Maternal drug-related death and suicide are leading causes of postpartum death in California.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Reducing maternal mortality is a priority in the United States and worldwide. Drug-related deaths and suicide may account for a substantial and growing portion of maternal deaths, yet information on the incidence of and sociodemographic variation in these deaths is scarce. OBJECTIVE:We sought to examine incidence of drug-related and suicide deaths in the 12 months after delivery, including heterogeneity by sociodemographic factors. We also explored maternal decedents' health care utilization prior to death. STUDY DESIGN:This retrospective, population-based cohort study followed up 1,059,713 women who delivered a live-born infant in California hospitals during 2010-2012 to ascertain maternal death. Analyses were conducted using statewide, all-payer, longitudinally-linked hospital and death data. RESULTS:A total of 300 women died during follow-up, a rate of 28.33 deaths per 100,000 person-years. The leading cause of death was obstetric-related problems (6.52 per 100,000 person-years). Drug-related deaths were the second leading cause of death (3.68 per 100,000 person-years), and suicide was the seventh leading cause (1.42 per 100,000 person-years); together these deaths comprised 18% of all maternal deaths. Non-Hispanic white women, Medicaid-insured women, and women residing in micropolitan areas were especially likely to die from drugs/suicide. Two thirds of women who died, including 74% of those who died by drugs/suicide, made ?1 emergency department or hospital visit between their delivery and death. CONCLUSION:Deaths caused by drugs and suicide are a major contributor to mortality in the postpartum period and warrant increased clinical attention, including recognition by physicians and Maternal Mortality Review Committees as a medical cause of death. Importantly, emergency department and inpatient hospital visits may serve as a point of identification of, and eventually prevention for, women at risk for these deaths.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To quantify maternal, fetal and neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries, to identify when deaths occur and to identify relationships between maternal deaths and stillbirths and neonatal deaths. METHODS:A prospective study of pregnancy outcomes was performed in 106 communities at seven sites in Argentina, Guatemala, India, Kenya, Pakistan and Zambia. Pregnant women were enrolled and followed until six weeks postpartum. FINDINGS:Between 2010 and 2012, 214,070 of 220,235 enrolled women (97.2%) completed follow-up. The maternal mortality ratio was 168 per 100,000 live births, ranging from 69 per 100,000 in Argentina to 316 per 100,000 in Pakistan. Overall, 29% (98/336) of maternal deaths occurred around the time of delivery: most were attributed to haemorrhage (86/336), pre-eclampsia or eclampsia (55/336) or sepsis (39/336). Around 70% (4349/6213) of stillbirths were probably intrapartum; 34% (1804/5230) of neonates died on the day of delivery and 14% (755/5230) died the day after. Stillbirths were more common in women who died than in those alive six weeks postpartum (risk ratio, RR: 9.48; 95% confidence interval, CI: 7.97-11.27), as were perinatal deaths (RR: 4.30; 95% CI: 3.26-5.67) and 7-day (RR: 3.94; 95% CI: 2.74-5.65) and 28-day neonatal deaths (RR: 7.36; 95% CI: 5.54-9.77). CONCLUSION:Most maternal, fetal and neonatal deaths occurred at or around delivery and were attributed to preventable causes. Maternal death increased the risk of perinatal and neonatal death. Improving obstetric and neonatal care around the time of birth offers the greatest chance of reducing mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Data on cause-specific mortality, skilled birth attendance, and emergency obstetric care access are essential to plan maternity services. We present the distribution of India's 2001-2003 maternal mortality by cause and uptake of emergency obstetric care, in poorer and richer states. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The Registrar General of India surveyed all deaths occurring in 2001-2003 in 1.1 million nationally representative homes. Field staff interviewed household members about events that preceded the death. Two physicians independently assigned a cause of death. Narratives for all maternal deaths were coded for variables on healthcare uptake. Distribution of number of maternal deaths, cause-specific mortality and uptake of healthcare indicators were compared for poorer and richer states. There were 10,041 all-cause deaths in women age 15-49 years, of which 1096 (11.1%) were maternal deaths. Based on 2004-2006 SRS national MMR estimates of 254 deaths per 100,000 live births, we estimated rural areas of poorer states had the