The Scs disulfide reductase system cooperates with the metallochaperone CueP in Salmonella copper resistance.
ABSTRACT: The human pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S Typhimurium) contains a complex disulfide bond (Dsb) catalytic machinery. This machinery encompasses multiple Dsb thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases that mediate oxidative protein folding and a less-characterized suppressor of copper sensitivity (scs) gene cluster, associated with increased tolerance to copper. To better understand the function of the Salmonella Scs system, here we characterized two of its key components, the membrane protein ScsB and the periplasmic protein ScsC. Our results revealed that these two proteins form a redox pair in which the electron transfer from the periplasmic domain of ScsB (n-ScsB) to ScsC is thermodynamically driven. We also demonstrate that the Scs reducing pathway remains separate from the Dsb oxidizing pathways and thereby avoids futile redox cycles. Additionally, we provide new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying Scs-mediated copper tolerance in Salmonella We show that both ScsB and ScsC can bind toxic copper(I) with femtomolar affinities and transfer it to the periplasmic copper metallochaperone CueP. Our results indicate that the Salmonella Scs machinery has evolved a dual mode of action, capable of transferring reducing power to the oxidizing periplasm and protecting against copper stress by cooperating with the cue regulon, a major copper resistance mechanism in Salmonella. Overall, these findings expand our understanding of the functional diversity of Dsb-like systems, ranging from those mediating oxidative folding of proteins required for infection to those contributing to defense mechanisms against oxidative stress and copper toxicity, critical traits for niche adaptation and survival.
Project description:AIMS:The prototypical protein disulfide bond (Dsb) formation and protein refolding pathways in the bacterial periplasm involving Dsb proteins have been most comprehensively defined in Escherichia coli. However, genomic analysis has revealed several distinct Dsb-like systems in bacteria, including the pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. This includes the scsABCD locus, which encodes a system that has been shown via genetic analysis to confer copper tolerance, but whose biochemical properties at the protein level are not defined. The aim of this study was to provide functional insights into the soluble ScsC protein through structural, biochemical, and genetic analyses. RESULTS:Here we describe the structural and biochemical characterization of ScsC, the soluble DsbA-like component of this system. Our crystal structure of ScsC reveals a similar overall fold to DsbA, although the topology of β-sheets and α-helices in the thioredoxin domains differ. The midpoint reduction potential of the CXXC active site in ScsC was determined to be -132 mV versus normal hydrogen electrode. The reactive site cysteine has a low pKa, typical of the nucleophilic cysteines found in DsbA-like proteins. Deletion of scsC from S. Typhimurium elicits sensitivity to copper (II) ions, suggesting a potential involvement for ScsC in disulfide folding under conditions of copper stress. INNOVATION AND CONCLUSION:ScsC is a novel disulfide oxidoreductase involved in protection against copper ion toxicity.
Project description:In prototypic Escherichia coli K-12 the introduction of disulfide bonds into folding proteins is mediated by the Dsb family of enzymes, primarily through the actions of the highly oxidizing protein EcDsbA. Homologues of the Dsb catalysts are found in most bacteria. Interestingly, pathogens have developed distinct Dsb machineries that play a pivotal role in the biogenesis of virulence factors, hence contributing to their pathogenicity. Salmonella enterica serovar (sv.) Typhimurium encodes an extended number of sulfhydryl oxidases, namely SeDsbA, SeDsbL, and SeSrgA. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of the sv. Typhimurium thiol oxidative system through the structural and functional characterization of the three Salmonella DsbA paralogues. The three proteins share low sequence identity, which results in several unique three-dimensional characteristics, principally in areas involved in substrate binding and disulfide catalysis. Furthermore, the Salmonella DsbA-like proteins also have different redox properties. Whereas functional characterization revealed some degree of redundancy, the properties of SeDsbA, SeDsbL, and SeSrgA and their expression pattern in sv. Typhimurium indicate a diverse role for these enzymes in virulence.
