Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Response to Lactoferrin-based Composite Coatings.
ABSTRACT: The potential of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for implantology and cell-based therapy represents one of the major ongoing research subjects within the last decades. In bone regeneration applications, the various environmental factors including bioactive compounds such as growth factors, chemicals and physical characteristics of biointerfaces are the key factors in controlling and regulating osteogenic differentiation from MSCs. In our study, we have investigated the influence of Lactoferrin (Lf) and Hydroxyapatite (HA) embedded within a biodegradable PEG-PCL copolymer on the osteogenic fate of MSCs, previous studies revealing an anti-inflammatory potential of the coating and osteogenic differentiation of murine pre-osteoblast cells. The copolymer matrix was obtained by the Matrix Assisted Pulsed Laser Evaporation technique (MAPLE) and the composite layers containing the bioactive compounds (Lf, HA, and Lf-HA) were characterised by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy contact angle and surface energy of the analysed coatings were also measured. The characteristics of the composite surfaces were correlated with the viability, proliferation, and morphology of human MSCs (hMSCs) cultured on the developed coatings. All surfaces were found not to exhibit toxicity, as confirmed by the LIVE/DEAD assay. The Lf-HA composite exhibited an increase in osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs, results supported by alkaline phosphatase and mineralisation assays. This is the first report of the capacity of biodegradable composite layers containing Lf to induce osteogenic differentiation from hMSCs, a property revealing its potential for application in bone regeneration.
Project description:The development of a new family of implantable bioinspired materials is a focal point of bone tissue engineering. Implant surfaces that better mimic the natural bone extracellular matrix, a naturally nano-composite tissue, can stimulate stem cell differentiation towards osteogenic lineages in the absence of specific chemical treatments. Herein we describe a bioactive composite nanofibrous scaffold, composed of poly-caprolactone (PCL) and nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) or beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), which was able to support the growth of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and guide their osteogenic differentiation at the same time. Morphological and physical/chemical investigations were carried out by scanning, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, mechanical and wettability analysis. Upon culturing hMSCs on composite nanofibers, we found that the incorporation of either HA or TCP into the PCL nanofibers did not affect cell viability, meanwhile the presence of the mineral phase increases the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an early marker of bone formation, and mRNA expression levels of osteoblast-related genes, such as the Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx-2) and bone sialoprotein (BSP), in total absence of osteogenic supplements. These results suggest that both the nanofibrous structure and the chemical composition of the scaffolds play a role in regulating the osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) seeded on specific carrier materials are a promising source for the repair of traumatic cartilage injuries. The best supportive carrier material has not yet been determined. As natural components of cartilage's extracellular matrix, hyaluronic acid and collagen are the focus of biomaterial research. In order to optimize chondrogenic support, we investigated three different scaffold compositions of a hyaluronic acid (HA)-gelatin based biomaterial.Human MSCs (hMSCs) were seeded under vacuum on composite scaffolds of three different HA-gelatin ratios and cultured in chondrogenic medium for 21 days. Cell-scaffold constructs were assessed at different time points for cell viability, gene expression patterns, production of cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) and for (immuno-)histological appearance. The intrinsic transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) uptake of empty scaffolds was evaluated by determination of the TGF-beta concentrations in the medium over time.No significant differences were found for cell seeding densities and cell viability. hMSCs seeded on scaffolds with higher ratios of HA showed better cartilage-like differentiation in all evaluated parameters. TGF-beta uptake did not differ between empty scaffolds.Higher ratios of HA support the chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs seeded on a HA-gelatin composite scaffold.
