Effect of Feeding Cold-Pressed Sunflower Cake on Ruminal Fermentation, Lipid Metabolism and Bacterial Community in Dairy Cows.
ABSTRACT: Cold-pressed sunflower cake (CPSC), by-product of oil-manufacturing, has high crude fat and linoleic acid concentrations, being a promising supplement to modulate rumen fatty acid (FA) profile. This trial studied CPSC effects on ruminal fermentation, biohydrogenation and the bacterial community in dairy cows. Ten cows were used in a crossover design with two experimental diets and fed during two 63-day periods. The cows were group fed forage ad libitum and the concentrate individually. The concentrates, control and CPSC, were isoenergetic, isoproteic and isofat. The ruminal samples collected at the end of each experimental period were analyzed for short-chain fatty acid, FA and DNA sequencing. CPSC decreased butyrate molar proportion (4%, p = 0.005). CPSC decreased C16:0 (28%, p < 0.001) and increased C18:0 (14%, p < 0.001) and total monounsaturated FA, especially C18:1 trans-11 (13%, p = 0.023). The total purine derivative excretion tended to be greater (5%, p = 0.05) with CPSC, resulting in a 6% greater daily microbial N flow. CPSC did not affect the diversity indices but increased the relative abundances of Treponema and Coprococcus, and decreased Enterococcus, Ruminococcus and Succinivibrio. In conclusion, the changes in ruminal fermentation and the FA profile were not associated with changes in microbial diversity or abundance of dominant populations, however, they might be associated with less abundant genera.
Project description:The goals of the current study were to investigate the effects of including chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) into the traditional feeding regime of ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne L./Trifolium repens L.), and time of its allocation on milk production, rumen fermentation, and FA composition of milk and rumen digesta of dairy cows. Nine groups of four cows were allocated one of three replicated feeding regimes: (1) ryegrass/white clover only (RGWC), (2) ryegrass/white clover + morning allocation of chicory (CHAM), and (3) ryegrass/white clover + afternoon allocation of chicory (CHPM). One cow per group had a rumen cannulae fitted. Treatment did not affect total grazing time or estimated dry matter intake, but cows ruminated more when fed RGWC than chicory. Allocating chicory in the afternoon elevated milk production compared with RGWC and CHAM. Milk from cows grazing chicory contained greater concentrations of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) such as C18:3 c9, 12, 15 and C18:2 c9, 12 than those on RGWC. As with milk, rumen digesta concentration of PUFA increased when cows grazed on chicory rather than RGWC, which corresponded with lower concentrations of intermediate vaccenic and biohydrogenation end-product stearic acid for cows grazing on chicory. Mean ruminal pH was lower for cows offered chicory than those on RGWC, reflecting greater rumen concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFA) for cows fed chicory. Allocating chicory during the afternoon is a useful strategy that can translate to improved milk production. The lower rumen pH, lower concentration of vaccenic and stearic acids, and elevated concentration of PUFA in the rumen of cows fed chicory suggest reduced biohydrogenation and may explain the elevated concentration of PUFA in the milk of cows fed chicory compared with those fed RGWC.
Project description:This study aimed to investigate the effects of ruminal infusion of garlic oil (GO) on fermentation dynamics, fatty acid (FA) profile, and abundance of bacteria involved in biohydrogenation in the rumen. Six wethers fitted with ruminal fistula were assigned to two groups for cross-over design with a 14-d interval. Each 30-d experimental period consisted of a 27-d adaptation and a 3-d sample collection. Goats were fed a basal diet without (control) or with GO ruminal infusion (0.8 g/d). Ruminal contents collected before (0 h) and at 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 h after morning feeding were used for fermentation analysis, and 0 h samples were further used for FA determination and DNA extraction. Garlic oil had no influence on dry matter intakes of concentrate and hay. During ruminal fermentation, GO had no effects on total VFA concentration and individual VFA molar proportions, whereas GO increased the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and microbial crude protein (p<0.05). Compared with control, GO group took a longer time for total VFA concentration and propionate molar proportion to reach their respective maxima after morning feeding. The ratio of acetate to propionate in control reduced sharply after morning feeding, whereas it remained relatively stable in GO group. Fatty acid analysis showed that GO reduced saturated FA proportion (p<0.05), while increasing the proportions of C18, t11-18:1 (TVA), c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA), t10,c12-CLA, and polyunsaturated FA (p<0.05). The values of TVA/(c9,t11-CLA+TVA) and C18:0/(TVA+ C18:0) were reduced by GO (p<0.05). Real-time PCR showed that GO tended to reduce Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus abundance (p = 0.058), whereas GO had no effect on total abundance of the Butyrivibrio group bacteria. A low correlation was found between B. proteoclasticus abundance and C18:0/(TVA+C18:0) (p = 0.910). The changes of fermentation over time suggested a role of GO in delaying the fermentation process and maintaining a relatively modest change of ruminal environment. The inhibitory effects of GO on the final step of biohydrogenation may be related to its antibacterial activity against B. proteoclasticus and other unknown bacteria involved.
