Repetitive head injury in adolescent mice: A role for vascular inflammation.
ABSTRACT: Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury during adolescence can induce neurological dysfunction through undefined mechanisms. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) contributes to experimental adult diffuse and contusion TBI models, and IL-1 antagonists have entered clinical trials for severe TBI in adults; however, no such data exist for adolescent TBI. We developed an adolescent mouse repetitive closed head injury (rCHI) model to test the role of IL-1 family members in post-injury neurological outcome. Compared to one CHI, three daily injuries (3HD) produced acute and chronic learning deficits and emergence of hyperactivity, without detectable gliosis, neurodegeneration, brain atrophy, and white matter loss at one year. Mature IL-1? and IL-18 were induced in brain endothelium in 3HD but not 1HD, three hit weekly, or sham animals. IL-1? processing was induced cell-autonomously in three-dimensional human endothelial cell cultures subjected to in vitro concussive trauma. Mice deficient in IL-1 receptor-1 or caspase-1 had improved post-injury Morris water maze performance. Repetitive mild CHI in adolescent mice may induce behavioral deficits in the absence of significant histopathology. The endothelium is a potential source of IL-1? and IL-18 in rCHI, and IL-1 family members may be therapeutic targets to reduce or prevent neurological dysfunction after repetitive mild TBI in adolescents.
Project description:Important differences in the biology of focal and diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) subtypes may result in unique pathophysiological responses to shared molecular mechanisms. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling has been tested as a potential therapeutic target in preclinical models of cerebral contusion and diffuse TBI, and in a phase II clinical trial, but no published studies have examined IL-1 signaling in an impact/acceleration closed head injury (CHI) model. We hypothesized that genetic deletion of IL-1 receptor-1 (IL-1R1 KO) would be beneficial in focal (contusion) and CHI in mice. Wild type and IL-1R1 KO mice were subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI), or to CHI. CCI produced brain leukocyte infiltration, HMGB1 translocation and release, edema, cell death, and cognitive deficits. CHI induced peak rotational acceleration of 9.7?×?105?±?8.1?×?104 rad/s2, delayed time to righting reflex, and robust Morris water maze deficits without deficits in tests of anxiety, locomotion, sensorimotor function, or depression. CHI produced no discernable acute plasmalemma damage or cell death, blood-brain barrier permeability to IgG, or brain edema and only a modest increase in brain leukocyte infiltration at 72?h. In both models, mature (17?kDa) interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?) was induced by 24?h in CD31+ endothelial cells isolated from injured brain but was not induced in CD11b+ cells in either model. High mobility group box protein-1 was released from injured brain cells in CCI but not CHI. Surprisingly, cognitive outcome in mice with global deletion of IL-1R1 was improved in CHI, but worse after CCI without affecting lesion size, edema, or infiltration of CD11b+/CD45+ leukocytes in CCI. IL-1R1 may induce unique biological responses, beneficial or detrimental to cognitive outcome, after TBI depending on the pathoanatomical subtype. Brain endothelium is a hitherto unrecognized source of mature IL-1? in both models.
Project description:There has been an increased focus on the neurological sequelae of repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), particularly neurodegenerative syndromes, such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE); however, no animal model exists that captures the behavioral spectrum of this phenomenon. We sought to develop an animal model of CTE. Our novel model is a modification and fusion of two of the most popular models of TBI and allows for controlled closed-head impacts to unanesthetized mice. Two-hundred and eighty 12-week-old mice were divided into control, single mild TBI (mTBI), and repetitive mTBI groups. Repetitive mTBI mice received six concussive impacts daily for 7 days. Behavior was assessed at various time points. Neurological Severity Score (NSS) was computed and vestibulomotor function tested with the wire grip test (WGT). Cognitive function was assessed with the Morris water maze (MWM), anxiety/risk-taking behavior with the elevated plus maze, and depression-like behavior with the forced swim/tail suspension tests. Sleep electroencephalogram/electromyography studies were performed at 1 month. NSS was elevated, compared to controls, in both TBI groups and improved over time. Repetitive mTBI mice demonstrated transient vestibulomotor deficits on WGT. Repetitive mTBI mice also demonstrated deficits in MWM testing. Both mTBI groups demonstrated increased anxiety at 2 weeks, but repetitive mTBI mice developed increased risk-taking behaviors at 1 month that persist at 6 months. Repetitive mTBI mice exhibit depression-like behavior at 1 month. Both groups demonstrate sleep disturbances. We describe the neurological sequelae of repetitive mTBI in a novel mouse model, which resemble several of the neuropsychiatric behaviors observed clinically in patients sustaining repetitive mild head injury.
