Tbx15 is required for adipocyte browning induced by adrenergic signaling pathway.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The T-box gene Tbx15 is abundantly expressed in adipose tissues, especially subcutaneous and brown fat. Although its expression is correlated with obesity, its precise biological role in adipose tissue is poorly understood in vivo. Here we investigated the function of Tbx15 in brown adipose thermogenesis and white adipose browning in vivo. METHODS:In the present study, we generated adipose-specific Tbx15 knockout (AKO) mice by crossing Tbx15 floxed mice with adiponectin-Cre mice to delineate Tbx15 function in adipose tissues. We systematically investigated the influence of Tbx15 on brown adipose thermogenesis and white adipose browning in mice, as well as the possible underlying molecular mechanism. RESULTS:Upon cold exposure, adipocyte browning in inguinal adipose tissue was significantly impaired in Tbx15 AKO mice. Furthermore, ablation of Tbx15 blocked adipocyte browning induced by β3 adrenergic agonist CL 316243, which did not appear to alter the expression of Tbx15. Analysis of DNA binding sites using chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) revealed that TBX15 bound directly to a key region in the Prdm16 promoter, indicating it regulates transcription of Prdm16, the master gene for adipocyte thermogenesis and browning. Compared to control mice, Tbx15 AKO mice displayed increased body weight gain and decreased whole body energy expenditure in response to high fat diets. CONCLUSION:Taken together, these findings suggest that Tbx15 regulates adipocyte browning and might be a potential target for the treatment of obesity.
Project description:Obesity occurs when excess energy accumulates in white adipose tissue (WAT), whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is specialized in dissipating energy through thermogenesis, potently counteracts obesity. White adipocytes can be converted to thermogenic "brown-like" cells (beige cells; WAT browning) under various stimuli, such as cold exposure. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a crucial energy sensor that regulates energy metabolism in multiple tissues. However, the role of AMPK in adipose tissue function, especially in the WAT browning process, is not fully understood. To illuminate the effect of adipocyte AMPK on energy metabolism, we generated Adiponectin-Cre-driven adipose tissue-specific AMPK ?1/?2 KO mice (AKO). These AKO mice were cold intolerant and their inguinal WAT displayed impaired mitochondrial integrity and biogenesis, and reduced expression of thermogenic markers upon cold exposure. High-fat-diet (HFD)-fed AKO mice exhibited increased adiposity and exacerbated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis and impaired glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Meanwhile, energy expenditure and oxygen consumption were markedly decreased in the AKO mice both in basal conditions and after stimulation with a ?3-adrenergic receptor agonist, CL 316,243. In contrast, we found that in HFD-fed obese mouse model, chronic AMPK activation by A-769662 protected against obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. A-769662 alleviated HFD-induced glucose intolerance and reduced body weight gain and WAT expansion. Notably, A-769662 increased energy expenditure and cold tolerance in HFD-fed mice. A-769662 treatment also induced the browning process in the inguinal fat depot of HFD-fed mice. Likewise, A-769662 enhanced thermogenesis in differentiated inguinal stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells via AMPK signaling pathway. In summary, a lack of adipocyte AMPK? induced thermogenic impairment and obesity in response to cold and nutrient-overload, respectively, whereas chronic AMPK activation by A-769662 promoted WAT browning in inguinal WAT and protected against HFD-induced obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. These findings reveal a vital role for adipocyte AMPK in regulating the browning process in inguinal WAT and in maintaining energy homeostasis, which suggests that the targeted activation of adipocyte AMPK may be a promising strategy for anti-obesity therapy.
Project description:In adipose tissue, agonists of the ?3-adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) regulate lipolysis, lipid oxidation, and thermogenesis. The deficiency in the thermogenesis induced by neuroblast differentiation-associated protein AHNAK in white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice fed a high-fat diet suggests that AHNAK may stimulate energy expenditure via development of beige fat. Here, we report that AHNAK deficiency promoted browning and thermogenic gene expression in WAT but not in brown adipose tissue of mice stimulated with the ADRB3 agonist CL-316243. Consistent with the increased thermogenesis, Ahnak(-/-) mice exhibited an increase in energy expenditure, accompanied by elevated mitochondrial biogenesis in WAT depots in response to CL-316243. Additionally, AHNAK-deficient WAT contained more eosinophils and higher levels of type 2 cytokines (IL-4/IL-13) to promote browning of WAT in response to CL-316243. This was associated with enhanced sympathetic tone in the WAT via upregulation of adrb3 and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in response to ?-adrenergic activation. CL-316243 activated PKA signalling and enhanced lipolysis, as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and release of free glycerol in Ahnak(-/-) mice compared to wild-type mice. Overall, these findings suggest an important role of AHNAK in the regulation of thermogenesis and lipolysis in WAT via ?-adrenergic signalling.
