Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibiting a modified route for uptake and catabolism of glycerol forms significant amounts of ethanol from this carbon source considered as 'non-fermentable'.
ABSTRACT: Background:Due to its inevitable formation during biodiesel production and its relatively high degree of reduction, glycerol is an attractive carbon source for microbial fermentation processes. However, glycerol is catabolized in a fully respiratory manner by the eukaryotic platform organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We previously engineered S. cerevisiae strains to favor fermentative metabolism of glycerol by replacing the native FAD-dependent glycerol catabolic pathway with the NAD-dependent 'DHA pathway'. In addition, a heterologous aquaglyceroporin (Fps1 homolog) was expressed to facilitate glycerol uptake. The current study was launched to scrutinize the formation of S. cerevisiae's natural fermentation product ethanol from glycerol caused by the conducted genetic modifications. This understanding is supposed to facilitate future engineering of this yeast for fermenting glycerol into valuable products more reduced than ethanol. Results:A strain solely exhibiting the glycerol catabolic pathway replacement produced ethanol at concentrations close to the detection limit. The expression of the heterologous aquaglyceroporin caused significant ethanol production (8.5 g L-1 from 51.5 g L-1 glycerol consumed) in a strain catabolizing glycerol via the DHA pathway but not in the wild-type background. A reduction of oxygen availability in the shake flask cultures further increased the ethanol titer up to 15.7 g L-1 (from 45 g L-1 glycerol consumed). Conclusion:The increased yield of cytosolic NADH caused by the glycerol catabolic pathway replacement seems to be a minimal requirement for the occurrence of alcoholic fermentation in S. cerevisiae growing in synthetic glycerol medium. The remarkable metabolic switch to ethanol formation in the DHA pathway strain with the heterologous aquaglyceroporin supports the assumption of a much stronger influx of glycerol accompanied by an increased rate of cytosolic NADH production via the DHA pathway. The fact that a reduction of oxygen supply increases ethanol production in DHA pathway strains is in line with the hypothesis that a major part of glycerol in normal shake flask cultures still enters the catabolism in a respiratory manner.
Project description:Maintaining redox balance is critical for the production of heterologous secondary metabolites, whereas on various occasions the native cofactor balance does not match the needs in engineered microorganisms. In this study, 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC, a crucial precursor of vitamin D3) biosynthesis pathway was constructed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4742 with endogenous ergosterol synthesis pathway blocked by knocking out the erg5 gene (encoding C-22 desaturase). The deletion of erg5 led to redox imbalance with higher ratio of cytosolic free NADH/NAD+ and more glycerol and ethanol accumulation. To alleviate the redox imbalance, a water-forming NADH oxidase (NOX) and an alternative oxidase (AOX1) were employed in our system based on cofactor regeneration strategy. Consequently, the production of 7-dehydrocholesterol was increased by 74.4% in shake flask culture. In the meanwhile, the ratio of free NADH/NAD+ and the concentration of glycerol and ethanol were reduced by 78.0%, 50.7% and 7.9% respectively. In a 5-L bioreactor, the optimal production of 7-DHC reached 44.49(±9.63) mg/L. This study provides a reference to increase the production of some desired compounds that are restricted by redox imbalance.
Project description:Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level.
Project description:On the basis of knowledge of the biological role of glycerol in the redox balance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a fermentation strategy was defined to reduce the surplus formation of NADH, responsible for glycerol synthesis. A metabolic model was used to predict the operating conditions that would reduce glycerol production during ethanol fermentation. Experimental validation of the simulation results was done by monitoring the inlet substrate feeding during fed-batch S. cerevisiae cultivation in order to maintain the respiratory quotient (RQ) (defined as the CO2 production to O2 consumption ratio) value between 4 and 5. Compared to previous fermentations without glucose monitoring, the final glycerol concentration was successfully decreased. Although RQ-controlled fermentation led to a lower maximum specific ethanol production rate, it was possible to reach a high level of ethanol production: 85 g.liter-1 with 1.7 g.liter-1 glycerol in 30 h. We showed here that by using a metabolic model as a tool in prediction, it was possible to reduce glycerol production in a very high-performance ethanolic fermentation process.