Project description:Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an important anti-inflammatory cytokine expressed in response to brain injury, where it facilitates the resolution of inflammatory cascades, which if prolonged causes secondary brain damage. Here, we comprehensively review the current knowledge regarding the role of IL-10 in modulating outcomes following acute brain injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI) and the various stroke subtypes. The vascular endothelium is closely tied to the pathophysiology of these neurological disorders and research has demonstrated clear vascular endothelial protective properties for IL-10. In vitro and in vivo models of ischemic stroke have convincingly directly and indirectly shown IL-10-mediated neuroprotection; although clinically, the role of IL-10 in predicting risk and outcomes is less clear. Comparatively, conclusive studies investigating the contribution of IL-10 in subarachnoid hemorrhage are lacking. Weak indirect evidence supporting the protective role of IL-10 in preclinical models of intracerebral hemorrhage exists; however, in the limited number of clinical studies, higher IL-10 levels seen post-ictus have been associated with worse outcomes. Similarly, preclinical TBI models have suggested a neuroprotective role for IL-10; although, controversy exists among the several clinical studies. In summary, while IL-10 is consistently elevated following acute brain injury, the effect of IL-10 appears to be pathology dependent, and preclinical and clinical studies often paradoxically yield opposite results. The pronounced and potent effects of IL-10 in the resolution of inflammation and inconsistency in the literature regarding the contribution of IL-10 in the setting of acute brain injury warrant further rigorously controlled and targeted investigation.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in white matter injury (WMI) that is associated with neurological deficits. Neuroinflammation originating from microglial activation may participate in WMI and associated disorders. To date, there is little information on the time courses of these events after mild TBI. Therefore we investigated (i) neuroinflammation, (ii) WMI and (iii) behavioral disorders between 6 hours and 3 months after mild TBI. For that purpose, we used experimental mild TBI in mice induced by a controlled cortical impact. (i) For neuroinflammation, IL-1b protein as well as microglial phenotypes, by gene expression for 12 microglial activation markers on isolated CD11b+ cells from brains, were studied after TBI. IL-1b protein was increased at 6 hours and 1 day. TBI induced a mixed population of microglial phenotypes with both pro-inflammatory, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory markers from 6 hours to 3 days post-injury. At 7 days, microglial activation was completely resolved. (ii) Three myelin proteins were assessed after TBI on ipsi- and contralateral corpus callosum, as this structure is enriched in white matter. TBI led to an increase in 2',3'-cyclic-nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase, a marker of immature and mature oligodendrocyte, at 2 days post-injury; a bilateral demyelination, evaluated by myelin basic protein, from 7 days to 3 months post-injury; and an increase in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein at 6 hours and 3 days post-injury. Transmission electron microscopy study revealed various myelin sheath abnormalities within the corpus callosum at 3 months post-TBI. (iii) TBI led to sensorimotor deficits at 3 days post-TBI, and late cognitive flexibility disorder evidenced by the reversal learning task of the Barnes maze 3 months after injury. These data give an overall invaluable overview of time course of neuroinflammation that could be involved in demyelination and late cognitive disorder over a time-scale of 3 months in a model of mild TBI. This model could help to validate a pharmacological strategy to prevent post-traumatic WMI and behavioral disorders following mild TBI.