Project description:Acetate is a major source of energy and substrate for milk fat synthesis in the dairy cow. We recently reported a linear increase in milk fat yield and greater than a 30% net apparent transfer of acetate to milk fat with ruminal infusion of neutralized acetate. Additionally, ruminal acetate infusion linearly increases plasma ?-hydroxybutyrate. The objective of the current study was to investigate the ability of acetate and butyrate fed in a diet to increase milk fat synthesis. Twelve multiparous lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to treatments in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods that included a 7-d washout followed by 7 d of treatment. Cows were fed ad libitum a basal diet with a low risk for biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression, and treatments were mixed into the basal diet. Treatments were 3.2% NaHCO3 (control), 2.9% sodium acetate, and 2.5% calcium butyrate (carbon equivalent to acetate treatment) as a percent of diet dry matter. Feeding sodium acetate increased dry matter intake by 2.7 kg, had no effect on milk yield, and increased milk fat yield by 90 g/d and concentration by 0.2 percentage units, compared with control. Calcium butyrate decreased dry matter intake by 2.6 kg/d, milk yield by 1.65 kg/d, and milk fat yield by 60 g/d, compared with control. Sodium acetate increased concentration and yield of 16 carbon mixed source fatty acids (FA) and myristic acid, while decreasing the concentration of preformed FA, compared with control. Calcium butyrate had no effect on concentration of milk FA by source, but increased concentration of trans-10 C18:1 in milk by 18%, indicating a shift in rumen biohydrogenation pathways. Our data demonstrate that milk fat yield and concentration can be increased by feeding sodium acetate at 2.9% of diet dry matter, but not by feeding calcium butyrate at an equivalent carbon mass.
Project description:Active plant metabolites (APM) are recognized as modifiers of ruminal microbial fermentation including methanogenesis and biohydrogenation of fatty acids (FA). Coleus amboinicus Lour. leaves (CAL) are rich in several APM, which could serve as ruminal fermentation modulators. A phytochemical analysis showed that CAL contain phenolic acids (10.4 mg·g-1 dry matter [DM]; high in rosmarinic acid), flavonoids (2.6 mg·g-1 DM), diterpenes (2 mg·g-1 DM), and linolenic acid (35.4 g (100 g)-1 FA). This study aimed to investigate the effect of CAL on ruminal methanogenesis and biohydrogenation as well as basic fermentation characteristics and microbial populations. The in vitro experiment was carried out using Hohenheim gas test system with 40 mL of buffered ruminal fluid incubated for 24 h at 39 °C in anaerobic conditions. Approximately 400 mg (DM basis) of total mixed ration (TMR) was used as a control substrate and the CAL substrate was used at doses of 10, 20, 40, and 80 mg DM replacing equal amounts of TMR. Addition of CAL decreased methane production up to 30% linearly as the amount of CAL increased (P < 0.05). In vitro dry matter digestibility and ammonia tended to increase with increasing doses of CAL. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids was not affected by the CAL although there appeared to be a minor positive linear trend; however, acetate, butyrate, and isobutyrate proportion increased quadratically (P < 0.001). CAL tended to linearly increase ?-linolenic acid and conjugated linoleic acid as well as increased stearic acid concentration in buffered ruminal fluid. CAL particularly increased total protozoa and bacterial populations during fermentation, but inhibited methanogens. It is concluded that the CAL may be promising to be used as a feed additive to decrease methanogenesis as well as biohydrogenation of FA in the rumen.
