Combined Anatomic Anterior Cruciate and Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction With Quadriceps Tendon Autograft and Gracilis Allograft Through a Single Femoral Tunnel.
ABSTRACT: Despite technical advances in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery, there remains a need to improve postoperative outcomes with respect to graft failure rates. Recently, it has been shown that combined ACL-anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction (using a graft composed of a tripled semitendinosus and single-strand gracilis tendon) is associated with a significant reduction in graft rupture rates compared with isolated ACL reconstruction. It is recognized that the hamstring tendons are not always available (revision scenario) or are not always the primary ACL graft choice. Some surgeons prefer to use quadriceps tendon ACL grafts because of the suggestion that these grafts may be associated with equal or better functional scores. However, if surgeons wish to try to reduce the risk of graft failure by performing an ALL reconstruction, either a combined reconstruction or the use of an independent ALL graft, with a separate femoral socket, could be considered. The disadvantage of an independently performed extra-articular procedure is the risk of femoral socket collision with the femoral ACL tunnel. This Technical Note therefore describes the use of a combined ACL-ALL reconstruction using quadriceps tendon autograft (ACL graft), gracilis allograft (ALL graft), and a single femoral tunnel.
Project description:Conventional single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction cannot improve the rotational stability of the knee. Traditional double-bundle ACL reconstruction requires is demanding, complex, time- and implant consuming, and associated with a high incidence of complications. Double-bundle ACL reconstruction using a free quadriceps tendon autograft through 3 independent tunnels provides some advantage, but the antegrade graft passage, tibial tunnel confluence, and graft site morbidity represent disadvantages. This Technical Note describes a modification of double-bundle ACL reconstruction using the hamstring tendon autograft through a single branched tibial tunnel and a single femoral tunnel using 2 interference screws (Arthrex, Naples, FL). The gracilis tendon autograft is passed through tibial tunnel stem to the posterolateral tibial tunnel branch to the posterolateral position in the femoral tunnel. The semitendinosus tendon autograft is passed through the tibial tunnel stem to the anteromedial tibial tunnel branch to the anteromedial position in the femoral tunnel. Both grafts are fixed by 2 interference screws: 1 at the femoral tunnel and 1 at the tibial tunnel stem with the knee at 20° flexion.
Project description:The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly injured knee ligament, particularly among adolescents and young adults. Unrecognized posterolateral laxity is understood as a major cause of ACL reconstruction failure, and concomitant injury to the posterolateral corner (PLC) is prevalent and underdetected. We advocate screening all ACL-deficient knees for PLC injury and present a technique combining minimally invasive PLC reconstruction with anatomic all-inside ACL reconstruction. The combined procedure uses only the ipsilateral hamstring tendons representing a major surgical advantage over traditional management approaches. The semitendinosus is quadrupled and attached to 2 adjustable suspensory cortical fixation devices to form the ACL graft. The gracilis tendon is looped through the fibula head and secured in a single femoral tunnel for the PLC reconstruction via 2 minimally invasive incisions. The use of a single femoral PLC tunnel combined with a single femoral ACL socket minimizes the risk of tunnel convergence.
Project description:There has been renewed interest in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair procedures in the past decade. Even though ACL reconstruction is still considered the gold standard, ACL repair is an alternative in selected patients. However, the risk of failure owing to isolated ACL repair remains a concern. Intra-articular augmentation has been proposed to protect the repair during the healing period. In the same way, the protective effect of anterolateral ligament reconstruction on the ACL graft is increasingly recognized. We describe a combined ACL repair and anterolateral ligament reconstruction technique with a single-strand gracilis for the intra-articular portion and as an anterolateral graft to protect the ACL repair during the healing phase. Technique Video Video 1 Combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair and anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction technique with a single-strand gracilis for the intra-articular portion and as an anterolateral graft to protect the ACL repair during the healing phase. The operation is performed on a proximal ACL tear in the right knee. The patient is placed supine, and standard arthroscopic portals are used. The gracilis tendon is harvested for use both as an intra-articular augmentation and for ALL reconstruction. The gracilis strand is passed from the tibia to the femur through bone tunnels, and after fixation of the intra-articular portion of the gracilis, the remaining ACL is sutured back to its femoral insertion. Reconstruction of the ALL is then performed using the gracilis strand emerging from the femoral tunnel.
Project description:Combined anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and medial collateral ligament (MCL) injuries are the most common type of combined ligamentous injury of the knee. The optimal treatment for these combined injuries is controversial. Combined ACL and MCL-posterior oblique ligament (POL) reconstruction avoids late anteromedial rotatory instability and chronic valgus instability of the knee and decreases the increased stress on the ACL graft. Graft choice (hamstring tendon autograft, quadriceps bone-patellar tendon-bone autograft, or Achilles tendon allograft) and anatomic restoration of the medial and posteromedial corner of the knee are challenges of this combined reconstruction. This article describes a technique that allows combined ACL and MCL-POL reconstruction. The hamstring tendons from the contralateral limb are tripled and used as the ACL graft. The gracilis tendon from the ipsilateral limb is doubled and used as the MCL-POL graft. The semitendinosus tendon of the ipsilateral limb is preserved. After ACL reconstruction, the MCL-POL graft is suspended on the ACL graft at the distal end of the tibial tunnel and the graft limbs are used for open reconstruction of the MCL and POL. Three interference screws (Arthrex, Naples, FL) and 1 metal staple are used for graft fixation of this combined reconstruction.