Project description:We have created hyaluronic acid (HA)-based, cell-adhesive hydrogels that direct the initial attachment and the subsequent differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into pre-osteoblasts without osteogenic supplements. HA-based hydrogel particles (HGPs) with an average diameter of 5-6 ?m containing an estimated 2.2 wt% gelatin (gHGPs) were synthesized by covalent immobilization of gelatin to HA HGPs prepared via an inverse emulsion polymerization technique. Separately, a photocrosslinkable HA macromer (HAGMA) was synthesized by chemical modification of HA with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA). Doubly crosslinked networks (DXNs) were engineered by embedding gHGPs in a secondary network established by HAGMA at a particle concentration of 2.5 wt%. The resultant composite gels, designated as HA-gHGP, have an average compressive modulus of 21 kPa, and are non-toxic to the cultured MSCs. MSCs readily attached to these gels, exhibiting an early stage of stress fiber assembly 3 h post seeding. By day 7, stellate-shaped cells with extended filopodia were found on HA-gHGP gels. Moreover, cells had migrated deep into the matrix, forming a three dimensional, branched and interconnected cell community. Conversely, MSCs on the control gels lacking gelatin moieties formed isolated spheroids with rounded cell morphology. After 28 days of culture on HA-gHGP, Type I collagen production and mineral deposition were detected in the absence of osteogenic supplements, suggesting induction of osteogenic differentiation. In contrast, cells on the control gels expressed markers for adipogenesis. Overall, the HA-gHGP composite matrix has great promise for directing the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs by providing an adaptable environment through the spatial presentation of cell-adhesive modules.
Project description:Synthetic bone graft substitutes based on composites consisting of a polymer and a calcium-phosphate (CaP) ceramic are developed with the aim to satisfy both mechanical and bioactivity requirements for successful bone regeneration. In the present study, we have employed extrusion to produce a composite consisting of 50 wt.% poly(D,L-lactic acid) (PLA) and 50 wt.% nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA) powder, achieving homogeneous distribution of the ceramic within the polymeric phase. In vitro, in both a simulated physiological saline (SPS) and a simulated body fluid (SBF), a greater weight loss was observed for PLA/HA than for PLA particles upon 12-week immersion. Furthermore, in SPS, a continuous release of calcium and phosphate from the composite was measured, whereas in SBF, decrease of the amount of the two ions in the solution was observed both for PLA and PLA/HA accompanied with the formation of a CaP layer on the surface. In vitro characterization of the composite bioactivity was performed by culturing human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) and assessing proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, with PLA as a control. Both PLA/HA composite and PLA control were shown to support hMSCs proliferation over a period of two weeks. In addition, the composite significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of hMSCs in osteogenic medium as compared with the polymer control. A novel implant design was employed to develop implants from dense, extruded materials, suitable for testing osteoinductivity in vivo. In a preliminary study in dogs, PLA/HA composite implants induced heterotopic bone formation upon 12-week intramuscular implantation in all animals, in contrast to PLA control, which was not osteoinductive. Unlike in vitro, a more pronounced degradation of PLA was observed in vivo as compared with PLA/HA composite.
Project description:Osteoinductive and biodegradable composite biomaterials for bone regeneration were prepared by combining silk fibroin with silica particles. The influence of these composite systems on osteogenesis was evaluated with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) subjected to osteogenic differentiation. hMSCs adhered, proliferated, and differentiated towards osteogenic lineages on silk/silica films. The addition of the silica to the silk films influenced gene expression leading to upregulation of bone sialoprotein (BSP) and collagen type 1 (Col 1) osteogenic markers. Evidence for early bone formation in the form of collagen fibers and apatite nodules was obtained on the silk/silica films. Collagen fibers were closely associated with apatite deposits and overall collagen content was higher for the silica containing samples. Also, smaller sized silica particles (24 nm-2 ?m) with large surface area facilitated silica biodegradation in vitro through particle dissolution, leading to ?5-fold decrease in silica content over 10 weeks. These results indicate the suitability of silk/silica composite system towards bone regeneration, where degradation/remodeling rates of the organic and inorganic components can be controlled.
