Relationships among classifications of ayurvedic medicine diagnostics for imbalances and western measures of psychological states: An exploratory study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:According to Ayurveda, the traditional medical system of India, doshas are a combination of characteristics based on a five-element philosophy that drive our mental and physical tendencies. When the doshas, or functional principles, are out of balance in quality or quantity, wellbeing is adversely affected and symptoms manifest. OBJECTIVE:This study examined relationships among imbalances in the doshas (termed Vikruti) reported via questionnaire and Western measures of psychological states. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Study participants were 101 women (n = 81) and men (n = 20), mean age 53.9 years (SD = 11.7; range 32-80). Participants completed questionnaires to categorize their Vikruti type and psychological states, which included depressed mood (CESD), anxiety (PROMIS), rumination & reflection (RRQ), mindfulness (MAAS), stress (PSS), and quality of life (Ryff). RESULTS:Multivariate general linear modeling, controlling for age, gender and body mass index (BMI), showed that Vata imbalance was associated with more anxiety (p ≤ 0.05), more rumination (p ≤ 0.01), less mindfulness (p ≤ 0.05), and lower overall quality of life (p ≤ 0.01). Pitta imbalance was associated with poorer mood (p ≤ 0.01) and less mindfulness (p ≤ 0.05), more anxiety (p ≤ 0.05) and stress (p ≤ 0.05). Kapha imbalance was associated with more stress (p ≤ 0.05), more rumination (p ≤ 0.05) and less reflection (p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSION:These findings suggest that symptoms of mind-body imbalances in Ayurveda are differentially associated with western assessments of psychological states. Ayurvedic dosha assessment may be an effective way to assess physical as well as emotional wellbeing in research and clinical settings.
Project description:Different theories have been proposed to explain hypertension from an Ayurvedic perspective, but there is no consensus amongst the experts. A better understanding of the applied physiology and etio-pathogenesis of hypertension in the light of Ayurvedic principles is being attempted to fill this gap. A detailed review of available Ayurvedic literature was carried out to understand the physiology of blood pressure and etio-pathogenesis of hypertension from the perspective of Ayurveda. Many parallels were drawn from the concepts such as Shad Kriyakala (six stages of Dosha imbalance) and Avarana of Doshas (occlusion in the normal functioning of the Doshas) to the modern pathogenesis of hypertension to gain a deeper understanding of it. Hypertension without specific symptoms in its mild and moderate stages cannot be considered as a disease in Ayurveda. It appears to be an early stage of pathogenesis and a risk factor for development of diseases affecting the heart, brain, kidneys and eyes etc. Improper food habits and modern sedentary lifestyle with or without genetic predisposition provokes and vitiates all the Tridoshas to trigger the pathogenesis of hypertension. It is proposed that hypertension is to be understood as the Prasara-Avastha which means spread of vitiated Doshas from their specific sites, specifically of Vyana Vata, Prana Vata, Sadhaka Pitta and Avalambaka Kapha along with Rakta in their disturbed states. The Avarana (occlusion of normal functioning) of Vata Dosha by Pitta and Kapha can be seen in the Rasa-Rakta Dhathus, which in turn hampers the functioning of the respective Srotas (micro-channels) of circulation.
Project description:The present study examined the effects of mindfulness on depression and anxiety, both direct and indirect through the mediation of four mechanisms of emotional regulation: worry, rumination, reappraisal and suppression. Path analysis was applied to data collected from an international and non-clinical sample of 1151 adults, including both meditators and non-meditators, who completed an online questionnaire battery. Our results show that mindfulness are related to lower levels of depression and anxiety both directly and indirectly. Suppression, reappraisal, worry and rumination all acted as significant mediators of the relationship between mindfulness and depression. A similar picture emerged for the relationship between mindfulness and anxiety, with the difference that suppression was not a mediator. Our data also revealed that the estimated number of hours of mindfulness meditation practice did not affect depression or anxiety directly but did reduce these indirectly by increasing mindfulness. Worry and rumination proved to be the most potent mediating variables. Altogether, our results confirm that emotional regulation plays a significant mediating role between mindfulness and symptoms of depression and anxiety in the general population and suggest that meditation focusing on reducing worry and rumination may be especially useful in reducing the risk of developing clinical depression.
