NOP2/Sun RNA methyltransferase 2 promotes tumor progression via its interacting partner RPL6 in gallbladder carcinoma.
ABSTRACT: NOP2/Sun domain family, member 2 (NSUN2) is a nuclear RNA methyl-transferase catalyzing 5-methylcytosine formation. Evidence shows that NSUN2 is correlated with cell unlimited proliferation. However, its functional role in gallbladder carcinoma (GBC), which is the most common biliary tract malignancy and has a poor prognosis, remains to be determined. Here we found that NSUN2 was highly expressed in GBC tissues as well as cell lines. NSUN2 silencing repressed GBC cell proliferation and tumorigenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, upregulation of NSUN2 enhanced GBC cell growth and colony formation. We further discovered that RPL6 was a closely interacting partner with NSUN2. Silencing RPL6 resulted in insufficient NSUN2 translational level and accumulative NSUN2 transcriptional level. Exogenous expression of NSUN2 partially rescued the effect of RPL6 in gallbladder cancer progression. Taken together, our data provided novel mechanic insights into the function of NSUN2 in GBC, thus pointing to NSUN2 as a potential and effective therapeutic approach to GBC treatment.
Project description:Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is a highly lethal malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite extensive research, the underlying molecular mechanism of GBC remains largely unclear. Stathmin 1 (STMN1) is an important cytosolic protein associated with microtubule stability that was reported to be involved in tumorigenesis. Up to our knowledge, its role in gallbladder carcinoma has not been analyzed. In this study, we found that STMN1 was significantly highly expressed in GBC by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Further research demonstrated that silencing of STMN1 inhibited cell growth in vitro. Moreover, knockdown of STMN1 induced apoptosis and delayed G2/M phase transformation in GBC cells. Our data support a rationale for further studies that the silencing of STMN1 may regulate the activity of p38 MAPK kinase and p53/p21 signal pathway. Besides, xenografted gallbladder carcinoma cells growth were significantly impaired after STMN1 was silenced in vivo. These results suggested that STMN1 played an important role in cell proliferation and migration. This provided a potential clue for investigating the therapeutic target in GBC.
Project description:Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is an aggressive neoplasm, and the treatment options for advanced GBC are limited. Recently, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as new gene regulators and prognostic markers in several cancers. In this study, we found that metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) expression was up-regulated in GBC tissues (P < 0.05). Luciferase reporter assays and RNA pull down assays showed that MALAT1 is a target of miR-363-3p. Real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis indicated that MALAT1 regulated Myeloid cell leukaemia-1 (MCL-1) expression as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) for miR-363-3p in GBC cells. Furthermore, MALAT1 silencing decreased GBC cell proliferation and the S phase cell population and induced apoptosis in vitro. In vivo, tumour volumes were significantly decreased in the MALAT1 silencing group compared with those in the control group. These data demonstrated that the MALAT1/miR-363-3p/MCL-1 regulatory pathway controls the progression of GBC. Inhibition of MALAT1 expression may be to a novel therapeutic strategy for gallbladder cancer.
Project description:This study aimed to explore the effects of CLIC1 gene silencing on proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of human gallbladder cancer (GBC). GBC and normal gallbladder tissues were extracted for the detection of mRNA and protein expressions of CLIC1. GBC-SD and NOZ cells in the logarithmic growth phase were selected to conduct the experiment. Three different siRNA recombined expression vectors were established using CLIC1 as a target at different sites. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blotting were, respectively, used to detect the CLIC1 mRNA and protein expressions. MTT assay was performed to detect the cell proliferation. Flow cytometry was applied to measure the cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. The variations of cell migration and invasion were evaluated using Transwell assay. GBC tissues showed higher CLIC1 mRNA and protein expressions than normal gallbladder tissues. The CLIC1 mRNA and protein expressions in the CLIC1 siRNA group were significantly lower than those in the NC and blank groups. Compared with the NC and blank groups, the CLIC1 siRNA group showed a significant decrease in cell proliferation but an obvious increase in apoptosis rate in GBC cells. Besides, in the CLIC1 siRNA group, cell percentage in G0/G1 and G2/M phase was gradually increased but decreased in S phases. The migration and invasion abilities in GBC cells were significantly lower than those in the NC and blank groups. Our study demonstrates that CLIC1 gene silencing could promote apoptosis and inhibit proliferation migration and invasion of GBC cells.