Project description:How the nuclear receptor PPAR? regulates the development of two functionally distinct types of adipose tissue, brown and white fat, as well as the browning of white fat, remains unclear. Our previous studies suggest that PexRAP, a peroxisomal lipid synthetic enzyme, regulates PPAR? signaling and white adipogenesis. Here, we show that PexRAP is an inhibitor of brown adipocyte gene expression. PexRAP inactivation promoted adipocyte browning, increased energy expenditure, and decreased adiposity. Identification of PexRAP-interacting proteins suggests that PexRAP function extends beyond its role as a lipid synthetic enzyme. Notably, PexRAP interacts with importin-?1, a nuclear import factor, and knockdown of PexRAP in adipocytes reduced the levels of nuclear phospholipids. PexRAP also interacts with PPAR?, as well as PRDM16, a critical transcriptional regulator of thermogenesis, and disrupts the PRDM16-PPAR? complex, providing a potential mechanism for PexRAP-mediated inhibition of adipocyte browning. These results identify PexRAP as an important regulator of adipose tissue remodeling.
Project description:Browning of subcutaneous white fat (iWAT) involves several reprograming events, but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Here we show that the transcription factor Hlx is selectively expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and iWAT, and is translationally upregulated by ?3-adrenergic signaling-mediated suppression of the translational inhibitor 4E-BP1. Hlx interacts with and is co-activated by Prdm16 to control BAT-selective gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. Hlx heterozygous knockout mice have defects in brown-like adipocyte formation in iWAT, and develop glucose intolerance and high fat-induced hepatic steatosis. Conversely, transgenic expression of Hlx at a physiological level drives a full program of thermogenesis and converts iWAT to brown-like fat, which improves glucose homeostasis and prevents obesity and hepatic steatosis. The adipose remodeling phenotypes are recapitulated by fat-specific injection of Hlx knockdown and overexpression viruses, respectively. Our studies establish Hlx as a powerful regulator for systematic white adipose tissue browning and offer molecular insights into the underlying transcriptional mechanism.The transcriptional co-activator Prdm16 regulates browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, the authors show that Prdm16 interacts with the transcription factor Hlx, which is stabilized in response to ?3-adrenergic signaling, to increase thermogenic gene expression and mitochondrial biogenesis in subcutaneous WAT.
Project description:Transcriptional effectors of white adipocyte-selective gene expression have not been described. Here we show that TLE3 is a white-selective cofactor that acts reciprocally with the brown-selective cofactor Prdm16 to specify lipid storage and thermogenic gene programs. Occupancy of TLE3 and Prdm16 on certain promoters is mutually exclusive, due to the ability of TLE3 to disrupt the physical interaction between Prdm16 and PPAR?. When expressed at elevated levels in brown fat, TLE3 counters Prdm16, suppressing brown-selective genes and inducing white-selective genes, resulting in impaired fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis. Conversely, mice lacking TLE3 in adipose tissue show enhanced thermogenesis in inguinal white adipose depots and are protected from age-dependent deterioration of brown adipose tissue function. Our results suggest that the establishment of distinct adipocyte phenotypes with different capacities for thermogenesis and lipid storage is accomplished in part through the cell-type-selective recruitment of TLE3 or Prdm16 to key adipocyte target genes.
Project description:Peroxisomes perform essential functions in lipid metabolism, including fatty acid oxidation and plasmalogen synthesis. Here, we describe a role for peroxisomal lipid metabolism in mitochondrial dynamics in brown and beige adipocytes. Adipose tissue peroxisomal biogenesis was induced in response to cold exposure through activation of the thermogenic coregulator PRDM16. Adipose-specific knockout of the peroxisomal biogenesis factor Pex16 (Pex16-AKO) in mice impaired cold tolerance, decreased energy expenditure, and increased diet-induced obesity. Pex16 deficiency blocked cold-induced mitochondrial fission, decreased mitochondrial copy number, and caused mitochondrial dysfunction. Adipose-specific knockout of the peroxisomal ?-oxidation enzyme acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (Acox1-AKO) was not sufficient to affect adiposity, thermogenesis, or mitochondrial copy number, but knockdown of the plasmalogen synthetic enzyme glyceronephosphate O-acyltransferase (GNPAT) recapitulated the effects of Pex16 inactivation on mitochondrial morphology and function. Plasmalogens are present in mitochondria and decreased with Pex16 inactivation. Dietary supplementation with plasmalogens increased mitochondrial copy number, improved mitochondrial function, and rescued thermogenesis in Pex16-AKO mice. These findings support a surprising interaction between peroxisomes and mitochondria regulating mitochondrial dynamics and thermogenesis.