Project description:Thraustochytrids are well-known unicellular heterotrophic marine protists because of their promising ability to accumulate docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, the implications of their unique genomic and metabolic features on DHA production remain poorly understood. Here, the effects of chemical and physical culture conditions on the cell mass and DHA production were investigated for a unique thraustochytrid strain, PKU#SW8, isolated from the seawater of Pearl River Estuary. All the tested fermentation parameters showed a significant influence on the cell mass and concentration and yield of DHA. The addition of monosaccharides (fructose, mannose, glucose, or galactose) or glycerol to the culture medium yielded much higher cell mass and DHA concentrations than that of disaccharides and starch. Similarly, organic nitrogen sources (peptone, yeast extract, tryptone, and sodium glutamate) proved to be beneficial in achieving a higher cell mass and DHA concentration. PKU#SW8 was found to grow and accumulate a considerable amount of DHA over wide ranges of KH<sub>2</sub>PO<sub>4</sub> (0.125-1.0 g/L), salinity (0-140% seawater), pH (3-9), temperature (16-36 °C), and agitation (140-230 rpm). With the optimal culture conditions (glycerol, 20 g/L; peptone, 2.5 g/L; 80% seawater; pH 4.0; 28 °C; and 200 rpm) determined based on the shake-flask experiments, the cell mass and concentration and yield of DHA were improved up to 7.5 ± 0.05 g/L, 2.14 ± 0.03 g/L, and 282.9 ± 3.0 mg/g, respectively, on a 5-L scale fermentation. This study provides valuable information about the fermentation conditions of the PKU#SW8 strain and its unique physiological features, which could be beneficial for strain development and large-scale DHA production.
Project description:Acetic acid, an inhibitor of sugar fermentation by yeast, is invariably present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates which are used or considered as feedstocks for yeast-based bioethanol production. Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains have been constructed, in which anaerobic reduction of acetic acid to ethanol replaces glycerol formation as a mechanism for reoxidizing NADH formed in biosynthesis. An increase in the amount of acetate that can be reduced to ethanol should further decrease acetic acid concentrations and enable higher ethanol yields in industrial processes based on lignocellulosic feedstocks. The stoichiometric requirement of acetate reduction for NADH implies that increased generation of NADH in cytosolic biosynthetic reactions should enhance acetate consumption.Replacement of the native NADP(+)-dependent 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase in S. cerevisiae by a prokaryotic NAD(+)-dependent enzyme resulted in increased cytosolic NADH formation, as demonstrated by a ca. 15% increase in the glycerol yield on glucose in anaerobic cultures. Additional deletion of ALD6, which encodes an NADP(+)-dependent acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, led to a 39% increase in the glycerol yield compared to a non-engineered strain. Subsequent replacement of glycerol formation by an acetate reduction pathway resulted in a 44% increase of acetate consumption per amount of biomass formed, as compared to an engineered, acetate-reducing strain that expressed the native 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and ALD6. Compared to a non-acetate reducing reference strain under the same conditions, this resulted in a ca. 13% increase in the ethanol yield on glucose.The combination of NAD(+)-dependent 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase expression and deletion of ALD6 resulted in a marked increase in the amount of acetate that was consumed in these proof-of-principle experiments, and this concept is ready for further testing in industrial strains as well as in hydrolysates. Altering the cofactor specificity of the oxidative branch of the pentose-phosphate pathway in S. cerevisiae can also be used to increase glycerol production in wine fermentation and to improve NADH generation and/or generation of precursors derived from the pentose-phosphate pathway in other industrial applications of this yeast.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Sugar alcohols are widely used as low-calorie sweeteners in the food and pharmaceutical industries. They can also be transformed into platform chemicals. Yarrowia lipolytica, an oleaginous yeast, is a promising host for producing many sugar alcohols. In this work, we tested whether heterologous expression of a recently identified sugar alcohol phosphatase (PYP) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae would increase sugar alcohol production in Y. lipolytica.