highest MMR (397, 95%CI 385-410) compared to the lowest MMR in urban areas of richer states (115, 95%CI 85-146). We estimated 69,400 maternal deaths in India in 2005. Three-quarters of maternal deaths were clustered in rural areas of poorer states, although these regions have only half the estimated live births in India. Most maternal deaths were attributed to direct obstetric causes (82%). There was no difference in the major causes of maternal deaths between poorer and richer states. Two-thirds of women died seeking some form of healthcare, most seeking care in a critical medical condition. Rural areas of poorer states had proportionately lower access and utilization to healthcare services than the urban areas; however this rural-urban difference was not seen in richer states. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal mortality and poor access to healthcare is disproportionately higher in rural populations of the poorer states of India.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Decreases in direct maternal deaths in Jamaica have been negated by growing indirect deaths. With sickle cell disease (SCD) a consistent underlying cause, we describe the epidemiology of maternal deaths in this population. METHODS: Demographic, service delivery and cause specific mortality rates were compared among women with (n?=?42) and without SCD (n?=?376), and between SCD women who died in 1998-2002 and 2003-7. RESULTS: Women with SCD had fewer viable pregnancies (p: 0.02) despite greater access to high risk antenatal care (p: 0.001), and more often died in an intensive care unit (p: 0.002). In the most recent period (2003-7) SCD women achieved more pregnancies (median 2 vs. 3; p: 0.009), made more antenatal visits (mean 3.3 vs. 7.3; p: 0.01) and were more often admitted antenatally (p:<0.0001). The maternal mortality ratio for SCD decedents was 7-11 times higher than the general population, with 41% of deaths attributable to their disorder. Cause specific mortality was higher for cardiovascular complications, gestational hypertension and haemorrhage. Respiratory failure was the leading immediate cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: Women with SCD experience a significant excess risk of dying in pregnancy and childbirth [MMR: (SCD) 719/100,000, (non SCD) 78/100,000]. MDG5 cannot be realised without improving care for women with SCD. Tertiary services (e.g. ventilator support) are needed at regional centres to improve outcomes in this and other high risk populations. Universal SCD screening in pregnancy in populations of African and Mediterranean descent is needed as are guidelines for managing SCD pregnancies and educating families with SCD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>A core function of local health departments is to conduct health assessments. The analysis of death certificates provides information on diseases, conditions, and injuries that are likely to cause death - an important outcome indicator of population health. The expected years of life lost (YLL) measure is a valid, stand-alone measure for identifying and ranking the underlying causes of premature death. The purpose of this study was to rank the leading causes of premature death among San Francisco residents, and to share detailed methods so that these analyses can be used in other local health jurisdictions.<h4>Methods</h4>Using death registry data and population estimates for San Francisco deaths in 2003-2004, we calculated the number of deaths, YLL, and age-standardized YLL rates (ASYRs). The results were stratified by sex, ethnicity, and underlying cause of death. The YLL values were used to rank the leading causes of premature death for men and women, and by ethnicity.<h4>Results</h4>In the years 2003-2004, 6312 men died (73,627 years of life lost), and 5726 women died (51,194 years of life lost). The ASYR for men was 65% higher compared to the ASYR for women (8971.1 vs. 5438.6 per 100,000 persons per year). The leading causes of premature deaths are those with the largest average YLLs and are largely preventable. Among men, these were HIV/AIDS, suicide, drug overdose, homicide, and alcohol use disorder; and among women, these were lung cancer, breast cancer, hypertensive heart disease, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. A large health disparity exists between African Americans and other ethnic groups: African American age-adjusted overall and cause-specific YLL rates were higher, especially for homicide among men. Except for homicide among Latino men, Latinos and Asians have comparable or lower YLL rates among the leading causes of death compared to whites.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Local death registry data can be used to measure, rank, and monitor the leading causes of premature death, and to measure and monitor ethnic health disparities.