Project description:Recent theoretical advances have emphasized the commonality between rumination and worry, often referred to as repetitive negative thinking. Although not studied extensively, repetitive negative thinking may not only account for a substantial overlap between depression and anxiety symptoms but also encapsulate other constructs including one's tendency to experience unwanted intrusive thoughts or have low levels of mindfulness. In this study, 643 college students completed self-report questionnaire measures of repetitive negative thinking (the Habit Index of Negative Thinking) and other relevant constructs including rumination, worry, depression and anxiety symptoms, intrusive thoughts, and mindfulness. To analyze the data, we conducted systematic commonality analyses, which algebraically decomposed shared variances among these measures into various unique components. Results in Study 1 indicated that individual differences in repetitive negative thinking were explained largely by the overlap between rumination and worry, but also by some rumination-specific and worry-specific variance. Moreover, the shared variation in rumination and worry explained the frequencies of depression and anxiety symptoms and their overlap. We also found in Study 2 that repetitive negative thinking was positively related to intrusive thoughts and negatively related to mindfulness. These associations were mostly explained by shared variance with rumination and worry, but there was also some mindfulness-specific variance. These results suggest that repetitive negative thinking may indeed lie at the core of the comorbidity between depression and anxiety symptoms, but that it is also a broader construct that encompasses intrusive thoughts and low levels of mindfulness.
Project description:Mindfulness-based interventions have shown to reduce psychological distress in cancer patients. The accessibility of mindfulness-based interventions for cancer patients could be further improved by providing mindfulness using an individual internet-based format. The aim of this study is to test the effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) group intervention for cancer patients in comparison with individual internet-based MBCT and treatment as usual (TAU).A three-armed multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing group-based MBCT to individual internet-based MBCT and TAU in cancer patients who suffer from at least mild psychological distress (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) ? 11). Measurements will be conducted prior to randomization (baseline), post-treatment and at 3 months and 9 months post-treatment. Participants initially allocated to TAU are subsequently randomized to either group- or individual internet-based MBCT and will receive a second baseline measurement after 3 months. Thus, the three-armed comparison will have a time span of approximately 3 months. The two-armed intervention comparison includes a 9-month follow-up and will also consist of participants randomized to the intervention after TAU. Primary outcome will be post-treatment psychological distress (HADS). Secondary outcomes are fear of cancer recurrence (Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory), rumination (Rumination and Reflection Questionnaire), positive mental health (Mental Health Continuum - Short Form), and cost-effectiveness (health-related quality of life (EuroQol -5D and Short Form-12) and health care usage (Trimbos and iMTA questionnaire on Costs associated with Psychiatric illness). Potential predictors: DSM-IV-TR mood/anxiety disorders (SCID-I) and neuroticism (NEO-Five Factor Inventory) will be measured. Mediators of treatment effect: mindfulness skills, (Five-Facets of Mindfulness Questionnaire- Short Form), working alliance (Working Alliance Inventory) and group cohesion (Group Cohesion Questionnaire) will also be measured.This trial will provide valuable information on the clinical and cost-effectiveness of group versus internet-based MBCT versus TAU for distressed cancer patients.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02138513. Registered 6 May 2014.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While extensive research has highlighted the positive mental health outcomes associated with mindfulness, little work has examined how mindfulness may protect the mental health of first responders exposed to trauma. This is important as there is increasing evidence that mindfulness skills, if protective, can be taught to groups of at-risk workers. The purpose of the current research was to examine the potential role mindfulness may have in supporting the mental health of Australian fire fighters. METHODS:The sample consisted of 114 professional fire fighters who completed demographic and job-related questions followed by measures of mindfulness (FMI-14), well-being (WHO-5), depression (HADS-D) and anxiety (HADS-A). Hierarchical multiple linear regressions were performed to determine whether levels of mindfulness were associated with anxiety, depression and wellbeing after accounting for age and number of years of fire service. RESULTS:High levels of mindfulness were associated with decreased depression (p ≤ .001) and anxiety (p ≤ .001) as well as increased psychological well-being (p ≤ .001). Measures of mindfulness were able to explain a substantial amount of the variability in well-being (26.8%), anxiety (23.6%) and depression (22.4%), regardless of age and years of fire service. CONCLUSIONS:The present study provides evidence for robust associations between dispositional mindfulness and mental health markers of depression, anxiety and well-being in Australian fire fighters recently exposed to trauma. Mindfulness is a psychological characteristic that may be able to be modified, although further research is required to substantiate these findings and to formally test mindfulness interventions. Such studies would allow greater insight into the underlying mechanisms through which mindfulness may exert its beneficial effects.