Project description:The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) are not well understood, but likely involve neuroinflammation. Here the controlled cortical impact model of mTBI in rats was used to test this hypothesis. Mild TBI caused a rapid (within 6 h post-mTBI) upregulation of synthesis of TNF-? and IL-1? in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, followed by an increase in production of neutrophil (CXCL1-3) and monocyte (CCL2) chemoattractants. While astrocytes were not a significant source of CXC chemokines, they highly expressed CCL2. An increase in production of CXC chemokines coincided with the influx of neutrophils into the injured brain. At 6 h post-mTBI, we observed a robust influx of CCL2-expressing neutrophils across pial microvessels into the subarachnoid space (SAS) near the injury site. Mild TBI was not accompanied by any significant influx of neutrophils into the brain parenchyma until 24 h after injury. This was associated with an early induction of expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on the endothelium of the ipsilateral pial, but not intraparenchymal, microvessels. At 6 h post-mTBI, we also observed a robust influx of neutrophils into the ipsilateral cistern of velum interpositum (CVI), a slit-shaped cerebrospinal fluid space located above the 3rd ventricle with highly vascularized pia mater. From SAS and CVI, neutrophils appeared to move along the perivascular spaces to enter the brain parenchyma. The monocyte influx was not observed until 24 h post-mTBI, and these inflammatory cells predominantly entered the ipsilateral SAS and CVI, with a limited invasion of brain parenchyma. These observations indicate that the endothelium of pial microvessels responds to injury differently than that of intraparenchymal microvessels, which may be associated with the lack of astrocytic ensheathment of cerebrovascular endothelium in pial microvessels. These findings also suggest that neuroinflammation represents the potential therapeutic target in mTBI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is among the most prevalent causes of cerebrovascular and neurological damage worldwide. To this end, tobacco smoke (TS) has been shown to promote vascular inflammation, neurovascular impairments, and risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders through oxidative stress (OS) stimuli targeting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium among others. It has been recently suggested that premorbid conditions such as TS may exacerbate post-TBI brain damage and impact recovery. METHODS:Our study investigated the mechanisms underlying the exacerbation of TBI injury by TS using a weight drop model. For this purpose, male C57BL/6J mice, age range 6-8 weeks, were chronically exposed to premorbid TS for 3 weeks. Test animals were then subjected to TBI by guided vertical head weight drop using a 30 g metal weight free felling from an 80 cm distance before reaching the target. We analyzed the physical activity and body weight of the mice before TBI and 1 h, 24 h, and 72 h post-injury. Finally, mice were sacrificed to collect blood and brain samples for subsequent biochemical and molecular analysis. Western blotting was applied to assess the expression of Nrf2 (a critical antioxidant transcription factor) as well as tight junction proteins associated with BBB integrity including ZO-1, Occludin, and Claudin-5 from brain tissues homogenates. Levels of NF-kB (a pro-inflammatory transcript factor which antagonizes Nrf2 activity) and pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-? were assessed in blood samples. RESULTS:Our data revealed that premorbid TS promoted significantly increased inflammation and loss of BBB integrity in TBI when compared to TS-Free test mice. Additionally, mice chronically exposed to TS before TBI experienced a more significant weight loss, behavioral and motor activity deficiency, and slower post-TBI recovery when compared to TS-free TBI mice. CONCLUSION:The effects of premorbid TS appear consequential to the abrogation of physiological antioxidative and anti-inflammatory response to TBI leading to worsening impairments of the BBB, OS damage, and inflammation. These factors are also likely responsible for the retardation of post-traumatic recovery observed in these animals.
Project description:Drosophila models have been successfully used to identify many genetic components that affect neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, there has been a growing interest in identifying innate and environmental factors that influence the individual outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI). This includes both severe TBI and more subtle, mild TBI (mTBI), which is common in people playing contact sports. Autophagy, as a clearance pathway, exerts protective effects in multiple neurological disease models. In a recent publication, we highlighted the development of a novel repetitive mTBI system using Drosophila, which recapitulates several phenotypes associated with trauma in mammalian models. In particular, flies subjected to mTBI exhibit an acute impairment of the macroautophagy/autophagy pathway that is restored 1 wk following traumatic injury exposure. These phenotypes closely resemble temporary autophagy defects observed in a mouse TBI model. Through these studies, we also identified methods to directly assess autophagic responses in the fly nervous system and laid the groundwork for future studies designed to identify genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors that have an impact on TBI outcomes.