Project description:Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) have been implicated in the development of many cancers. We therefore examined the differential expression of snoRNAs between gallbladder cancer (GBC) tissues and matched adjacent non-tumor tissues using expression microarray analysis with confirmation by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Western blot analysis showed that SNORA74B levels were higher in GBC than non-tumor tissues. SNORA74B expression was positively associated with local invasion, advanced TNM stage, CA19-9 level, and Ki67 expression in patients with GBC, while it was negatively associated with expression of PHLPP, an endogenous Akt inhibitor. Moreover, SNORA74B expression was prognostic for overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS). Functional studies revealed that silencing SNORA74B in GBC cells using sh-SNORA74B suppressed cell proliferation, induced G1 arrest, and promoted apoptosis. Preliminary molecular investigation revealed that SNORA74B silencing inhibited activation of the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, while increasing PHLPP expression. PHLPP depletion using shRNA abrogated sh-SNORA74B suppression of GBC cell proliferation, indicating that the antitumor effects of SNORA74B silencing were mediated by PHLPP. These findings define the important role of SNORA74B in cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis of GBC, and suggest that it may serve as a novel target for GBC treatment.
Project description:Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) is abnormally expressed in various malignant tumors and thus represents a potential biomarker, although information regarding its role in gallbladder cancer (GBC) is limited. This study aimed to evaluate the expression of CEACAM6 in GBC and the effect of CEACAM6 gene silencing on the proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of human GBC cells. Immunochemistry was used to evaluate CEACAM6 expression in 95 GBC specimens and 40 peritumoral tissue specimens. GBC-SD and SGC-996 cell lines were used for in vitro experiments. CEACAM6 was knocked down by transfection of targeted small interfering RNA (siRNA), and reverse-transcription quantitative PCR and western blot analysis were used to detect knockdown efficiency. Cell Counting Kit-8 and colony formation assays were undertaken to evaluate cell proliferation. Variations in cell migration and invasion were detected by wound-healing and Transwell assays, respectively. Flow cytometry was applied to measure cell apoptosis and cell cycle distribution. CEACAM6 gene expression was significantly greater in GBC tissues than in peritumoral tissues, and its positive expression was associated with poor prognosis. CEACAM6 mRNA and protein expression in the CEACAM6 siRNA treatment group was significantly lower than that in the negative control group and the blank group. CEACAM6 knockdown inhibited GBC cell proliferation, migration and invasion but promoted cell apoptosis. Western blot analysis of invasion- and apoptosis-related proteins matrix metalloproteinase-2, Vimentin, BCL-2 and BAX further confirmed CEACAM6 mRNA depletion promoted cell apoptosis and inhibited invasion. Additionally, CEACAM6 mRNA depletion affected the progression of the GBC cell cycle to increase cell distribution in G0/G1 phase, and to reduce it in G2/M phase and S phase. These findings indicated that CEACAM6 overexpression may be related to the tumorigenesis and development of GBC. In summary, depletion of CEACAM6 mRNA suppressed the malignant biological behaviors of human gallbladder cancer cells.
Project description:Disassembly of the nucleolus during mitosis is driven by phosphorylation of nucleolar proteins. RNA processing stops until completion of nucleolar reformation in G(1) phase. Here, we describe the RNA methyltransferase NSUN2, a novel substrate of Aurora-B that contains an NOL1/NOP2/sun domain. NSUN2 was concentrated in the nucleolus during interphase and was distributed in the perichromosome and cytoplasm during mitosis. Aurora-B phosphorylated NSUN2 at Ser139. Nucleolar proteins NPM1/nucleophosmin/B23 and nucleolin/C23 were associated with NSUN2 during interphase. In mitotic cells, association between NPM1 and NSUN2 was inhibited, but NSUN2-S139A was constitutively associated with NPM1. The Aurora inhibitor Hesperadin induced association of NSUN2 with NPM1 even in mitosis, despite the silver staining nucleolar organizer region disassembly. In vitro methylation experiments revealed that the Aurora-B-phosphorylation and the phosphorylation-mimic mutation (S139E) suppressed methyltransferase activities of NSUN2. These results indicate that Aurora-B participates to regulate the assembly of nucleolar RNA-processing machinery and the RNA methyltransferase activity of NSUN2 via phosphorylation at Ser139 during mitosis.
