Effects of Mannan Oligosaccharides on Gas Emission, Protein and Energy Utilization, and Fasting Metabolism in Sheep.
ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on in vitro and in vivo gas emission, utilization of crude protein (CP) and energy, and relative parameters of sheep under fasting metabolism conditions. In vitro gas productions were evaluated over 12 h in sheep diets containing different amounts of MOS (from 0% to 6.0%/kg, the increment was 0.5%). A control experiment was used to assess the gas emission, utilization of CP and energy, and fasting metabolism in control sheep and sheep treated with 2.0% MOS over 24 days (d). The results showed that 2.0% MOS supplementation led to the lowest in vitro CO2 production and less CH4 production, while also leading to decrease in vivo nutrients intake, CP and energy excretion, digested and retained CP, and energy released as CH4 (p < 0.05). Furthermore, 2.0% MOS supplementation appeared to decrease in vivo O2 consumption and CH4 production per metabolic body weight (BW0.75), and increase the CP retention rate of sheep (p < 0.074). MOS did not affect other parameters, along with the same parameters of sheep under fasting metabolism conditions (p > 0.05). The findings indicate MOS has only slight effects on the gas emission and nutrients and energy metabolism of sheep.
Project description:Methane (CH4) emission traits were previously found to be heritable and repeatable in sheep fed alfalfa pellets in respiration chambers (RC). More rapid screening methods are, however, required to increase genetic progress and to provide a cost-effective method to the farming industry for maintaining the generation of breeding values in the future. The objective of the current study was to determine CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions using several 1-h portable accumulation chamber (PAC) measurements from lambs and again as ewes while grazing ryegrass-based pasture. Many animals with PAC measurements were also measured in RC while fed alfalfa pellets at 2.0 × maintenance metabolizable energy requirements (MEm). Heritability estimates from mixed models for CH4 and CO2 production (g/d) were 0.19 and 0.16, respectively, when measured using PAC with lambs; 0.20 and 0.27, respectively, when measured using PAC with ewes; and 0.23 and 0.34, respectively, when measured using RC with lambs. For measured gas traits, repeatabilities of measurements collected 14 d apart ranged from 0.33 to 0.55 for PAC (combined lambs and ewes) and were greater at 0.65 to 0.76 for the same traits measured using RC. Genetic correlations (rg) between PAC in lambs and ewes were 0.99 for CH4, 0.93 for CH4 + CO2, and 0.85 for CH4/(CH4 + CO2), suggesting that CH4 emissions in lambs and ewes are the same trait. Genetic correlations between PAC and RC measurements were lower, at 0.62 to 0.67 for CH4 and 0.41 to 0.42 for CH4 + CO2, likely reflecting different environmental conditions associated with the protocols used with the 2 measurement methods. The CH4/(CH4 + CO2) ratio was the most similar genetic trait measured using PAC (both lambs and ewes, 63% and 66% selection efficiency, respectively) compared with CH4 yield (g/kg DMI) measured using RC. These results suggest that PAC measurements have considerable value as a rapid low-cost method to estimate breeding values for CH4 emissions in sheep.
Project description:The identification and quantification of methane emissions from natural gas production has become increasingly important owing to the increase in the natural gas component of the energy sector. An instrumented aircraft platform was used to identify large sources of methane and quantify emission rates in southwestern PA in June 2012. A large regional flux, 2.0-14 g CH4 s(-1) km(-2), was quantified for a ? 2,800-km(2) area, which did not differ statistically from a bottom-up inventory, 2.3-4.6 g CH4 s(-1) km(-2). Large emissions averaging 34 g CH4/s per well were observed from seven well pads determined to be in the drilling phase, 2 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than US Environmental Protection Agency estimates for this operational phase. The emissions from these well pads, representing ? 1% of the total number of wells, account for 4-30% of the observed regional flux. More work is needed to determine all of the sources of methane emissions from natural gas production, to ascertain why these emissions occur and to evaluate their climate and atmospheric chemistry impacts.
Project description:Natural gas production in the U.S. has increased rapidly over the past decade, along with concerns about methane (CH4) leakage (total fugitive emissions), and climate impacts. Quantification of CH4 emissions from oil and natural gas (O&NG) operations is important for establishing scientifically sound, cost-effective policies for mitigating greenhouse gases. We use aircraft measurements and a mass balance approach for three flight experiments in August and September 2015 to estimate CH4 emissions from O&NG operations in the southwestern Marcellus Shale region. We estimate the mean?±?1? CH4 emission rate as 36.7?±?1.9?kg?CH4?s-1 (or 1.16?±?0.06?Tg?CH4?yr-1) with 59% coming from O&NG operations. We estimate the mean?±?1? CH4 leak rate from O&NG operations as 3.9?±?0.4% with a lower limit of 1.5% and an upper limit of 6.3%. This leak rate is broadly consistent with the results from several recent top-down studies but higher than the results from a few other observational studies as well as in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency CH4 emission inventory. However, a substantial source of CH4 was found to contain little ethane (C2H6), possibly due to coalbed CH4 emitted either directly from coalmines or from wells drilled through coalbed layers. Although recent regulations requiring capture of gas from the completion venting step of the hydraulic fracturing appear to have reduced losses, our study suggests that for a 20?year time scale, energy derived from the combustion of natural gas extracted from this region will require further controls before it can exert a net climate benefit compared to coal.