Project description:Mindfulness-based interventions are effective for reducing depressive symptoms. However, the psychological and neural mechanisms are unclear. This study examined which facets of trait mindfulness offer protection against negative bias and rumination, which are key risk factors for depression. Nineteen male volunteers completed a 2-day functional magnetic resonance imaging study. One day utilized a stress-induction task and the other day utilized a mindful breathing task. An emotional inhibition task was used to measure neural and behavioral changes related to state negative bias, defined by poorer performance in inhibiting negative relative to neutral stimuli. Associations among trait mindfulness [measured by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ)], trait rumination, and negative bias were examined. Non-reactivity scores on the FFMQ correlated negatively with rumination and negative bias following the stress induction. Non-reactivity was inversely correlated with insula activation during inhibition to negative stimuli after the mindful breathing task. Our results suggest non-reactivity to inner experience is the key facet of mindfulness that protects individuals from psychological risk for depression. Based on these results, mindfulness could reduce vulnerability to depression in at least two ways: (i) by buffering against trait rumination and negative bias and (ii) by reducing automatic emotional responding via the insula.
Project description:Background:Individuals who were maltreated during childhood are faced with increased risks for developing various psychological symptoms that are particularly resistant to traditional treatments. This pilot study investigated the effects of a mindfulness based behavioral intervention for young adults with a childhood maltreatment history. Methods:This study looked at self-report psychological questionnaires from 20 subjects (5 males) before and after a mindfulness-based behavioral intervention, compared to 18 subjects (6 males) in the waiting list control group (age range 22-29); all subjects experienced mild-to-moderate childhood maltreatment. We analyzed changes in stress, anxiety, depression, mindfulness and self-compassion related to the intervention with linear mixed effects models; we also analyzed the relationships among questionnaire score changes with partial correlation analyses and mediation analysis. Results:Linear mixed effects model analyses revealed significant group by time interaction on stress (p < 0.01), anxiety (p < 0.05), and self-compassion (p < 0.01), with the mindfulness group having significant reduction in stress and anxiety (p < 0.01), and significant increase in mindfulness (p < 0.05) and self-compassion (p < 0.001). Partial correlation analyses showed that among all subjects from both groups, changes in mindfulness positively correlated with changes in self-compassion (r = 0.578, p = 0.001), which negatively correlated with changes in depression (r = -0.374, p = 0.05) and anxiety (r = -0.395, p < 0.05). Changes in self-compassion mediated, in part, the relationship between changes in mindfulness and changes in anxiety (average causal mediation effect = -4.721, p < 0.05). We observed a dose-dependent effect of the treatment, i.e., the number of intervention sessions attended were negatively correlated with changes in stress (r = -0.674, p < 0.01), anxiety (r = -0.580, p < 0.01), and depression (r = -0.544, p < 0.05), after controlling for the individual differences in childhood maltreatment severity. Conclusion:Our results suggest that, to some extent, the mindfulness-based intervention can be helpful for improving self-compassion and psychological health among young adults with a childhood maltreatment history. Clinical Trial Registration:www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier NCT02447744.