Project description:An untreated posterolateral corner (PLC) injury in patients with a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) may be a leading cause of ACL reconstruction failure. Combined ACL and PLC reconstruction is discussed in few studies in the literature. Femoral tunnel intersection in combined reconstruction has been reported to be high. Short grafts may render combined reconstruction undoable. This Technical Note describes a technique that allows a combined ACL and PLC reconstruction. The ACL graft is a 4-stranded hamstring tendon graft from 1 limb. The PLC graft is a doubled semitendinosus tendon graft from the contralateral side. One femoral tunnel is used connecting the femoral attachment of the PLC on the lateral wall of the lateral femoral condyle to the anatomic femoral ACL footprint on the medial wall of the lateral femoral condyle. The PLC graft is suspended on the ACL graft to be anchored on the cortex of the lateral femoral condyle with added fixation by an interference screw (Arthrex, Naples, FL). The PLC graft limbs are used for open reconstruction of the fibular collateral ligament, popliteus tendon, and popliteofibular ligament. This Technical Note describes a technique of combined ACL and PLC reconstruction with hamstring tendon autografts through a single femoral tunnel using graft-to-graft suspension and fixation.
Project description:Suspensory femoral graft fixation has been a popular and reliable method in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Some authors have introduced suspensory femoral fixation in posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction using inside-out (IO) technique. The use of IO technique for femoral tunnel preparation could significantly sharpen the critical corner, which might result in graft failure. A retrograde drilling pin that recently has been popular in ACL reconstruction allows "no incision" in the outside-in (OI) technique for the creation of a femoral socket. Here we describe the suspensory femoral fixation using a retro-socket technique in single-bundle PCL reconstruction. By using this technique, it is possible to create a retrograde femoral socket for suspensory femoral fixation in an OI manner in a desirable direction and reduce angulation of the graft in the entry area of the femoral tunnel.
Project description:Cadaveric and clinical biomechanical studies show improved kinematic restoration using double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction techniques. These have been criticized in the past for being technically challenging. We present a novel 3-socket approach for anatomic "all-inside" double-bundle reconstruction using a single hamstring tendon fashioned to create a trifurcate graft: the TriLink technique. The semitendinosus alone is harvested, quadrupled, and attached to 3 suspensory fixation devices in a Y-shaped configuration, creating a 4-stranded tibial limb and 2 double-stranded femoral limbs. A medial viewing/lateral working arthroscopic approach is adopted using specifically designed instrumentation. Anatomic placement of the 2 femoral tunnels is performed by a validated direct measurement technique. A single mid-bundle position is used on the tibia. Both femoral and tibial sockets are created in a retrograde manner using outside-to-in drilling. This is a simplified operative technique for anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction that maximizes bone preservation. The TriLink construct replicates the 2 bundles of the ACL, conferring native functional anisometry and improving femoral footprint coverage while avoiding the complexities and pitfalls of double-tibial tunnel techniques. Preservation of the gracilis reduces the morbidity of hamstring harvest and allows greater flexibility in graft choice in cases requiring multiligament reconstruction.
Project description:Combined injuries involving the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterolateral corner (PLC) occur in approximately 10% of complex knee injuries. The current tendency is to reconstruct both the ACL and the structures of the PLC. In injuries involving multiple ligaments, a potential problem in the reconstruction is the convergence of tunnels in the lateral walls of the femur. As a solution to this problem, we propose a combined technique for reconstruction of the ACL and PLC with a single tunnel in the lateral femoral wall. Combined ACL/PLC reconstruction is performed with 2 semitendinosus tendons and 1 gracilis tendon. The technique consists of making a tunnel in the lateral wall of the femur, from the outside in, at the isometric point, for reconstruction of the collateral ligament and popliteus tendon, and emerging in the joint region at the anatomic point of the ACL reconstruction. The graft is passed from the tibia to the femur with the double gracilis tendon and the simple semitendinosus tendon; the remaining portions are left for reconstruction of the structures of the PLC. This technique is very effective in terms of minimizing the number of tunnels, but it does rely on having grafts of adequate size.
Project description:A double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction associated with an anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstructions is performed. The semitendinosus and gracilis are harvested. At knee maximum flexion, the anteromedial (AM) femoral tunnel is performed in the AM footprint area. Through the anterolateral portal, the tip of the outside-in femoral guide is placed in the posterolateral footprint area. The guide sleeve is pushed onto the lateral femoral cortex at the ALL attachment. At 110° knee flexion, the posterolateral-ALL tunnel is performed. The tibial ACL tunnel is performed as usual. The tibial guide is placed between the ALL tibial attachment and the tibial ACL tunnel entrance to perform the ALL tibial tunnel. The gracilis graft is introduced from caudal to cranial, achieving fixation with a 6-mm diameter screw (outside-in). The AM femoral fixation is achieved with a suspension device. ACL tibial graft fixation is achieved with a screw. Afterward, the gracilis is passed under the fascia lata to the tibial entry point. A 6-mm diameter screw is placed from the external cortex into the tibial ALL tunnel. The biomechanical advantage of the double-bundle ACL reconstruction with the biomechanical advantage of the ALL anatomic reconstruction is achieved.
Project description:Improper femoral tunnel placement in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a significant problem and may be a cause of ACL graft failure and abnormal kinematics, which may lead to late degenerative changes after reconstruction. Recently, there has been concern that the transtibial approach may contribute to nonanatomic placement of the femoral tunnel, resulting in abnormal knee kinematics. Tibial-independent techniques can provide more anatomic placement of the ACL graft, but these can be technically demanding. This technical note describes the senior author's technique to directly identify the femoral ACL remnant and use the center of the femoral ACL footprint and retrograde drilling to create an anatomic femoral socket for single-bundle reconstruction. This technique provides femoral tunnel placement based on identification of a patient-specific ACL footprint instead of averaged anatomic measurements from large groups. This technique has been shown to produce anatomic ACL graft position and orientation and restore more normal knee kinematics.