Project description:Given that increased thermogenesis in white adipose tissue, also known as browning, promotes energy expenditure, significant efforts have been invested to determine the molecular factors involved in this process. Here we show that HOXC10, a homeobox domain-containing transcription factor expressed in subcutaneous white adipose tissue, is a suppressor of genes involved in browning white adipose tissue. Ectopic expression of HOXC10 in adipocytes suppresses brown fat genes, whereas the depletion of HOXC10 in adipocytes and myoblasts increases the expression of brown fat genes. The protein level of HOXC10 inversely correlates with brown fat genes in subcutaneous white adipose tissue of cold-exposed mice. Expression of HOXC10 in mice suppresses cold-induced browning in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and abolishes the beneficial effect of cold exposure on glucose clearance. HOXC10 exerts its effect, at least in part, by suppressing PRDM16 expression. The results support that HOXC10 is a key negative regulator of the process of browning in white adipose tissue.
Project description:Beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) are similar to classical brown adipocytes in that they can burn lipids to produce heat. Thus, an increase in beige adipocyte content in WAT browning would raise energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. Here we report that adipose-specific inactivation of Notch1 or its signaling mediator Rbpj in mice results in browning of WAT and elevated expression of uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), a key regulator of thermogenesis. Consequently, as compared to wild-type mice, Notch mutants exhibit elevated energy expenditure, better glucose tolerance and improved insulin sensitivity and are more resistant to high fat diet-induced obesity. By contrast, adipose-specific activation of Notch1 leads to the opposite phenotypes. At the molecular level, constitutive activation of Notch signaling inhibits, whereas Notch inhibition induces, Ppargc1a and Prdm16 transcription in white adipocytes. Notably, pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling in obese mice ameliorates obesity, reduces blood glucose and increases Ucp1 expression in white fat. Therefore, Notch signaling may be therapeutically targeted to treat obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Project description:Prdm16 determines the bidirectional fate switch of skeletal muscle/brown adipose tissue (BAT) and regulates the thermogenic gene program of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SAT) in mice. Here we show that miR-133a, a microRNA that is expressed in both BAT and SATs, directly targets the 3' UTR of Prdm16. The expression of miR-133a dramatically decreases along the commitment and differentiation of brown preadipocytes, accompanied by the upregulation of Prdm16. Overexpression of miR-133a in BAT and SAT cells significantly inhibits, and conversely inhibition of miR-133a upregulates, Prdm16 and brown adipogenesis. More importantly, double knockout of miR-133a1 and miR-133a2 in mice leads to elevations of the brown and thermogenic gene programs in SAT. Even 75% deletion of miR-133a (a1(-/-)a2(+/-) ) genes results in browning of SAT, manifested by the appearance of numerous multilocular UCP1-expressing adipocytes within SAT. Additionally, compared to wildtype mice, miR-133a1(-/-)a2(+/-) mice exhibit increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, and activate the thermogenic gene program more robustly upon cold exposure. These results together elucidate a crucial role of miR-133a in the regulation of adipocyte browning in vivo.
Project description:?-Adrenergic receptor (?-AR) signaling is a pathway controlling adaptive thermogenesis in brown or beige adipocytes. Here we investigate the biological roles of the transcription factor Foxp1 in brown/beige adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis. Adipose-specific deletion of Foxp1 leads to an increase of brown adipose activity and browning program of white adipose tissues. The Foxp1-deficient mice show an augmented energy expenditure and are protected from diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Consistently, overexpression of Foxp1 in adipocytes impairs adaptive thermogenesis and promotes diet-induced obesity. A robust change in abundance of the ?3-adrenergic receptor (?3-AR) is observed in brown/beige adipocytes from both lines of mice. Molecularly, Foxp1 directly represses ?3-AR transcription and regulates its desensitization behavior. Taken together, our findings reveal Foxp1 as a master transcriptional repressor of brown/beige adipocyte differentiation and thermogenesis, and provide an important clue for its targeting and treatment of obesity.