<h4>Results</h4>Y. lipolytica was found natively to produce erythritol, mannitol, and arabitol during growth on glucose, fructose, mannose, and glycerol. Osmotic stress is known to increase sugar alcohol production, and was found to significantly increase erythritol production during growth on glycerol. To better understand erythritol production from glycerol, since it was the most promising sugar alcohol, we measured the expression of key genes and intracellular metabolites. Osmotic stress increased the expression of several key genes in the glycerol catabolic pathway and the pentose phosphate pathway. Analysis of intracellular metabolites revealed that amino acids, sugar alcohols, and polyamines are produced at higher levels in response to osmotic stress. Heterologous overexpression of the sugar alcohol phosphatase increased erythritol production and glycerol utilization in Y. lipolytica. We further increased erythritol production by increasing the expression of native glycerol kinase (GK), and transketolase (TKL). This strain was able to produce 27.5 ± 0.7 g/L erythritol from glycerol during batch growth and 58.8 ± 1.68 g/L erythritol during fed-batch growth in shake-flasks experiments. In addition, the glycerol utilization was increased by 2.5-fold. We were also able to demonstrate that this strain efficiently produces erythritol from crude glycerol, a major byproduct of the biodiesel production.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We demonstrated the application of a promising enzyme for increasing erythritol production in Y. lipolytica. We were further able to boost production by combining the expression of this enzyme with other approaches known to increase erythritol production in Y. lipolytica. This suggest that this new enzyme provides an orthogonal route for boosting production and can be stacked with existing designs known to increase sugar alcohol production in yeast such as Y. lipolytica. Collectively, this work establishes a new route for increasing sugar alcohol production and further develops Y. lipolytica as a promising host for erythritol production from cheap substrates such as glycerol.
Project description:Glycerol, whose formation contributes to cellular redox balancing and osmoregulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is an important by-product of yeast-based bioethanol production. Replacing the glycerol pathway by an engineered pathway for NAD+-dependent acetate reduction has been shown to improve ethanol yields and contribute to detoxification of acetate-containing media. However, the osmosensitivity of glycerol non-producing strains limits their applicability in high-osmolarity industrial processes. This study explores engineering strategies for minimizing glycerol production by acetate-reducing strains, while retaining osmotolerance.GPD2 encodes one of two S. cerevisiae isoenzymes of NAD+-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH). Its deletion in an acetate-reducing strain yielded a fourfold lower glycerol production in anaerobic, low-osmolarity cultures but hardly affected glycerol production at high osmolarity. Replacement of both native G3PDHs by an archaeal NADP+-preferring enzyme, combined with deletion of ALD6, yielded an acetate-reducing strain the phenotype of which resembled that of a glycerol-negative gpd1? gpd2? strain in low-osmolarity cultures. This strain grew anaerobically at high osmolarity (1 mol L-1 glucose), while consuming acetate and producing virtually no extracellular glycerol. Its ethanol yield in high-osmolarity cultures was 13% higher than that of an acetate-reducing strain expressing the native glycerol pathway.Deletion of GPD2 provides an attractive strategy for improving product yields of acetate-reducing S. cerevisiae strains in low, but not in high-osmolarity media. Replacement of the native yeast G3PDHs by a heterologous NADP+-preferring enzyme, combined with deletion of ALD6, virtually eliminated glycerol production in high-osmolarity cultures while enabling efficient reduction of acetate to ethanol. After further optimization of growth kinetics, this strategy for uncoupling the roles of glycerol formation in redox homeostasis and osmotolerance can be applicable for improving performance of industrial strains in high-gravity acetate-containing processes.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Saccharomyces cerevisiae is being exploited as a cell factory to produce fatty acids and their derivatives as biofuels. Previous studies found that both precursor supply and fatty acid metabolism deregulation are essential for enhanced fatty acid synthesis. A bacterial pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex expressed in the yeast cytosol was reported to enable production of cytosolic acetyl-CoA with lower energy cost and no toxic intermediate.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Overexpression of the PDH complex significantly increased cell growth, ethanol consumption and reduced glycerol accumulation. Furthermore, to optimize the redox imbalance in production of fatty acids from glucose, two endogenous NAD<sup>+</sup>-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenases were deleted, and a heterologous NADP<sup>+</sup>-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was introduced. The best fatty acid producing strain PDH7 with engineering of precursor and co-factor metabolism could produce 840.5 mg/L free fatty acids (FFAs) in shake flask, which was 83.2% higher than the control strain YJZ08. Profile analysis of free fatty acid suggested the cytosolic PDH complex mainly resulted in the increases of unsaturated fatty acids (C16:1 and C18:1).<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>We demonstrated that cytosolic PDH pathway enabled more efficient acetyl-CoA provision with the lower ATP cost, and improved FFA production. Together with engineering of the redox factor rebalance, the cytosolic PDH pathway could achieve high level of FFA production at similar levels of other best acetyl-CoA producing pathways.