Project description:Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of mortality and disability around the world. Mild TBI (mTBI) makes up approximately 80% of reported cases and often results in transient psychological abnormalities and cognitive disruption. At-risk populations for mTBI include athletes and other active individuals who may sustain repetitive concussive injury during periods of exercise and exertion when core temperatures are elevated. Previous studies have emphasized the impact that increased brain temperature has on adverse neurological outcomes. A lack of diagnostic tools to assess concussive mTBI limits the ability to effectively identify the post-concussive period during which the brain is uniquely susceptible to damage upon sustaining additional injury. Studies have suggested that a temporal window of increased vulnerability that exists corresponds to a period of injury-induced depression of cerebral glucose metabolism. In the current study, we sought to evaluate the relationship between repetitive concussion, local cerebral glucose metabolism, and brain temperature using the Marmarou weight drop model to generate mTBI. Animals were injured three consecutive times over a period of 7 days while exposed to either normothermic or hyperthermic temperatures for 15 min prior to and 1 h post each injury. A 14C-2-deoxy-d-glucose (2DG) autoradiography was used to measure local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (lCMRGlc) in 10 diverse brain regions across nine bregma levels 8 days after the initial insult. We found that repetitive mTBI significantly decreased glucose utilization bilaterally in several cortical areas, such as the cingulate, visual, motor, and retrosplenial cortices, as well as in subcortical areas, including the caudate putamen and striatum, compared to sham control animals. lCMRGlc was significant in both normothermic and hyperthermic repetitive mTBI animals relative to the sham group, but to a greater degree when exposed to hyperthermic conditions. Taken together, we report significant injury-induced glucose hypometabolism after repetitive concussion in the brain, and additionally highlight the importance of temperature management in the acute period after brain injury.
Project description:Clinically, traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in complex heterogeneous pathology that cannot be recapitulated in single pre-clinical animal model. Therefore, we focused on evaluating utility of nanoparticle (NP)-based therapeutics following three diffuse-TBI models: mildclosed-head injury (mCHI), repetitive-mCHI and midline-fluid percussion injury (FPI). We hypothesized that NP accumulation after diffuse TBI correlates directly with blood-brainbarrier permeability. Mice received PEGylated-NP cocktail (20-500 nm) (intravenously) after single- or repetitive-(1 impact/day, 5 consecutive days) CHI (immediately) and midline-FPI (1 h, 3 h and 6 h). NPs circulated for 1 h before perfusion/brain extraction. NP accumulation was analyzed using fluorescent microscopy in brain regions vulnerable to neuropathology. Minimal/no NP accumulation after mCHI/RmCHI was observed. In contrast, midlineFPI resulted in significant peak accumulation of up to 500 nm NP at 3 h post-injury compared to sham, 1 h, and 6 h groups in the cortex. Therefore, our study provides the groundwork for feasibility of NP-delivery based on NPinjection time and NPsize after mCHI/RmCHI and midline-FPI.
Project description:An estimated 3.8 million traumatic brain injuries (TBI) occur each year, the majority classified as mild. Interest in models of mild and repeat mild TBI has grown due to reports of lasting morbidity following sports- or combat-related injury. There remains a paucity of data linking cellular or systems-related mechanisms to behavioral outcomes following repeat mild TBI, particularly in adolescent and adult rats. It is critical, therefore, to develop flexible models to evaluate which parameters of injury are associated with brain vulnerability or poor chronic outcome compared to normal recovery. While there are several existing models of repeat mild TBI in rodents, studying the effects of multiple hits has been complicated by the need for multiple survival surgeries, extensive pre-injury anesthesia time, and limitations due to animal skull thickness.• We developed a chronic “helmet” implant by combining aspects of the Impact Acceleration and Controlled Cortical Impact models.• Implants were performed days before injury, allowing us to decouple surgery from TBI. Critically, by pre-implanting the animals, only minimal anesthesia was required to position them under the impactor.• The implant allows for flexibility in the number and severity of injuries and interval between impacts.