Project description:This experiment aimed to determine the effects of camelina seed (CS) supplementation at different dietary fat levels on ruminal bacterial community composition and how it relates to changes in ruminal fermentation in a dual-flow continuous culture system. Diets were randomly assigned to 8 fermenters (1,200-1,250 mL) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with four 10-day experimental periods that consisted of 7 days for diet adaptation and 3 days for sample collection. Treatments were: (1) no CS at 5% ether extract (EE, NCS5); (2) no CS at 8% EE (NCS8); (3) 7.7% CS at 5% EE (CS5); and (4) 17.7% CS at 8% EE (CS8). Megalac was used as a control to adjust EE levels. Diets contained 55% orchardgrass hay and 45% concentrate, and fermenters were equally fed a total of 72 g/day (DM basis) twice daily. The bacterial community was determined by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Sequencing data were analyzed using mothur and statistical analyses were performed in R and SAS. The most abundant phyla across treatments were the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, accounting for 49 and 39% of the total sequences, respectively. The bacterial community composition in both liquid and solid fractions of the effluent digesta changed with CS supplementation but not by dietary EE. Including CS in the diets decreased the relative abundances of Ruminococcus spp., Fibrobacter spp., and Butyrivibrio spp. The most abundant genus across treatments, Prevotella, was reduced by high dietary EE levels, while Megasphaera and Succinivibrio were increased by CS supplementation in the liquid fraction. Correlatively, the concentration of acetate was decreased while propionate increased; C18:0 was decreased and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially C18:2 n-6 and C18:3 n-3, were increased by CS supplementation. Based on the correlation analysis between genera and fermentation end products, this study revealed that CS supplementation could be energetically beneficial to dairy cows by increasing propionate-producing bacteria and suppressing ruminal bacteria associated with biohydrogenation. However, attention should be given to avoid the effects of CS supplementation on suppressing cellulolytic bacteria.
Project description:We evaluated the between-cow (b-cow) variation and repeatability in omasal and milk fatty acids (FA) related to methane (CH4) emission. The dataset was originated from 9 studies with rumen-cannulated dairy cows conducted using either a switch-back or a Latin square design. Production of CH4 per mole of VFA (Y_CH4VFA) was calculated based on VFA stoichiometry. Experiment, diet within experiment, period within experiment, and cow within experiment were considered as random factors. Empirical models were developed between the variables of interest by univariate and bivariate mixed model regression analysis. The variation associated with diet was higher than the b-cow variation with low repeatability (< 0.25) for milk odd- and branch-chain FA (OBCFA). Similarly, for de novo synthesized milk FA, diet variation was ~ 3-fold greater than the b-cow variation; repeatability for these FA was moderate to high (0.34-0.58). Also, for both cis-9 C18:1 and cis-9 cis-12 cis-15 C18:3 diet variation was more than double the b-cow variation, but repeatability was moderate. Among the de novo milk FA, C4:0 was positively related with stoichiometric Y_CH4VFA, while for OBCFA, anteiso C15:0 and C15:0 were negatively related with it. Notably, when analyzing the relationship between omasal FA and milk FA we observed positive intercept estimates for all the OBCFA, which may indicate endogenous post-ruminal synthesis of these FA, most likely in the mammary gland. For milk iso C13:0, iso C15:0, anteiso C15:0, and C15:0 were positively influenced by omasal proportion of their respective FA and by energy balance. In contrast, the concentration of milk C17:0, iso C18:0, C18:0, cis-11 C18:1, and cis-9 cis-12 cis-15 C18:3 were positively influenced by omasal proportion of their respective FA but negatively related to calculated energy balance. Our findings demonstrate that for most milk FA examined, a larger variation is attributed to diet than b-cow differences with low to moderate repeatability. While some milk FA were positively or negatively related with Y_CH4VFA, there was a pronounced effect of calculated energy balance on these estimates. Additionally, even though OBCFA have been indicated as markers of rumen function, our results suggest that endogenous synthesis of these FA may occur, which therefore, may limit the utilization of milk FA as a proxy for CH4 predictions for cows fed the same diet.
Project description:Optimization of the unsaturated fatty acid composition of ruminant milk and meat is desirable. Alteration of the milk and fatty acid profile was previously attempted by the management of ruminal microbial biohydrogenation. The aim of this study was to identify the group of ruminal trans-vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1, t-VA) hydrogenating bacteria by combining enrichment studies in vitro.The enrichment culture growing on t-VA was obtained by successive transfers in medium containing t-VA. Fatty acids were detected by gas chromatograph and changes in the microbial composition during enrichment were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Prominent DGGE bands of the enrichment cultures were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.The growth of ruminal t-VA hydrogenating bacteria was monitored through the process of culture transfer according to the accumulation of stearic acid (C18:0, SA) and ratio of the substrate (t-VA) transformed to the product (SA). A significant part of the retrieved 16S rRNA gene sequences was most similar to those of uncultured bacteria. Bacteria corresponding to predominant DGGE bands in t-VA enrichment cultures clustered with t-VA biohydrogenated bacteria within Group B.This study provides more insight into the pathway of biohydrogenation. It also may be important to control the production of t-VA, which has metabolic and physiological benefits, through management of ruminal biohydrogenation bacterium.
