Sarcopenia Is a Negative Prognostic Factor in Patients Undergoing Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE) for Hepatic Malignancies.
ABSTRACT: : Background and Aims: While transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) represents a standard of therapy for intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and is also routinely performed in patients with liver metastases, it is still debated which patients represent the ideal candidates for TACE therapy in terms of overall survival. Sarcopenia, the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength, has been associated with an adverse outcome for various malignancies, but its role in the context of TACE has largely remained unknown. Here, we evaluated the role of sarcopenia on the outcome of patients undergoing TACE for primary and secondary liver cancer. METHODS:The patients' psoas muscle size was measured on axial computed tomography (CT) scans and normalized for the patients' height squared. This value was referred to as the psoas muscle index (PMI). The PMI was correlated with clinical and laboratory markers. RESULTS:While pre-interventional sarcopenia had no impact on the direct tumor response to TACE, sarcopenic patients with a pre-interventional PMI below our ideal cut-off value of 13.39 mm/m2 had a significantly impaired long-term outcome with a median overall survival of 491 days compared to 1291 days for patients with a high PMI. This finding was confirmed by uni- and multivariate Cox-regression analyses. Moreover, a progressive rapid decline in muscle mass after TACE was a predictor for an unfavorable prognosis. CONCLUSION:Our data suggest that sarcopenia represents a previously unrecognized prognostic factor for patients undergoing TACE therapy which might yield important information on the patients' post-interventional outcome and should therefore be implemented into clinical stratification algorithms.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sarcopenia is defined as a low skeletal muscle volume. Recent studies have reported that sarcopenia is associated with a poor prognosis in various cancers. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the psoas muscle volume and recurrence-free survival in patients with localized clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). METHODS:A total of 316 male patients with localized ccRCC who underwent radical nephrectomy at Yokohama City University Hospital (Yokohama, JAPAN) and Kanagawa Cancer Center (Yokohama, JAPAN) between 2002 and 2018 were enrolled in this study. The psoas muscle index (PMI) was calculated by normalizing the psoas muscle area on the contralateral side of the tumor on axial CT, which was calculated at the level of L4 (mm2) divided by the square of the body height (m2). We divided patients into two groups based on the median PMI (409.64mm2/m2). RESULTS:The lower PMI group showed poorer recurrence-free survival (RFS) than the higher PMI group (p = 0.030). Regarding 5-year RFS, a lower PMI was a significant predictor of recurrence (p = 0.022, hazard ratio (HR): 2.306) and a multivariate analysis revealed that a lower PMI (<median, p = 0.035, HR: 2.167), tumor size >4 cm (p = 0.044, HR: 2.341), and pathological stage >2 (p<0.001, HR: 3.660) were independent risk factors for poor RFS. CONCLUSIONS:The presence of sarcopenia (lower PMI) was found to be associated with poor RFS in male ccRCC patients. The PMI might serve as a measure of patient frailty and might be useful for prognostic risk stratification in ccRCC.
Project description:<i>Introduction</i>. Gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) is a gold-standard first-line systemic chemotherapy for advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC). However, it may cause severe adverse effects such as renal toxicity, gastrointestinal toxicity, and neurotoxicity. Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass. A correlation between sarcopenia and the oncological prognosis has been reported. In UC, several studies have noted that patients with sarcopenia had a greater incidence of complications and worse survival after radical cystectomy or chemotherapy. Our institute introduced gemcitabine and nedaplatin (GN) for UC patients with renal failure. We investigated whether the presence of sarcopenia predicted the prognosis of patients with advanced UC who were treated by GN chemotherapy. <i>Methods</i>. A total of 27 patients (male, <i>n</i> = 21; female, <i>n</i> = 6) received GN therapy for metastatic UC from 2005 to 2016. The institutional review board of Yokohama City University Hospital approved this study. The psoas muscle index (PMI, cm<sup>2</sup>/m<sup>2</sup>) was calculated using this formula: right psoas muscle area (cm<sup>2</sup>)/the square of the body height (m<sup>2</sup>). The overall survival (OS) of the high PMI group (male: ?2.49, female: ?2.07) and low PMI group (male: <2.49, female: <2.07) was compared. <i>Results</i>. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and a log-rank test revealed that the high PMI group had significantly better OS than the low PMI group (<i>p</i> = 0.015). The mean survival of the high and low PMI groups was 561 days and 223 days, respectively. <i>Conclusions</i>. In the present study, we revealed that sarcopenia (a low psoas muscle volume) might be a predictive factor for poorer overall survival in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma who are undergoing GN chemotherapy.
