Stable transmission of complex chromosomal rearrangements involving chromosome 1q derived from constitutional chromoanagenesis.
ABSTRACT: Background:Chromoanagenesis events encompassing chromoanasynthesis, chromoplexy, and chromothripsis are described in cancers and can result in highly complex chromosomal rearrangements derived from 'all-at-once' catastrophic cellular events. The complexity of these rearrangements and the original descriptions in cancer cells initially led to the assumption that it was an acquired anomaly. While rare, these phenomena involving chromosome 1 have been reported a few individuals in a constitutional setting. Case presentation:Here, we describe a newborn baby who was initially referred for cytogenetic testing for multiple congenital anomalies including cystic encephalomalacia, patent ductus arteriosus, inguinal hernia, and bilateral undescended testicles. Chromosome analysis was performed and revealed a derivative chromosome 1 with an 1q24-q31 segment inserted into 1q42.13 resulting in gain of 1q24-q31. Whole genome SNP microarray analysis showed a complex pattern of copy number variants with four gains and one loss involving 1q24-q31. Mate pair next-generation sequencing analysis revealed 18 chromosome breakpoints, six gains along an 1q24-q31 segment, one deletion of 1q31.3 segment and one deletion of 1q42.13 segment, which is strongly evocative of a chromoanasynthesis event for developing this complex rearrangement. Parental chromosome analyses were performed and showed the same derivative chromosome 1 in the mother. Conclusions:To our knowledge, our case is the first case with familial constitutional chromoanagenesis involving chromosome 1q24-q42. This report emphasizes the value of performing microarray and mate pair next-generation sequencing analysis for individuals with germline abnormal or complex chromosome rearrangements.
Project description:Structural variation, composed of balanced and unbalanced genomic rearrangements, is an important contributor to human genetic diversity with prominent roles in somatic and congenital disease. At the nucleotide level, structural variants (SVs) have been shown to frequently harbor additional breakpoints and copy-number imbalances, a complexity predicted to emerge wholly as a single-cell division event. Chromothripsis, chromoplexy, and chromoanasynthesis, collectively referred to as chromoanagenesis, are three major mechanisms that explain the occurrence of complex germline and somatic SVs. While chromothripsis and chromoplexy have been shown to be key signatures of cancer, chromoanagenesis has been detected in numerous cases of developmental disease and phenotypically normal individuals. Such observations advocate for a deeper study of the polymorphic and pathogenic properties of complex germline SVs, many of which go undetected by traditional clinical molecular and cytogenetic methods. This review focuses on congenital chromoanagenesis, mechanisms leading to occurrence of these complex rearrangements, and their impact on chromosome organization and genome function. We highlight future applications of routine screening of complex and balanced SVs in the clinic, as these represent a potential and often neglected genetic disease source, a true "iceberg under water."
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is caused by SHANK3 haploinsufficiency. Its wide phenotypic variation is attributed partly to the type and size of 22q13 genomic lesion (deletion, unbalanced translocation, ring chromosome), partly to additional undefined factors. We investigated a child with severe global neurodevelopmental delay (NDD) compatible with her distal 22q13 deletion, complicated by bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria (BPP) and urticarial rashes, unreported in PMS. METHODS:Following the cytogenetic and array-comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) detection of a r(22) with SHANK3 deletion and two upstream duplications, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) in blood and whole-exome sequencing (WES) in blood and saliva were performed to highlight potential chromothripsis/chromoanagenesis events and any possible BPP-associated variants, even in low-level mosaicism. RESULTS:WGS confirmed the deletion and highlighted inversion and displaced order of eight fragments, three of them duplicated. The microhomology-mediated insertion of partial Alu-elements at one breakpoint junction disrupted the topological associating domain joining NFAM1 to the transcriptional coregulator TCF20. WES failed to detect BPP-associated variants. CONCLUSIONS:Although we were unable to highlight the molecular basis of BPP, our data suggest that SHANK3 haploinsufficiency and TCF20 misregulation, both associated with intellectual disability, contributed to the patient's NDD, while NFAM1 interruption likely caused her skin rashes, as previously reported. We provide the first example of chromoanasynthesis in a constitutional ring chromosome and reinforce the growing evidence that chromosomal rearrangements may be more complex than estimated by conventional diagnostic approaches and affect the phenotype by global alteration of the topological chromatin organisation rather than simply by deletion or duplication of dosage-sensitive genes.