Project description:In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium), biofilm-formation is controlled by the cytoplasmic intracellular small-molecular second messenger cyclic 3', 5'-di- guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) through the activities of GGDEF and EAL domain proteins. Here we describe that deleting either dsbA or dsbB, respectively encoding a periplasmic protein disulfide oxidase and a cytoplasmic membrane disulfide oxidoreductase, resulted in increased biofilm-formation on solid medium. This increased biofilm-formation, defined as a red, dry and rough (rdar) colony morphotype, paralleled with enhanced expression of the biofilm master regulator CsgD and the biofilm-associated fimbrial subunit CsgA. Deleting csgD in either dsb mutant abrogated the enhanced biofilm-formation. Likewise, overexpression of the c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase YhjH, or mutationally inactivating the CsgD activator EAL-domain protein YdiV, reduced biofilm-formation in either of the dsb mutants. Intriguingly, deleting the GGDEF-EAL domain protein gene STM3615 (yhjK), previously not connected to rdar morphotype development, also abrogated the escalated rdar morphotype formation in dsb mutant backgrounds. Enhanced biofilm-formation in dsb mutants was furthermore annulled by exposure to the protein disulfide catalyst copper chloride. When analyzed for the effect of exogenous reducing stress on biofilm-formation, both dsb mutants initially showed an escalated rdar morphotype development that later dissolved to reveal a smooth mucoid colony morphotype. From these results we conclude that biofilm-development in S. Typhimurium is affected by periplasmic protein disulphide bond status through CsgD, and discuss the involvement of selected GGDEF/EAL domain protein(s) as signaling mediators.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is an intracellular pathogen that has evolved to survive in the phagosome of macrophages. The periplasmic copper-binding protein CueP was initially known to confer copper resistance to S. Typhimurium. Crystal structure and biochemical studies on CueP revealed a putative copper binding site surrounded by the conserved cysteine and histidine residues. A recent study reported that CueP supplies copper ions to periplasmic Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SodCII) at a low copper concentration and thus enables the sustained SodCII activity in the periplasm. In this study, we investigated the role of CueP in copper resistance at a high copper concentration. We observed that the survival of a cueP-deleted strain of Salmonella in macrophage phagosome was significantly reduced. Subsequent biochemical experiments revealed that CueP specifically mediates the reduction of copper ion using electrons released during the formation of the disulfide bond. We observed that the copper ion-mediated Fenton reaction in the presence of hydrogen peroxide was blocked by CueP. This study provides insight into how CueP confers copper resistance to S. Typhimurium in copper-rich environments such as the phagosome of macrophages.
Project description:In Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily contribute to bacterial invasiveness, intracellular replication and to the virulence in BALB/c mice as well as in the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The scsABCD gene cluster, present in many but not all enteric bacteria, codes for four putative oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily. Here we have analyzed the potential role of the scs genes in oxidative stress tolerance and virulence in S. Typhimurium. An scsABCD deletion mutant showed moderate sensitization to the redox-active transition metal ion copper and increased protein carbonylation upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Still, the scsABCD mutant was not significantly affected for invasiveness or intracellular replication in respectively cultured epithelial or macrophage-like cells. However, we noted a significant copper chloride sensitivity of SPI1 T3SS mediated invasiveness that strongly depended on the presence of the scs genes. The scsABCD deletion mutant was not attenuated in animal infection models. In contrast, the mutant showed a moderate increase in its competitive index upon intraperitoneal challenge and enhanced invasiveness in small intestinal ileal loops of BALB/c mice. Moreover, deletion of the scsABCD genes restored the invasiveness of a trxA mutant in epithelial cells and its virulence in C. elegans. Our findings thus demonstrate that the scs gene cluster conditionally affects virulence and underscore the complex interactions between oxidoreductases of the thioredoxin superfamily in maintaining host adaptation of S. Typhimurium.
Project description:Salmonella enterica sv. typhimurium (S. enterica sv. Typhimurium) has two metal-transporting P(1)-type ATPases whose actions largely overlap with respect to growth in elevated copper. Mutants lacking both ATPases over-accumulate copper relative to wild-type or either single mutant. Such duplication of ATPases is unusual in bacterial copper tolerance. Both ATPases are under the control of MerR family metal-responsive transcriptional activators. Analyses of periplasmic copper complexes identified copper-CueP as one of the predominant metal pools. Expression of cueP was recently shown to be controlled by the same metal-responsive activator as one of the P(1)-type ATPase genes (copA), and copper-CueP is a further atypical feature of copper homeostasis in S. enterica sv. Typhimurium. Elevated copper is detected by a reporter construct driven by the promoter of copA in wild-type S. enterica sv. Typhimurium during infection of macrophages. Double mutants missing both ATPases also show reduced survival inside cultured macrophages. It is hypothesized that elevated copper within macrophages may have selected for specialized copper-resistance systems in pathogenic microorganism such as S. enterica sv. Typhimurium.