Project description:High rates of de novo lipid synthesis have been discovered in certain kinds of tumours, including gallbladder cancer (GBC). Unlike several other tumours, GBC is highly insensitive to standard adjuvant therapy, which makes its treatment even more challenging. Although several potential targets and signalling pathways underlying GBC chemoresistance have been revealed, the precise mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, we found that ?-Mangostin, as a dietary xanthone, repressed the proliferation and clone formation ability, induced cell cycle arrest and the apoptosis, and suppressed de novo lipogenesis of gallbladder cancer cells. The underlying mechanisms might involve the activation of AMPK and, therefore, the suppression of SREBP1 nuclear translocation to blunt de novo lipogenesis. Furthermore, SREBP1 silencing by siRNA or ?-mangostin enhanced the sensitivity of gemcitabine in gallbladder cancer cells. In vivo studies also displayed that MA or gemcitabine administration to nude mice harbouring NOZ tumours can reduce tumour growth, and moreover, MA administration can significantly potentiate gemcitabine-induced inhibition of tumour growth. Corroborating in vitro findings, tumours from mice treated with MA or gemcitabine alone showed decreased levels of proliferation with reduced Ki-67 expression and elevated apoptosis confirmed by TUNEL staining, furthermore, the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis up-regulation were obviously observed in MA combined with gemcitabine treatment group. Therefore, inhibiting de novo lipogenesis via targeting the AMPK/SREBP1 signalling by MA might provide insights into a potential strategy for sensitizing GBC cells to chemotherapy.
Project description:Objective To discuss the relevance of heparanase and syndecan-1 and regulation of the heparanase-syndecan1 axis in the invasiveness of gallbladder carcinoma cells. Methods 1. Generation of a gallbladder cancer cell line overexpressing a heparanase (GBD-SD) transgene. 2. Western blot analysis of syndecan-1 levels of GBD-SD and control gallbladder carcinoma (GBC-SD) cells. 3. RT-PCR analysis of syndecan-1 mRNA levels of GBD-SD and GBC-SD. 4. Evaluation of invasion and migration of GBD-SD and GBC-SD cells. Results 1. Heparanase expression in GBD-SD cells was significantly increased. 2. The syndecan-1 mRNA level of GBD-SD cells was significantly lower compared with that of GBC-SD cells. 3. The syndecan-1 DNA copy number in GBD-SD cells was significantly lower compared with that of GBC-SD. 4. The invasiveness and migration of GBD-SD cells were significantly higher compared with GBC-SD cells. Conclusions 1. The expression of heparanase negatively correlated with that of syndecan-1 in a gallbladder carcinoma cell line. 2. The expression of heparanase and syndecan-1 in gallbladder carcinomas negatively correlated, similar to other tumours. 3. The heparanase/syndecan1 axis in gallbladder carcinoma plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis, thus providing a new therapeutic target. 4. Further research is required to identify the detailed mechanisms.
Project description:Gallbladder Cancer (GBC), characterized by invasive growth and infiltrative dissemination, is difficult to diagnose and has poor prognosis. Emerging evidence demonstrates that Lysine-Specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) has important roles in carcinogenesis, proliferation and metastasis. We studied the roles and molecular mechanisms of LSD1 in GBC. We examined LSD1 expression in 109 paired samples of GBC and normal gallbladder tissues. We found GBC tissues had upregulated LSD1 compared with normal gallbladder tissues (P = 0.003), and its high expression was associated with tumor-node-metastasis stage (P < 0.0001), Nevin's stage (P = 0.0093) and distant metastases (P = 0.0070). We found positive correlations between LSD1 expression and other proteins: epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers, C-myc and cyclin-related proteins. Inhibiting LSD1 expression in vitro impaired the proliferation and invasiveness of GBC cells and also downregulated c-myc expression and consequently inhibited GBC cell proliferation. LSD1 overexpression promotes GBC development and may be a predictor for a worsened prognosis. LSD1 may be a novel therapeutic target and prognostic tool for gallbladder cancer.
Project description:Gallbladder cancer is a relatively uncommon human malignant tumor with an extremely poor prognosis. Currently, no biomarkers can accurately diagnose gallbladder cancer and predict patients' prognosis. XRCC1 is involved in tumorigenesis, progression, and chemo-resistance of several human cancers, but the role of XRCC1 in gallbladder cancer is never reported. In this study, we investigated the expression of XRCC1 and its clinicopathological and prognostic significance in gallbladder cancer, and explored the biological role of XRCC1 in gallbladder cancer cells. We found that XRCC1 was significantly up-regulated in gallbladder cancer in protein and mRNA levels. Positive XRCC1 expression was correlated with aggressive clinicopathological features and was an independent poor prognostic factor in gallbladder cancer. The ROC curves suggested that XRCC1 expression had potential clinicopathological diagnostic value in gallbladder cancer. In vitro, XRCC1 was overexpression in CD133+GBC-SD cells compared to GBC-SD cells. In functional experiment, XRCC1 knockdown had a non-significant impact on proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of CD133+GBC-SD cells. But, XRCC1 knockdown could significantly improve the sensitivity of CD133+GBC-SD cells to 5-Fluorouracil via promoting cell necrosis and apoptosis. Thus, this study indicates that XRCC1 may be a promising predictive biomarker of gallbladder cancer and a potential therapeutic target for gallbladder cancer.