Project description:We present the genetic profile of kidney giant leiomyosarcoma characterized by sequencing of 409 cancer related genes and chromosomal microarray analysis. Renal leiomyosarcomas are extremely rare neoplasms with aggressive behavior and poor survival prognosis. Most frequent somatic events in leiomyosarcomas are mutations in the TP53, RB1, ATRX, and PTEN genes, chromosomal instability (CIN) and chromoanagenesis. 67-year-old woman presented with a right kidney completely replaced by tumor. Immunohistochemical reaction on surgical material was positive to desmin and smooth muscle actin. Molecular genetic analysis revealed that tumor harbored monosomy of chromosomes 3 and 11, gain of Xp (ATRX) arm and three chromoanasynthesis regions (6q21-q27, 7p22.3-p12.1, and 12q13.11-q21.2), with MDM2 and CDK4 oncogenes copy number gains, whereas no copy number variations (CNVs) or tumor specific single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in TP53, RB1, and PTEN genes were present. We hypothesize that chromoanasynthesis in 12q13.11-q21.2 could be a trigger of observed CIN in this tumor.
Project description:Reciprocal translocations are the most frequently occurring constitutional structural rearrangements in mammalian genomes. In phenotypically normal pigs, an incidence of 1/200 is estimated for such rearrangements. Even if constitutional translocations do not necessarily induce defects and diseases, they are responsible for significant economic losses in domestic animals due to reproduction failures. Over the last 30 years, advances in molecular and cytogenetic technologies have led to major improvements in the resolution of the characterization of translocation events. Characterization of translocation breakpoints helps to decipher the mechanisms that lead to such rearrangements and the functions of the genes that are involved in the translocation. Here, we describe the fine characterization of a reciprocal translocation t(3;4) (p1.3;q1.5) detected in a pig line. The breakpoint was identified at the base-pair level using a positional cloning and chromosome walking strategy in somatic cell hybrids that were generated from an animal that carries this translocation. We show that this translocation occurs within the ADAMTSL4 gene and results in a loss of expression in homozygous carriers. In addition, by taking this translocation as a model, we used a whole-genome next-generation mate-pair sequencing approach on pooled individuals to evaluate this strategy for high-throughput screening of structural rearrangements.
Project description:Chromosomal insertions are genomic rearrangements with a chromosome segment inserted into a non-homologous chromosome or a non-adjacent locus on the same chromosome or the other homologue, constituting ~2% of nonrecurrent copy-number gains. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms of their formation. We identified 16 individuals with complex insertions among 56,000 individuals tested at Baylor Genetics using clinical array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Custom high-density aCGH was performed on 10 individuals with available DNA, and breakpoint junctions were fine-mapped at nucleotide resolution by long-range PCR and DNA sequencing in 6 individuals to glean insights into potential mechanisms of formation. We observed microhomologies and templated insertions at the breakpoint junctions, resembling the breakpoint junction signatures found in complex genomic rearrangements generated by replication-based mechanism(s) with iterative template switches. In addition, we analyzed 5 families with apparently balanced insertion in one parent detected by FISH analysis and found that 3 parents had additional small copy-number variants (CNVs) at one or both sides of the inserting fragments as well as at the inserted sites. We propose that replicative repair can result in interchromosomal complex insertions generated through chromothripsis-like chromoanasynthesis involving two or three chromosomes, and cause a significant fraction of apparently balanced insertions harboring small flanking CNVs.
Project description:Mutation is associated with developmental and hereditary disorders, aging, and cancer. While we understand some mutational processes operative in human disease, most remain mysterious. We used Caenorhabditis elegans whole-genome sequencing to model mutational signatures, analyzing 183 worm populations across 17 DNA repair-deficient backgrounds propagated for 20 generations or exposed to carcinogens. The baseline mutation rate in C. elegans was approximately one per genome per generation, not overtly altered across several DNA repair deficiencies over 20 generations. Telomere erosion led to complex chromosomal rearrangements initiated by breakage-fusion-bridge cycles and completed by simultaneously acquired, localized clusters of breakpoints. Aflatoxin B1 induced substitutions of guanines in a GpC context, as observed in aflatoxin-induced liver cancers. Mutational burden increased with impaired nucleotide excision repair. Cisplatin and mechlorethamine, DNA crosslinking agents, caused dose- and genotype-dependent signatures among indels, substitutions, and rearrangements. Strikingly, both agents induced clustered rearrangements resembling "chromoanasynthesis," a replication-based mutational signature seen in constitutional genomic disorders, suggesting that interstrand crosslinks may play a pathogenic role in such events. Cisplatin mutagenicity was most pronounced in xpf-1 mutants, suggesting that this gene critically protects cells against platinum chemotherapy. Thus, experimental model systems combined with genome sequencing can recapture and mechanistically explain mutational signatures associated with human disease.