Project description:The methane (CH4)/oxygen (O2) gas supply ratios significantly affect the cell growth and metabolic pathways of aerobic obligate methanotrophs. However, few studies have explored the CH4/O2 ratios of the inlet gas, especially for the CH4 concentrations within the explosion range (5?15% of CH4 in air). This study thoroughly investigated the molecular mechanisms associated with the impact of different CH4/O2 ratios on cell growth of a model type I methanotroph Methylomicrobium buryatense 5GB1 cultured at five different CH4/O2 supply molar ratios from 0.28 to 5.24, corresponding to CH4 content in gas mixture from 5% to 50%, using RNA-Seq transcriptomics approach. In the batch cultivation, the highest growth rate of 0.287 h-1 was achieved when the CH4/O2 supply molar ratio was 0.93 (15% CH4 in air), and it is crucial to keep the availability of carbon and oxygen levels balanced for optimal growth. At this ratio, genes related to methane metabolism, phosphate uptake system, and nitrogen fixation were significantly upregulated. The results indicated that the optimal CH4/O2 ratio prompted cell growth by increasing genes involved in metabolic pathways of carbon, nitrogen and phosphate utilization in M. buryatense 5GB1. Our findings provided an effective gas supply strategy for methanotrophs, which could enhance the production of key intermediates and enzymes to improve the performance of bioconversion processes using CH4 as the only carbon and energy source. This research also helps identify genes associated with the optimal CH4/O2 ratio for balancing energy metabolism and carbon flux, which could be candidate targets for future metabolic engineering practice.
Project description:The greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation is one of the most important environmental benefits of using bioenergy replacing fossil fuels. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) are important GHGs and have drawn extra attention for their roles in global warming. Although there have been many works of soil emissions of N2O and CH4 from bioenergy crops in the field scale, GHG emissions in large area of marginal lands are rather sparse and how soil temperature and moisture affect the emission potential remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to estimate the regional GHG emission based on N2O and CH4 releases from the energy crop fields. Here we sampled the top soils from two Miscanthus fields and incubated them using a short-term laboratory microcosm approach under different conditions of typical soil temperatures and moistures. Based on the emission measurements of N2O and CH4, we developed a model to estimate annual regional GHG emission of Miscanthus production in the infertile Loess Plateau of China. The results showed that the N2O emission potential was 0.27 kg N ha-1 year-1 and clearly lower than that of croplands and grasslands. The CH4 uptake potential was 1.06 kg C ha-1 year-1 and was slightly higher than that of croplands. Integrated with our previous study on the emission of CO2, the net greenhouse effect of three major GHGs (N2O, CH4 and CO2) from Miscanthus fields was 4.08 t CO2eq ha-1 year-1 in the Loess Plateau, which was lower than that of croplands, grasslands and shrub lands. Our study revealed that Miscanthus production may hold a great potential for GHG mitigation in the vast infertile land in the Loess Plateau of China and could contribute to the sustainable energy utilization and have positive environmental impact on the region.
Project description:Methane is a substantial contributor to climate change. It also contributes to maintaining the background levels of tropospheric ozone. Among a variety of CH4 sources, current estimates suggest that CH4 emissions from oil and gas processes account for approximately 20% of worldwide anthropogenic emissions. Here, we report on observational evidence of CH4 emissions from offshore oil and gas platforms in Southeast Asia, detected by a highly time-resolved spectroscopic monitoring technique deployed onboard cargo ships of opportunity. We often encountered CH4 plumes originating from operational flaring/venting and fugitive emissions off the coast of the Malay Peninsula and Borneo. Using night-light imagery from satellites, we discovered more offshore platforms in this region than are accounted for in the emission inventory. Our results demonstrate that current knowledge regarding CH4 emissions from offshore platforms in Southeast Asia has considerable uncertainty and therefore, emission inventories used for modeling and assessment need to be re-examined.