Project description:Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide. Severe infections result from the ability of S Typhimurium to survive within host immune cells, despite being exposed to various host antimicrobial factors. SodCI, a copper-zinc-cofactored superoxide dismutase, is required to defend against phagocytic superoxide. SodCII, an additional periplasmic superoxide dismutase, although produced during infection, does not function in the host. Previous studies suggested that CueP, a periplasmic copper binding protein, facilitates acquisition of copper by SodCII. CopA and GolT, both inner membrane ATPases that pump copper from the cytoplasm to the periplasm, are a source of copper for CueP. Using in vitro SOD assays, we found that SodCI can also utilize CueP to acquire copper. However, both SodCI and SodCII have a significant fraction of activity independent of CueP and cytoplasmic copper export. We utilized a series of mouse competition assays to address the in vivo role of CueP-mediated SodC activation. A copA golT cueP triple mutant was equally as competitive as the wild type, suggesting that sufficient SodCI is active to defend against phagocytic superoxide independent of CueP and cytoplasmic copper export. We also confirmed that a strain containing a modified SodCII, which is capable of complementing a sodCI deletion, was fully virulent in a copA golT cueP background competed against the wild type. These competitions also address the potential impact of cytoplasmic copper toxicity within the phagosome. Our data suggest that Salmonella does not encounter inhibitory concentrations of copper during systemic infection.IMPORTANCESalmonella is a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease worldwide. In severe cases, Salmonella can cause life-threatening systemic infections, particularly in very young children, the elderly, or people who are immunocompromised. To cause disease, Salmonella must survive the hostile environment inside host immune cells, a location in which most bacteria are killed. Our work examines how one particular metal, copper, is acquired by Salmonella to activate a protein important for survival within immune cells. At high levels, copper itself can inhibit Salmonella Using a strain of Salmonella that cannot detoxify intracellular copper, we also addressed the in vivo role of copper as an antimicrobial agent.
Project description:Disulfide-bond-forming (DSB) oxidative folding enzymes are master regulators of virulence that are localized to the periplasm of many Gram-negative bacteria. The archetypal DSB machinery from Escherichia coli K-12 consists of a dithiol-oxidizing redox-relay pair (DsbA/B), a disulfide-isomerizing redox-relay pair (DsbC/D) and the specialist reducing enzymes DsbE and DsbG that also interact with DsbD. By contrast, the Gram-negative bacterium Wolbachia pipientis encodes just three DSB enzymes. Two of these, ?-DsbA1 and ?-DsbB, form a redox-relay pair analogous to DsbA/B from E. coli. The third enzyme, ?-DsbA2, incorporates a DsbA-like sequence but does not interact with ?-DsbB. In comparison to other DsbA enzymes, ?-DsbA2 has ?50 extra N-terminal residues (excluding the signal peptide). The crystal structure of ?-DsbA2?N, an N-terminally truncated form in which these ?50 residues are removed, confirms the DsbA-like nature of this domain. However, ?-DsbA2 does not have DsbA-like activity: it is structurally and functionally different as a consequence of its N-terminal residues. Firstly, ?-DsbA2 is a powerful disulfide isomerase and a poor dithiol oxidase: i.e. its role is to shuffle rather than to introduce disulfide bonds. Moreover, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) of ?-DsbA2 reveals a homotrimeric arrangement that differs from those of the other characterized bacterial disulfide isomerases DsbC from Escherichia coli (homodimeric) and ScsC from Proteus mirabilis (PmScsC; homotrimeric with a shape-shifter peptide). ?-DsbA2 lacks the shape-shifter motif and SAXS data suggest that it is less flexible than PmScsC. These results allow conclusions to be drawn about the factors that are required for functionally equivalent disulfide isomerase enzymatic activity across structurally diverse protein architectures.
Project description:The microbial adaptations to the respiratory burst remain poorly understood, and establishing how the NADPH oxidase (NOX2) kills microbes has proven elusive. Here we demonstrate that NOX2 collapses the ?pH of intracellular Salmonella Typhimurium. The depolarization experienced by Salmonella undergoing oxidative stress impairs folding of periplasmic proteins. Depolarization in respiring Salmonella mediates intense bactericidal activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Salmonella adapts to the challenges oxidative stress imposes on membrane bioenergetics by shifting redox balance to glycolysis and fermentation, thereby diminishing electron flow through the membrane, meeting energetic requirements and anaplerotically generating tricarboxylic acid intermediates. By diverting electrons away from the respiratory chain, glycolysis also enables thiol/disulfide exchange-mediated folding of bacterial cell envelope proteins during periods of oxidative stress. Thus, primordial metabolic pathways, already present in bacteria before aerobic respiration evolved, offer a solution to the stress ROS exert on molecular targets at the bacterial cell envelope.
Project description:Periplasmic Cu, Zn-cofactored superoxide dismutase (SodC) protects Gram-negative bacteria from exogenous oxidative damage. The virulent Salmonella typhimurium strain ATCC 14028s has been found to contain two discrete periplasmic Cu, Zn-SOD enzymes that are only 57% identical at the amino acid level. SodCI is carried by a cryptic bacteriophage, and SodCII is closely related to the Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase of Escherichia coli. All Salmonella serotypes appear to carry the sodCII locus, but the phage-associated sodCI gene is found only in certain strains belonging to the most highly pathogenic serotypes. Expression of either sodC locus appears to be enhanced during stationary phase, but only sodCII is regulated by the alternative sigma factor sigmas (RpoS). Mutants lacking both sodC genes are less lethal for mice than mutants possessing either sodC locus alone, indicating that both Cu, Zn-SOD enzymes contribute to Salmonella pathogenicity. The evolutionary acquisition of an additional sodC gene has contributed to the enhanced virulence of selected Salmonella strains.