Project description:WHO estimates that about 170,000 deaths by suicide occur in India every year, but few epidemiological studies of suicide have been done in the country. We aimed to quantify suicide mortality in India in 2010.The Registrar General of India implemented a nationally representative mortality survey to determine the cause of deaths occurring between 2001 and 2003 in 1·1 million homes in 6671 small areas chosen randomly from all parts of India. As part of this survey, fieldworkers obtained information about cause of death and risk factors for suicide from close associates or relatives of the deceased individual. Two of 140 trained physicians were randomly allocated (stratified only by their ability to read the local language in which each survey was done) to independently and anonymously assign a cause to each death on the basis of electronic field reports. We then applied the age-specific and sex-specific proportion of suicide deaths in this survey to the 2010 UN estimates of absolute numbers of deaths in India to estimate the number of suicide deaths in India in 2010.About 3% of the surveyed deaths (2684 of 95,335) in individuals aged 15 years or older were due to suicide, corresponding to about 187,000 suicide deaths in India in 2010 at these ages (115,000 men and 72,000 women; age-standardised rates per 100,000 people aged 15 years or older of 26·3 for men and 17·5 for women). For suicide deaths at ages 15 years or older, 40% of suicide deaths in men (45,100 of 114,800) and 56% of suicide deaths in women (40,500 of 72,100) occurred at ages 15-29 years. A 15-year-old individual in India had a cumulative risk of about 1·3% of dying before the age of 80 years by suicide; men had a higher risk (1·7%) than did women (1·0%), with especially high risks in south India (3·5% in men and 1·8% in women). About half of suicide deaths were due to poisoning (mainly ingestions of pesticides).Suicide death rates in India are among the highest in the world. A large proportion of adult suicide deaths occur between the ages of 15 years and 29 years, especially in women. Public health interventions such as restrictions in access to pesticides might prevent many suicide deaths in India.US National Institutes of Health.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> The treatment of depression is a main strategy for suicide prevention in older adults. We aimed to calculate suicide rates by antidepressant prescription patterns in persons aged ? 75 years. A further aim was to estimate the contribution of antidepressants to the change in suicide rates over time. <b>Methods:</b> Swedish residents aged ? 75 years (<i>N</i> = 1,401,349) were followed between 2007 and 2014 in a national register-based retrospective cohort study. Biannual suicide rates were calculated for those with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) single use, mirtazapine single use, single use of other antidepressants and use of ? 2 antidepressants. The contribution of antidepressants to the change in biannual suicide rates was analyzed by decomposition analysis. <b>Results:</b> There were 1,277 suicides. About one third of these were on an antidepressant during their last 3 months of life. In the total cohort, the average biannual suicide rate in non-users of antidepressants was 13 per 100,000 person-years. The corresponding figure in users of antidepressants was 34 per 100,000 person-years. These rates were 25, 42 and 65 per 100,000 person-years in users of SSRI, mirtazapine and ? 2 antidepressants, respectively. In the total cohort, antidepressant users contributed by 26% to the estimated increase of 7 per 100,000 in biannual suicide rates. In men, biannual suicide rates increased by 11 suicides per 100,000 over the study period; antidepressant users contributed by 25% of the change. In women, those on antidepressant therapy accounted for 29% of the estimated increase of 4.4 per 100,000. <b>Conclusion:</b> Only one third of the oldest Swedish population who died by suicide filled an antidepressant prescription in their last 3 months of life. Higher suicide rates were observed in mirtazapine users compared to those on SSRIs. Users of antidepressants accounted for only one quarter of the increase in the suicide rate. The identification and treatment of suicidal older adults remains an area for prevention efforts.
Project description:Every year in Bangladesh, approximately 5200 mothers die (172 maternal deaths/100,000 live births) due to maternal complications. The death rate is much higher in hard-to-reach areas and underprivileged communities, such as Bangladesh's tea gardens. The women living in the tea garden areas are deprived of quality health care services due to inadequate knowledge, education, and access to health care services. Poverty and early marriage, followed by early pregnancy, are also triggering factors of maternal deaths in this community. This study explored the factors associated with maternal deaths in the underprivileged tea garden community in the Moulvibazar district of Bangladesh. It was a cross-sectional study conducted between January and March 2018. All maternal deaths reported by government health care providers in two sub-districts of Moulvibazar during 2017 were selected for community verbal autopsy using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis was performed on quantitative data, and content analysis was performed on qualitative data. A total of 34 maternal deaths were reported in the two sub-districts in 2017, among which 15 deaths (44%) occurred in the tea garden catchment areas, where about 34% people live in the two upazilas. The majority of the mothers who died in the tea gardens delivered their babies at home (80%), many of whom also died at home (40%). Only 27% of women who died in the tea gardens received four or more antenatal care visits. Post-partum hemorrhage was found to be the leading cause of death (47%), followed by anemia (33%) and eclampsia (20%). There is a persistent high maternal mortality observed in the marginalized tea gardens, as compared to the general community of the Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh. The sustainable development goal (SDG) that has been set for maternal mortality rate (MMR) is 70/100,000 live births in Bangladesh. The findings of our study show that focused intervention is needed to reduce the burden of maternal deaths, which will improve the overall maternal health situation and also reach the SDG on time.