Project description:Direct-fed microbials (DFM) are considered as a promising technique to improve animal productivity without affecting animal health or harming the environment. The potential of three bacterial DFM to reduce methane (CH4) emissions, modulate ruminal fermentation, milk production and composition of primiparous dairy cows was examined in this study. As previous reports have shown that DFM respond differently to different diets, two contrasting diets were used in this study. Eight lactating primiparous cows were randomly divided into two groups that were fed a corn silage-based, high-starch diet (HSD) or a grass silage-based, high-fiber diet (HFD). Cows in each dietary group were randomly assigned to four treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The bacterial DFM used were selected for their proven CH4-reducing effect in vitro. Treatments included control (without DFM) and 3 DFM treatments: Propionibacterium freudenreichii 53-W (2.9 × 1010 colony forming units (CFU)/cow per day), Lactobacillus pentosus D31 (3.6 × 1011 CFU/cow per day) and Lactobacillus bulgaricus D1 (4.6 × 1010 CFU/cow per day). Each experimental period included 4 weeks of treatment and 1 week of wash-out, with measures performed in the fourth week of the treatment period. Enteric CH4 emissions were measured during 3 consecutive days using respiration chambers. Rumen samples were collected for ruminal fermentation parameters and quantitative microbial analyses. Milk samples were collected for composition analysis. Body weight of cows were recorded at the end of each treatment period. Irrespective of diet, no mitigating effect of DFM was observed on CH4 emissions in dairy cows. In contrast, Propionibacterium increased CH4 intensity by 27% (g CH4/kg milk) in cows fed HSD. There was no effect of DFM on other fermentation parameters and on bacterial, archaeal and protozoal numbers. Similarly, the effect of DFM on milk fatty acid composition was negligible. Propionibacterium and L. pentosus DFM tended to increase body weight gain with HSD. We conclude that, contrary to the effect previously observed in vitro, bacterial DFM Propionibacterium freudenreichii 53-W, Lactobacillus pentosus D31 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus D1 did not alter ruminal fermentation and failed to reduce CH4 emissions in lactating primiparous cows fed high-starch or high-fiber diets.
Project description:Transfer efficiencies of rumen-protected n-3 fatty acids (FA) to milk are low, thus we hypothesized that rumen-protection technologies allow for biohydrogenation and excretion of n-3 FA. The objectives of this study were to i) investigate the ruminal protection and post-ruminal release of the FA derived from the lipid-encapsulated echium oil (EEO), and ii) assess the bioavailability and metabolism of the EEO-derived FA through measuring the FA content in plasma lipid fractions, feces, and milk. The EEO was tested for rumen stability using the in situ nylon bag technique, then the apparent total-tract digestibility was assessed in vivo using six Holstein dairy cattle. Diets consisted of a control (no EEO); 1.5% of dry matter (DM) as EEO and 1.5% DM as encapsulation matrix; and 3% DM as EEO. The EEO was rumen-stable and had no effect on animal production. EEO-derived FA were incorporated into all plasma lipid fractions, with the highest proportion of n-3 FA observed in cholesterol esters. Fecal excretion of EEO-derived FA ranged from 7-14%. Biohydrogenation products increased in milk, plasma, and feces with EEO supplementation. In conclusion, lipid-encapsulation provides inadequate digestibility to achieve an optimal transfer efficiency of n-3 FA to milk.
Project description:Abstract Milk fat synthesis of ruminants can be inhibited by intermediates of ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation including trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). These biohydrogenation intermediates signal a coordinated downregulation of genes involved in mammary FA synthesis, transport, and esterification. We have previously reported decreased mammary expression of sterol response element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), SREBP1-activating proteins, and thyroid hormone-responsive spot 14 (S14) in the cow during diet-induced milk fat depression (MFD), and treatment with trans-10, cis-12 CLA. Liver x receptors (LXR) and retinoid x receptors (RXR) regulate lipogenesis and are known to bind polyunsaturated FA and LXR agonist increases lipid synthesis in mammary epithelial cell culture. The current studies investigated if biohydrogenation products of rumen origin inhibit mammary lipogenesis through LXR and/or RXR. Expression of LXRs was not different in lactating compared to nonlactating bovine mammary tissue, and expression of LXRs, RXR?, and selected LXR and RXR target genes was not changed in mammary tissue during diet-induced or CLA-induced MFD in the cow. In bovine mammary epithelial cell culture, LXR agonist stimulated lipogenesis and expression of LXRß, ATP-binding cassette 1 (ABCA1), SREBP1c, and S14, but LXR activation did not overcome CLA inhibition of lipogenesis and downregulation of LXRß, SREBP1c, and S14 expression. Lastly, expression of the LXR-regulated carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) was higher in lactating than nonlactating tissue and was decreased during CLA-induced MFD. We conclude that changes in mammary LXR expression in dairy cows are not involved in MFD and that trans-10, cis-12 CLA inhibition of lipogenesis and diet-induced MFD appears independent of direct LXR signaling.