, and surface chemistry drive cellular uptake and AuNP toxicity in vivo. Understanding and being able to manipulate these physiochemical properties will allow for the production of safer and more efficacious use of AuNPs in biomedical applications. Methods and Materials:Here, AuNPs of three sizes, 5 nm, 10 nm, and 20 nm, were coated with a lipid bilayer composed of sodium oleate, hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine, and hexanethiol. To understand how the physical features of AuNPs influence uptake through cellular membranes, sum frequency generation (SFG) was utilized to assess the interactions of the AuNPs with a biomimetic lipid monolayer composed of a deuterated phospholipid 1.2-dipalmitoyl-d62-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (dDPPC). Results and Discussion:SFG measurements showed that 5 nm and 10 nm AuNPs are able to phase into the lipid monolayer with very little energetic cost, whereas, the 20 nm AuNPs warped the membrane conforming it to the curvature of hybrid lipid-coated AuNPs. Toxicity of the AuNPs were assessed in vivo to determine how AuNP curvature and uptake influence cell health. In contrast, in vivo toxicity tested in embryonic zebrafish showed rapid toxicity of the 5 nm AuNPs, with significant 24 hpf mortality occurring at concentrations ?20 mg/L, whereas the 10 nm and 20 nm AuNPs showed no significant mortality throughout the five-day experiment. Conclusion:By combining information from membrane models using SFG spectroscopy with in vivo toxicity studies, a better mechanistic understanding of how nanoparticles (NPs) interact with membranes is developed to understand how the physiochemical features of AuNPs drive nanoparticle-membrane interactions, cellular uptake, and toxicity.
Project description:Understanding the interactions between nanoparticles (NPs) and boundaries of cells is crucial both for their toxicity and therapeutic applications. Besides specific receptor-mediated endocytosis of surface-functionalized NPs, passive internalization is prompted by relatively unspecific parameters, such as particle size and charge. Based on theoretical treatments, adhesion to and bending of the cell membrane can induce NP wrapping. Experimentally, powerful tools are needed to selectively probe possible membrane-NP motifs at very dilute conditions and avoid dye labeling. In this work, we employ surface resonance-enhanced dynamic light scattering, surface plasmon resonance, electron microscopy, and simulations for sensing interactions between plasmonic AuNPs and polymersomes. We distinguish three different interaction scenarios at nanomolar concentrations by tuning the surface charge of AuNPs and rationalize these events by balancing vesicle bending and electrostatic/van der Waals AuNP and vesicle adhesion. The clarification of the physical conditions under which nanoparticles passively translocate across membranes can aid in the rational design of drugs that cannot exploit specific modes of cellular uptake and also elucidates physical properties that render nanoparticles in the environment particularly toxic.
Project description:DNA-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are useful signal-reporters for detecting diverse molecules through various hybridization- and enzyme-based assays. However, their performance is heavily dependent on the probe DNA surface coverage, which can influence both target binding and enzymatic processing of the bound probes. Current methods used to adjust the surface coverage of DNA-modified AuNPs require the production of multiple batches of AuNPs under different conditions, which is costly and laborious. We here develop a single-step assay utilizing dithiothreitol (DTT) to fine-tune the surface coverage of DNA-modified AuNPs. DTT is superior to the commonly used surface diluent, mercaptohexanol, as it is less volatile, allowing for the rapid and reproducible controlling of surface coverage on AuNPs with only micromolar concentrations of DTT. Upon adsorption, DTT forms a dense monolayer on gold surfaces, which provides antifouling capabilities. Furthermore, surface-bound DTT adopts a cyclic conformation, which reorients DNA probes into an upright position and provides ample space to promote DNA hybridization, aptamer assembly, and nuclease digestion. We demonstrate the effects of surface coverage on AuNP-based sensors using DTT-regulated DNA-modified AuNPs. We then use these AuNPs to visually detect DNA and cocaine in colorimetric assays based on enzyme-mediated AuNP aggregation. We determine that DTT-regulated AuNPs with lower surface coverage achieve shorter reaction times and lower detection limits relative to those for assays using untreated AuNPs or DTT-regulated AuNPs with high surface coverage. Additionally, we demonstrate that our DTT-regulated AuNPs can perform cocaine detection in 50% urine without any significant matrix effects. We believe that DTT regulation of surface coverage can be broadly employed for optimizing DNA-modified AuNP performance for use in biosensors as well as drug delivery and therapeutic applications.
Project description:Cellular uptake pathway of nanoparticle (NP) is different from that of free drugs. Therefore, NP-mediated nanotherapeutics can be designed to overcome the adverse effects of free drugs. However, synthetic NPs are typically trapped in the endosome and have difficulty to reach the cytosol because of the characteristic endocytosis, where the endosomal membranes wrap-up the introduced NPs. In this study, the Spacer molecules linking the apoptotic anticancer drug and the gold NP (AuNP) are designed and cellular uptake procedure and drug deployment in the cancer cells are controlled. X-ray nanoscopy and two-photon microscopy are employed to observe the AuNPs in a cell in-situ without additional dye molecule or imaging agent introduction on an AuNP. We confirm that the effective design of the Spacer molecules importantly control the cellular interaction of the AuNPs. This technology can be generalized to broad biomedical applications utilizing nanotherapeutics-mediated diagnosis and new-concepted disease treatment technologies.
Project description:Here, we studied the effect of the size, shape, and surface charge of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on amyloid beta (A?) aggregation on a total brain lipid-based supported lipid bilayer (brain SLB), a fluid platform that facilitates A?-AuNP aggregation process. We found that larger AuNPs induce large and amorphous aggregates on the brain SLB, whereas smaller AuNPs induce protofibrillar A? structures. Positively charged AuNPs were more strongly attracted to A? than negatively charged AuNPs, and the stronger interactions between AuNPs and A? resulted in fewer ?-sheets and more random coil structures. We also compared spherical AuNPs, gold nanorods (AuNRs), and gold nanocubes (AuNCs) to study the effect of nanoparticle shape on A? aggregation on the brain SLB. A? was preferentially bound to the long axis of AuNRs and fewer fibrils were formed whereas all the facets of AuNCs interacted with A? to produce the fibril networks. Finally, it was revealed that different nanostructures induce different cytotoxicity on neuroblastoma cells, and, overall, smaller A? aggregates induce higher cytotoxicity. The results offer insight into the roles of NPs and brain SLB in A? aggregation on the cell membrane and can facilitate the understanding of A?-nanostructure co-aggregation mechanism and tuning A? aggregate structures.