Project description:We examine major causes of death amongst persons in contact with drug-treatment services across Scotland during April 1996-March 2006, hereafter Scottish Drug Misuse Database (SDMD) cohort.Drug-treatment records were linked to national registers of deaths and hepatitis C virus (HCV) diagnoses. For eras 1996/97-2000/01 and 2001/02-2005/06, we calculated cause-specific death-rates and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) using age-, sex- and calendar-rates of the general Scottish population. Major causes of death were identified by high SMRs (>5 across eras) or rates (>50 per 100,000 person-years in either era), and their time-specific influences characterised by proportional hazards analyses.The SDMD cohort comprised 69,456 individuals, 350,315 person-years and 2590 deaths. The overall SMR reduced from 6.4 (95% CI: 6.0-6.9) to 4.8 (95% CI: 4.6-5.0) between eras. We identified five major causes of death: drug-related (1383 deaths), homicide (118) and infectious diseases (90) with high SMRs; suicide (269) and digestive system disease (168) with high rates. HCV diagnosis marked individuals with at least double the risk of cause-specific mortality, including adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for no HCV diagnosis of 0.46 (95% CI: 0.41-0.53) for drug-related deaths (DRDs) and 0.15 (95% CI: 0.10-0.22) for death from digestive system disease. Increased DRD risk at older age (>34 years) appeared specific to HCV-diagnosed individuals (interaction: ??²=7.7, p=0.01). Alcohol misuse increased HRs: for DRD (1.76, 95% CI: 1.50-2.06), suicide (1.88, 95% CI: 1.35-2.60), deaths from digestive system disease (3.19, 95% CI: 2.21-4.60) and non-major causes (1.87, 95% CI: 1.49-2.35). Stimulant misuse increased suicide risk: adjusted HR 1.91 (95% CI: 1.43-2.54).Drug-users in Scotland are exposed to variously increased mortality risks. HCV-diagnosed individuals are particularly vulnerable, and may need additional support.
Project description:Importance:A diagnosis of cancer carries a substantial risk of psychological distress. There has not yet been a national population-based study in England of the risk of suicide after cancer diagnosis. Objectives:To quantify suicide risk in patients with cancers in England and identify risk factors that may assist in needs-based psychological assessment. Design, Setting, and Participants:Population-based study using data from the National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service in England linked to death certification data of 4 722 099 individuals (22 million person-years at risk). Patients (aged 18-99 years) with cancer diagnosed from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2015, with follow-up until August 31, 2017, were included. Exposures:Diagnosis of malignant tumors, excluding nonmelanoma skin cancer. Main Outcomes and Measures:All deaths in patients that received a verdict of suicide or an open verdict at the inquest. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs) were calculated. Results:Of the 4 722 099 patients with cancer, 50.3% were men and 49.7% were women. A total of 3 509 392 patients in the cohort (74.3%) were aged 60 years or older when the diagnosis was made. A total of 2491 patients (1719 men and 772 women) with cancer died by suicide, representing 0.08% of all deaths during the follow-up period. The overall SMR for suicide was 1.20 (95% CI, 1.16-1.25) and the AER per 10 000 person-years was 0.19 (95% CI, 0.15-0.23). The risk was highest among patients with mesothelioma, with a 4.51-fold risk corresponding to 4.20 extra deaths per 10 000 person-years. This risk was followed by pancreatic (3.89-fold), esophageal (2.65-fold), lung (2.57-fold), and stomach (2.20-fold) cancer. Suicide risk was highest in the first 6 months following cancer diagnosis (SMR, 2.74; 95% CI, 2.52-2.98). Conclusions and Relevance:Despite low absolute numbers, the elevated risk of suicide in patients with certain cancers is a concern, representing potentially preventable deaths. The increased risk in the first 6 months after diagnosis may indicate an unmet need for psychological support. The findings of this study suggest a need for improved psychological support for all patients with cancer, and attention to modifiable risk factors, such as pain, particularly in specific cancer groups.
Project description:To estimate the incidence of serious suicide attempts (SSAs, defined as suicide attempts resulting in either death or hospitalisation) and to examine factors associated with fatality among these attempters.A surveillance study of incidence and mortality. Linked data from two public health surveillance systems were analysed.Three selected counties in Shandong, China.All residents in the three selected counties.Incidence rate (per 100?000 person-years) and case fatality rate (%).Records of suicide deaths and hospitalisations that occurred among residents in selected counties during 2009-2011 (5?623?323 person-years) were extracted from electronic databases of the Disease Surveillance Points (DSP) system and the Injury Surveillance System (ISS) and were linked by name, sex, residence and time of suicide attempt. A multiple logistic regression model was developed to examine the factors associated with a higher or lower fatality rate.The incidence of SSAs was estimated to be 46 (95% CI 44 to 48) per 100?000 person-years, which was 1.5 times higher in rural versus urban areas, slightly higher among females, and increased with age. Among all SSAs, 51% were hospitalised and survived, 9% were hospitalised but later died and 40% died with no hospitalisation. Most suicide deaths (81%) were not hospitalised and most hospitalised SSAs (85%) survived. The fatality rate was 49% overall, but was significantly higher among attempters living in rural areas, who were male, older, with lower education or with a farming occupation. With regard to the method of suicide, fatality was lowest for non-pesticide poisons (7%) and highest for hanging (97%).The incidence of serious suicide attempts is substantially higher in rural areas than in urban areas of China. The risk of death is influenced by the attempter's sex, age, education level, occupation, method used and season of year.