Project description:The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical impact of sarcopenia on the efficacy of programmed death (PD)-1 inhibitors. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all patients treated with nivolumab or pembrolizumab between January 2016 and September 2018 for previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The cross-sectional area of the psoas muscle at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on baseline computed tomography was assessed to calculate the psoas muscle index (PMI). Sarcopenia was defined based on PMI cut-off values for Asian adults (6.36?cm<sup>2</sup>/m<sup>2</sup> for males and 3.92?cm<sup>2</sup>/m<sup>2</sup> for females). A total of 42 patients were analysed. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 52.4%. Sarcopenia was significantly associated with poorer progression-free survival (PFS) (median, 2.1 vs. 6.8 months, p?=?0.004). Compared to patients with sarcopenia, those without sarcopenia had a higher overall response rate (40.0% vs. 9.1%, p?=?0.025) and 1-year PFS rate (38.1% vs. 10.1%). In conclusion, sarcopenia at baseline as determined using computed tomography is a significant predictor of worse outcome in patients with advanced NSCLC receiving PD-1 blockade. Screening for sarcopenia may help identify patients more likely to achieve a long-term response in routine clinical practice.
Project description:Sarcopenia is a muscle loss syndrome known as a risk factor of various carcinomas. The impact of sarcopenia and sarcopenia-related inflammatory/nutritional markers in metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) treated with pembrolizumab was unknown, so this retrospective study of 27 patients was performed. Psoas muscle mass index (PMI) was calculated by bilateral psoas major muscle area at the L3 with computed tomography. The cut-off PMI value for sarcopenia was defined as ?6.36 cm2/m2 for men and ?3.92 cm2/m2 for women. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) ? 4.0 and sarcopenia correlated with significantly shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio (HR) 3.81, p = 0.020; and HR 2.99, p = 0.027, respectively). Multivariate analyses identified NLR ? 4.0 and sarcopenia as independent predictors for PFS (HR 2.89, p = 0.025; and HR 2.79, p = 0.030, respectively). Prognostic nutrition index < 45, NLR ? 4.0 and sarcopenia were correlated with significantly worse for overall survival (OS) (HR 3.44, p = 0.046; HR 4.26, p = 0.024; and HR 3.92, p = 0.012, respectively). Multivariate analyses identified sarcopenia as an independent predictor for OS (HR 4.00, p = 0.026). Furthermore, a decrease in PMI ? 5% in a month was an independent predictor of PFS and OS (HR 12.8, p = 0.008; and HR 6.21, p = 0.036, respectively). Evaluation of sarcopenia and inflammatory/nutritional markers may help in the management of mUC with pembrolizumab.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sarcopenia was initially recognized as a marker representing the nutritional condition or aging. Recently, sarcopenia has been associated with a poor prognosis and postoperative complications. We examined the importance of sarcopenia as a predictive marker of the prognosis in penile cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 25 patients diagnosed with penile cancer who underwent penile resection from 2000 to 2010 were analyzed in this study. The psoas muscle index (PMI) was calculated based on psoas area using preoperative axial computed tomography images at the right L3 level divided by the square of the body height. RESULTS:Nineteen (76.0%) patients underwent partial penectomy, and 6 (24.0%) underwent total penectomy. The median (mean ± standard deviation) age was 69.3 (69.0 ± 10.1) years old. Regarding the site of penile cancer, 17 (76.0%) cases were in the glans, 6 (24.0%) were in the foreskin, and 2 (8.0%) were in the shaft. Lymph node metastasis were seen in 6 cases (24.0%), and distant metastasis was seen in 1 case (4.0%). The lower PMI group (< 320.0) showed a significantly poorer progression-free survival than the higher PMI group (? 320.0) (p = 0.030), although no significant difference in the overall survival was noted (p = 0.076). CONCLUSIONS:Sarcopenia might be a useful prognostic factor in penile cancer patients.
Project description:Background:Sarcopenia has been identified as a predictive variable for surgical outcomes. We hypothesized that sarcopenia could be a key measure to identify frail patients and potentially predict poorer outcomes among recipients of simultaneous pancreas and kidney (SPK) transplants. Methods:We estimated sarcopenia by measuring psoas muscle mass index (PMI). PMI was assessed on perioperative computed tomography (CT) scans of SPK recipients. Results:Of the 141 patients identified between 2010 and 2018, 107 had a CT scan available and were included in the study. The median follow-up was 4 years (range, 0.5-9.1 y). Twenty-three patients had a low PMI, and 84 patients had a normal PMI. Patient characteristics were similar between the 2 groups except for body mass index, which was significantly lower in low PMI group (P?<?0.001). Patient and kidney graft survival were not statistically different between groups (P?=?0.851 and P?=?0.357, respectively). A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that patients with a low PMI were 6 times more likely to lose their pancreas allograft (hazard ratios, 5.4; 95% confidence intervals, 1.4-20.8; P?=?0.015). Three out of 6 patients lost their pancreas graft due to rejection in the low PMI group, compared with 1 out of 9 patients in the normal PMI group. Among low PMI patients who had a follow-up CT scan, 62.5% (5/8) of those with a functional pancreas graft either improved or resolved sarcopenia, whereas 75.0% (3/4) of those who lost their pancreas graft continued to lose muscle mass. Conclusion:Sarcopenia could represent one of the predictors of pancreas graft failure and should be evaluated and potentially optimized in SPK recipients.