Project description:Background:Health-care professional (HCP) students experience high levels of burnout, characterized by work- and school-related stress. Burnout is associated with a host of negative psychological and health outcomes. It may also contribute to cognitive dysfunction and decreased work productivity and may be related to trait mindfulness. This study cross-sectionally explored psychological distress and its correlates in a sample of interdisciplinary HCP students using cluster analysis. Method:Fifty-seven interdisciplinary HCP students completed validated measures of burnout, depressive and anxiety symptoms, perceived stress, and rumination, which were entered into a cluster analysis. A neuropsychological test measured executive function; validated questionnaires assessed work productivity and trait mindfulness. Relationships between cluster membership and classroom productivity, executive function, and trait mindfulness were investigated. Results:Burnout, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress were reported at high rates in this sample. The cluster analysis yielded 4 clusters, categorized as follows: Healthy, Ruminative Healthy, Moderate Distress, and High Distress. Cluster membership significantly differed based on trait mindfulness and classroom productivity. Trait mindfulness was related to classroom productivity. Although not significant, there were small to medium associations between executive function and both cluster membership and trait mindfulness. Discussion:Cluster membership was highly related to trait mindfulness and classroom productivity, suggesting these are important correlates of psychological distress in HCP students. Taken together, these results underscore the need for interventions, especially ones that are mindfulness-based, to manage stress and work-relevant functioning in HCP students.
Project description:Ayurveda is one of the most ancient and widely practiced forms of medicine today, along with Traditional Chinese Medicine. It consists of determining an individual's constitution or Prakriti and current imbalance(s) through the use of multimodal approaches. Ayurveda practitioners may choose to include either a self-reported or structured interview constitutional questionnaire as part of the Prakriti assessment. Currently, there is no standardized or validated self-reported constitutional questionnaire tool employed by Ayurveda physicians or western Ayurveda educational institutions.To examine test-retest reliability of three self-administered constitutional questionnaires at a one month interval and internal consistency of items pertaining to a single constitution.Three constitutional questionnaires were administered online. 19 participants completed three questionnaires at two time points, one month apart. Age range was 21-62 years old with a mean age of 34. Of the 19, 5 were male and 14 female. Vata, Pitta, and Kapha scores obtained from each questionnaire were standardized to give a vector of three relative percentages, summing to 100. These percentages were further translated from numerical values to one of ten possible dosha diagnoses.Analysis indicated that the three questionnaires had moderately good test-retest reliability according to numerical scores, but highly variable reliability according to discrete Ayurveda diagnosis. Internal consistency pertaining to individual constitutions within one questionnaire was poor for all three primary doshas, but especially for Kapha.Further research is necessary to develop a reliable and standardized constitutional questionnaire.
Project description:How a human observer perceives duration depends on the amount of events taking place during the timed interval, but also on psychological dimensions, such as emotional-wellbeing, mindfulness, impulsivity, and rumination. Here we aimed at exploring these influences on duration estimation and passage of time judgments. One hundred and seventeen healthy individuals filled out mindfulness (FFMQ), impulsivity (BIS-11), rumination (RRS), and depression (BDI-sf) questionnaires. Participants also conducted verbal estimation and production tasks in the multiple seconds range. During these timing tasks, subjects were asked to read digits aloud that were presented on a computer screen. Each condition of the timing tasks differed in terms of the interval between the presentation of the digits, i.e., either short (4-s) or long (16-s). Our findings suggest that long empty intervals (16-s) are associated with a relative underestimation of duration, and to a feeling that the time passes slowly, a seemingly paradoxical result. Also, regarding more mindful individuals, such a dissociation between duration estimation and passage of time judgments was found, but only when empty intervals were short (4-s). Relatively speaking, more mindful subjects showed an increased overestimation of durations, but felt that time passed more quickly. These results provide further evidence for the dissociation between duration estimation and the feeling of the passage of time. We discuss these results in terms of an alerting effect when empty intervals are short and events are more numerous, which could mediate the effect of dispositional mindfulness.