Project description:Recent studies have indicated that urban streets can be hotspots for emissions of methane (CH4) from leaky natural gas lines, particularly in cities with older natural gas distribution systems. The objective of the current study was to determine whether leaking sewer pipes could also be a source of street-level CH4 as well as nitrous oxide (N2O) in Cincinnati, Ohio, a city with a relatively new gas pipeline network. To do this, we measured the carbon (?13C) and hydrogen (?2H) stable isotopic composition of CH4 to distinguish between biogenic CH4 from sewer gas and thermogenic CH4 from leaking natural gas pipelines and measured CH4 and N2O flux rates and concentrations at sites from a previous study of street-level CH4 enhancements (77 out of 104 sites) as well as additional sites found through surveying sewer grates and utility manholes (27 out of 104 sites). The average isotopic signatures for ?13C-CH4 and ?2H-CH4 were -48.5‰ ± 6.0‰ and -302‰ ± 142‰. The measured flux rates ranged from 0.0 to 282.5?mg CH4 day-1 and 0.0-14.1?mg N2O day-1 (n?=?43). The average CH4 and N2O concentrations measured in our study were 4.0?±?7.6?ppm and 392?±?158?ppb, respectively (n?=?104). 72% of sites where fluxes were measured were a source of biogenic CH4. Overall, 47% of the sampled sites had biogenic CH4, while only 13% of our sites had solely thermogenic CH4. The other sites were either a source of both biogenic and thermogenic CH4 (13%), and a relatively large portion of sites had an unresolved source (29%). Overall, this survey of emissions across a large urban area indicates that production and emission of biogenic CH4 and N2O is considerable, although CH4 fluxes are lower than those reported for cities with leaky natural gas distribution systems.
Project description:To test the hypothesis that sheep live weight (LW) could be used to improve enteric methane (CH4) emission calculations, mature ewes of 4 different breeds representative of the UK sheep industry were studied: Welsh Mountain, Scottish Blackface, Welsh Mule and Texel (n = 8 per breed). The ewes were housed and offered ad libitum access to fresh cut pasture of three different types, varying in digestibility: (a) a relatively high digestibility monoculture of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), (b) a medium digestibility permanent pasture comprising a range of grass species, and (c) a relatively low digestibility native grassland pasture comprising mainly Molinia caerulea. Individual LW, feed dry matter intake (DMI), and CH4 emissions in chambers were measured. The linear functional relationship between DMI and CH4 emissions was positive (r = 0.77) with little breed effect. The relationships between LW and DMI, and LW and CH4 emissions were also positive but weaker, regardless of pasture type. It is concluded that change to LW was a poor indicator of DMI and has limited value in the prediction of enteric CH4 emissions from mature ewes.
Project description:The magnitude of diffusive carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emission from man-made reservoirs is uncertain because the spatial variability generally is not well-represented. Here, we examine the spatial variability and its drivers for partial pressure, gas-exchange velocity (k), and diffusive flux of CO2 and CH4 in three tropical reservoirs using spatially resolved measurements of both gas concentrations and k. We observed high spatial variability in CO2 and CH4 concentrations and flux within all three reservoirs, with river inflow areas generally displaying elevated CH4 concentrations. Conversely, areas close to the dam are generally characterized by low concentrations and are therefore not likely to be representative for the whole system. A large share (44-83%) of the within-reservoir variability of gas concentration was explained by dissolved oxygen, pH, chlorophyll, water depth, and within-reservoir location. High spatial variability in k was observed, and kCH4 was persistently higher (on average, 2.5 times more) than kCO2. Not accounting for the within-reservoir variability in concentrations and k may lead to up to 80% underestimation of whole-system diffusive emission of CO2 and CH4. Our findings provide valuable information on how to develop field-sampling strategies to reliably capture the spatial heterogeneity of diffusive carbon fluxes from reservoirs.
Project description:The potent greenhouse gas methane (CH4) is produced in the rumens of ruminant animals from hydrogen produced during microbial degradation of ingested feed. The natural animal-to-animal variation in the amount of CH4 emitted and the heritability of this trait offer a means for reducing CH4 emissions by selecting low-CH4 emitting animals for breeding. We demonstrate that differences in rumen microbial community structure are linked to high and low CH4 emissions in sheep. Bacterial community structures in 236 rumen samples from 118 high- and low-CH4 emitting sheep formed gradual transitions between three ruminotypes. Two of these (Q and S) were linked to significantly lower CH4 yields (14.4 and 13.6 g CH4/kg dry matter intake [DMI], respectively) than the third type (H; 15.9 g CH4/kg DMI; p<0.001). Low-CH4 ruminotype Q was associated with a significantly lower ruminal acetate to propionate ratio (3.7±0.4) than S (4.4±0.7; p<0.001) and H (4.3±0.5; p<0.001), and harbored high relative abundances of the propionate-producing Quinella ovalis. Low-CH4 ruminotype S was characterized by lactate- and succinate-producing Fibrobacter spp., Kandleria vitulina, Olsenella spp., Prevotella bryantii, and Sharpea azabuensis. High-CH4 ruminotype H had higher relative abundances of species belonging to Ruminococcus, other Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Catabacteriaceae, Coprococcus, other Clostridiales, Prevotella, other Bacteroidales, and Alphaproteobacteria, many of which are known to form significant amounts of hydrogen. We hypothesize that lower CH4 yields are the result of bacterial communities that ferment ingested feed to relatively less hydrogen, which results in less CH4 being formed.