Project description:Background:Reduction or elimination of by-product formation is of immediate economic relevance in fermentation processes for industrial bioethanol production with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Anaerobic cultures of wild-type S. cerevisiae require formation of glycerol to maintain the intracellular NADH/NAD+ balance. Previously, functional expression of the Calvin-cycle enzymes ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) and phosphoribulokinase (PRK) in S. cerevisiae was shown to enable reoxidation of NADH with CO2 as electron acceptor. In slow-growing cultures, this engineering strategy strongly decreased the glycerol yield, while increasing the ethanol yield on sugar. The present study explores engineering strategies to improve rates of growth and alcoholic fermentation in yeast strains that functionally express RuBisCO and PRK, while maximizing the positive impact on the ethanol yield. Results:Multi-copy integration of a bacterial-RuBisCO expression cassette was combined with expression of the Escherichia coli GroEL/GroES chaperones and expression of PRK from the anaerobically inducible DAN1 promoter. In anaerobic, glucose-grown bioreactor batch cultures, the resulting S. cerevisiae strain showed a 31% lower glycerol yield and a 31% lower specific growth rate than a non-engineered reference strain. Growth of the engineered strain in anaerobic, glucose-limited chemostat cultures revealed a negative correlation between its specific growth rate and the contribution of the Calvin-cycle enzymes to redox homeostasis. Additional deletion of GPD2, which encodes an isoenzyme of NAD+-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, combined with overexpression of the structural genes for enzymes of the non-oxidative pentose-phosphate pathway, yielded a CO2-reducing strain that grew at the same rate as a non-engineered reference strain in anaerobic bioreactor batch cultures, while exhibiting a 86% lower glycerol yield and a 15% higher ethanol yield. Conclusions:The metabolic engineering strategy presented here enables an almost complete elimination of glycerol production in anaerobic, glucose-grown batch cultures of S. cerevisiae, with an associated increase in ethanol yield, while retaining near wild-type growth rates and a capacity for glycerol formation under osmotic stress. Using current genome-editing techniques, the required genetic modifications can be introduced in one or a few transformations. Evaluation of this concept in industrial strains and conditions is therefore a realistic next step towards its implementation for improving the efficiency of first- and second-generation bioethanol production.
Project description:Previous studies reported that the use of Metschnikowia pulcherrima in sequential culture fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae mainly induced a reduction of volatile acidity in wine. The impact of the presence of this yeast on the metabolic pathway involved in pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) bypass and glycerol production in S. cerevisiae has never been investigated. In this work, we compared acetic acid and glycerol production kinetics between pure S. cerevisiae culture and its sequential culture with M. pulcherrima during alcoholic fermentation. In parallel, the expression levels of the principal genes involved in PDH bypass and glyceropyruvic fermentation in S. cerevisiae were investigated. A sequential culture of M. pulcherrima/S. cerevisiae at an inoculation ratio of 10:1 produced 40% less acetic acid than pure S. cerevisiae culture and led to the enhancement of glycerol content (12% higher). High expression levels of pyruvate decarboxylase PDC1 and PDC5, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase ALD6, alcohol dehydrogenase ADH1 and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase PDC1 genes during the first 3 days of fermentation in sequential culture conditions are highlighted. Despite the complexity of correlating gene expression levels to acetic acid formation kinetics, we demonstrate that the acetic acid production pathway is altered by sequential culture conditions. Moreover, we show for the first time that the entire acetic acid and glycerol metabolic pathway can be modulated in S. cerevisiae by the presence of M. pulcherrima at the beginning of fermentation.