Project description:Background:Sarcopenia is a prognostic factor for mortality in digestive surgery. However, the correlation between preoperative cardiopulmonary function and sarcopenia in patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Methods:The present study investigated the impact of preoperative sarcopenia on cardiopulmonary function in 402 patients who underwent first hepatectomy for HCC between April 2005 and April 2015. The quantity and quality of skeletal muscle were evaluated using psoas muscle index (PMI) and intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), respectively, as determined from preoperative computed tomography imaging. Correlations between preoperative cardiopulmonary function and sarcopenic factors (PMI and IMAC) were evaluated. Results:No significant correlations were found between left ventricular ejection fraction and the two sarcopenic factors. On the other hand, preoperative vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) correlated significantly with PMI (p < 0.001 each) in males and with IMAC (p < 0.001 each) in females. Moreover, VC and FEV1 in the preoperative low PMI (p < 0.001 each) and high IMAC (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively) groups were significantly lower than in the normal group in males. In females, VC and FEV1 were significantly lower in the preoperative high IMAC group than in the normal group (p < 0.001 each). Conclusion:Preoperative low muscle mass in males and low muscle quality in males and females were significantly associated with pulmonary dysfunction.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:The role of serum myokine levels in sarcopenia and the outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients are not clear. This study investigated the serum levels of myostatin, follistatin, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in HCC patients and their association with sarcopenia and survival. METHODS:Using prospectively collected pretreatment samples from 238 HCC patients in a hospital from 2012 to 2015, the serum levels of 3 myokines were determined and compared to 50 samples from age and sex-matched healthy controls. Sarcopenia was evaluated using the psoas muscle index (PMI) measured at the third lumbar level in the computed tomography, and clinical data were collected until 2017. RESULTS:The median levels of the 3 myokines for the male and female HCC patients were as follow: myostatin (3,979.3 and 2,976.3 pg/mL), follistatin (2,118.5 and 2,174.6 pg/mL), and IL-6 (2.5 and 2.7 pg/mL), respectively. Those in the HCC patients were all significantly higher than in the healthy controls. In the HCC patient, the median PMI was 4.43 (males) and 2.17 cm2/m2 (females) with a sarcopenic prevalence of 56.4%. The serum levels of myostatin, IL-6 and follistatin in the HCC patients showed a positive, negative, and no correlation with PMI, respectively. The serum follistatin level was an independent factor for poor survival in HCC patients. CONCLUSION:The serum levels of myostatin, follistatin, and IL-6 and their correlation with sarcopenia and survival were presented in HCC patients for the first time. The role of the serum follistatin level as a poor prognostic biomarker warrants further study.
Project description:Background:Sarcopenia and visceral adiposity have been suggested to affect prognosis and treatment efficacy in various types of cancers. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether pretreatment sarcopenia and visceral adiposity are associated with prognosis in patients with extensive-disease small-cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC). Methods:Between September 2007 and March 2018, 128 ED-SCLC patients received first-line and platinum-based chemotherapy at our hospital. Based on pretreatment body mass index (BMI), psoas muscle index (PMI), intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC) and visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VSR) at lumbar vertebra L3 level, we divided these patients into two groups, and then compared overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Adjusted by age, serum albumin, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), clinical stage and performance status, we detected independent prognostic factors by multivariate Cox proportional hazard analyses. Results:We did not find any significant differences in OS and PFS between two groups divided by BMI, PMI, IMAC and VSR. According to multivariate analyses, none of BMI, PMI, IMAC and VSR was an independent prognostic factor of OS and PFS. Conclusions:Neither pretreatment sarcopenia nor visceral adiposity is a prognostic marker of patients with ED-SCLC treated with standard regimen of platinum-based chemotherapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Early extubation after liver transplantation is safe and accelerates patient recovery. Patients with end-stage liver disease undergo sarcopenic changes, and sarcopenia is associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. We investigated the impact of core muscle mass on the feasibility of immediate extubation in the operating room (OR) after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS:A total of 295 male adult LDLT patients were retrospectively reviewed between January 2011 and December 2017. In total, 40 patients were excluded due to emergency surgery or severe encephalopathy. A total of 255 male LDLT patients were analyzed in this study. According to the OR extubation criteria, the study population was classified into immediate and conventional extubation groups (39.6 vs. 60.4%). Psoas muscle area was estimated using abdominal computed tomography and normalized by height squared (psoas muscle index [PMI]). RESULTS:There were no significant differences in OR extubation rates among the five attending transplant anesthesiologists. The preoperative PMI correlated with respiratory performance. The preoperative PMI was higher in the immediate extubation group than in the conventional extubation group. Potentially significant perioperative factors in the univariate analysis were entered into a multivariate analysis, in which preoperative PMI and intraoperative factors (i.e., continuous renal replacement therapy, significant post-reperfusion syndrome, and fresh frozen plasma transfusion) were associated with OR extubation. The duration of ventilator support and length of intensive care unit stay were shorter in the immediate extubation group than in the conventional extubation group, and the incidence of pneumonia and early allograft dysfunction were also lower in the immediate extubation group. CONCLUSIONS:Our study could improve the accuracy of predictions concerning immediate post-transplant extubation in the OR by introducing preoperative PMI into predictive models for patients who underwent elective LDLT.