Project description:Structural variation (SV) influences genome organization and contributes to human disease. However, the complete mutational spectrum of SV has not been routinely captured in disease association studies.We sequenced 689 participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other developmental abnormalities to construct a genome-wide map of large SV. Using long-insert jumping libraries at 105X mean physical coverage and linked-read whole-genome sequencing from 10X Genomics, we document seven major SV classes at ~5 kb SV resolution. Our results encompass 11,735 distinct large SV sites, 38.1% of which are novel and 16.8% of which are balanced or complex. We characterize 16 recurrent subclasses of complex SV (cxSV), revealing that: (1) cxSV are larger and rarer than canonical SV; (2) each genome harbors 14 large cxSV on average; (3) 84.4% of large cxSVs involve inversion; and (4) most large cxSV (93.8%) have not been delineated in previous studies. Rare SVs are more likely to disrupt coding and regulatory non-coding loci, particularly when truncating constrained and disease-associated genes. We also identify multiple cases of catastrophic chromosomal rearrangements known as chromoanagenesis, including somatic chromoanasynthesis, and extreme balanced germline chromothripsis events involving up to 65 breakpoints and 60.6 Mb across four chromosomes, further defining rare categories of extreme cxSV.These data provide a foundational map of large SV in the morbid human genome and demonstrate a previously underappreciated abundance and diversity of cxSV that should be considered in genomic studies of human disease.
Project description:Constitutional translocations, typically involving chromosome 3, have been recognized as a rare cause of inherited predisposition to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) for four decades. However, knowledge of the molecular basis of this association is limited. We have characterized the breakpoints by genome sequencing (GS) of constitutional chromosome abnormalities in five individuals who presented with RCC. In one individual with constitutional t(10;17)(q11.21;p11.2), the translocation breakpoint disrupted two genes: the known renal tumor suppressor gene (TSG) FLCN (and clinical features of Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome were detected) and RASGEF1A. In four cases, the rearrangement breakpoints did not disrupt known inherited RCC genes. In the second case without chromosome 3 involvement, the translocation breakpoint in an individual with a constitutional t(2;17)(q21.1;q11.2) mapped 12 Kb upstream of NLK. Interestingly, NLK has been reported to interact indirectly with FBXW7 and a previously reported RCC-associated translocation breakpoint disrupted FBXW7. In two cases of constitutional chromosome 3 translocations, no candidate TSGs were identified in the vicinity of the breakpoints. However, in an individual with a constitutional chromosome 3 inversion, the 3p breakpoint disrupted the FHIT TSG (which has been reported previously to be disrupted in two apparently unrelated families with an RCC-associated t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1). These findings (a) expand the range of constitutional chromosome rearrangements that may be associated with predisposition to RCC, (b) confirm that chromosome rearrangements not involving chromosome 3 can predispose to RCC, (c) suggest that a variety of molecular mechanisms are involved the pathogenesis of translocation-associated RCC, and (d) demonstrate the utility of GS for investigating such cases.
Project description:Complex chromosome rearrangements are constitutional structural rearrangements involving three or more chromosomes or having more than two breakpoints. These are rarely seen in the general population but their frequency should be much higher due to balanced states with no phenotypic presentation. These abnormalities preferentially occur de novo during spermatogenesis and are transmitted in families through oogenesis.Here, we report a de novo complex chromosome rearrangement that interests eight chromosomes in eighteen-year-old boy with an abnormal phenotype consisting in moderate developmental delay, cleft palate, and facial dysmorphisms.Standard G-banding revealed four apparently balanced translocations [corrected] involving the chromosomes 1;13, 3;19, 9;15 and 14;18 that appeared to be reciprocal. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization analysis showed no imbalances at all the breakpoints observed except for an interstitial microdeletion on chromosome 15. This deletion is 1.6 Mb in size and is located at chromosome band 15q14, distal to the Prader-Willi/Angelman region. Comparing the features of our patient with published reports of patients with 15q14 deletion this finding corresponds to the smallest genomic region of overlap. The deleted segment at 15q14 was investigated for gene content.
Project description:It has emerged that palindrome-mediated genomic instability generates DNA-based rearrangements. The presence of palindromic AT-rich repeats (PATRRs) at the translocation breakpoints suggested a palindrome-mediated mechanism in the generation of several recurrent constitutional rearrangements: the t(11;22), t(17;22), and t(8;22). To date, all reported PATRR-mediated translocations include the PATRR on chromosome 22 (PATRR22) as a translocation partner. Here, the constitutional rearrangement, t(3;8)(p14.2;q24.1), segregating with renal cell carcinoma in two families, is examined. The chromosome 8 breakpoint lies in PATRR8 in the first intron of the RNF139 (TRC8) gene, whereas the chromosome 3 breakpoint is located in an AT-rich palindromic sequence in intron 3 of the FHIT gene (PATRR3). Thus, the t(3;8) is the first PATRR-mediated, recurrent, constitutional translocation that does not involve PATRR22. Furthermore, we detect de novo translocations similar to the t(11;22) and t(8;22), involving PATRR3 in normal sperm. The breakpoint on chromosome 3 is in proximity to FRA3B, the most common fragile site in the human genome and a site of frequent deletions in tumor cells. However, the lack of involvement of PATRR3 sequence in numerous FRA3B-related deletions suggests that there are several different DNA sequence-based etiologies responsible for chromosome 3p14.2 genomic rearrangements.