Project description:Hydroxyapatite (HA), the principal component of bone mineral, shows osteoconductive properties when employed for coating metal implants as well as scaffold materials in synthetic bone grafts. With the goal of providing this material with osteoinductive capabilities to promote faster bone regeneration, we show an easy approach to functionalize HA implant surfaces and enrich them with osteoinductive properties by the use of HA-binding modular peptides. The modular peptides are designed as a combination of two domains, an HA-binding peptide motif and an osteogenic peptide motif derived from the osteogenic growth peptide (OGP) or bone morphometric protein 7 (BMP-7). To identify the best HA-binding peptide, several nature-inspired peptides derived from natural bone extracellular matrix proteins (bone sialoprotein, osteonectin, osteocalcin, and salivarin statherin) were compared for HA-binding activity, revealing concentration-dependent and incubation-time-dependent behaviours. We discovered that a Poly-E heptamer (E7) is the best HA-binding peptide, and thus combined it with a second osteogenic peptidic domain to create an osteoinductive modular peptide. After binding/release characterization, we found that the addition of the second osteogenic peptide domain did not change the binding profile of the modular peptides and caused only a slight change in their release kinetics. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were cultured on the HA substrates functionalized with modular peptides, and cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation in a basal medium (i.e., without any osteogenic supplements) were investigated. Gene expression data clearly showed that MSCs were committed to differentiate into osteoblasts in the presence of the modular peptides. HA discs functionalized with the E7 BMP-7 modular peptide showed the best capability in inducing the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs among all modular peptides studied. The modular peptides can easily be used to functionalize the HA implants through its constituent HA-binding motif, leaving the osteogenic peptide motif protruding from the surface for inducing osteogenesis. Our work opens up a new approach to the formulation of new bioactive HA coatings and implants for bone and dental repair.
Project description:Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC)-derived exosomes have shown regenerative effects, but their role in osteogenesis and the underlying mechanism are yet to be determined. In this study, we examined the time-course secretion of exosomes by hMSCs during the entire process of osteogenic differentiation. Exosomes derived from hMSCs in various stages of osteogenic differentiation committed homotypic cells to differentiate towards osteogenic lineage, but only exosomes from late stages of osteogenic differentiation induced extracellular matrix mineralisation. Exosomes from expansion and early and late stages of osteogenic differentiation were internalised by a subpopulation of hMSCs. MicroRNA profiling revealed a set of differentially expressed exosomal microRNAs from the late stage of osteogenic differentiation, which were osteogenesis related. Target prediction demonstrated that these microRNAs enriched pathways involved in regulation of osteogenic differentiation and general mechanisms how exosomes exert their functions, such as "Wnt signalling pathway" and "endocytosis". Taken together, the results show that MSCs secrete exosomes with different biological properties depending on differentiation stage of their parent cells. The exosomal cargo transferred from MSCs in the late stage of differentiation induces osteogenic differentiation and mineralisation. Moreover, it is suggested that the regulatory effect on osteogenesis by exosomes is at least partly exerted by exosomal microRNA.
Project description:Electrospun polymer/hydroxyapatite (HA) composites combining biodegradability with osteoconductivity are attractive for skeletal tissue engineering applications. However, most biodegradable polymers such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) are hydrophobic and do not blend with adequate interfacial adhesion with HA, compromising the structural homogeneity, mechanical integrity and biological performance of the composite. To overcome this challenge, we combined a hydrophilic polyethylene glycol (PEG) block with poly(d,l-lactic acid) to improve the adhesion of the degradable polymer with HA. The amphiphilic triblock copolymer PLA-PEG-PLA (PELA) improved the stability of HA-PELA suspension at 25wt.% HA content, which was readily electrospun into HA-PELA composite scaffolds with uniform fiber dimensions. HA-PELA was highly extensible (failure strain>200% vs. <40% for HA-PLA), superhydrophilic (?0° water contact angle vs. >100° for HA-PLA), and exhibited an 8-fold storage modulus increase (unlike deterioration for HA-PLA) upon hydration, owing to the favorable interaction between HA and PEG. HA-PELA also better promoted osteochondral lineage commitment of bone marrow stromal cells in unstimulated culture and supported far more potent osteogenic gene expression upon induction than HA-PLA. We demonstrate that the chemical incorporation of PEG is an effective strategy to improve the performance of degradable polymer/HA composites for bone tissue engineering applications.
Project description:Lactoferrin (LF) has demonstrated stimulation of osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) participate in regulating the osteogenic differentiation processes. However, the impact of LF on lncRNA expression in MSC osteogenic differentiation is poorly understood. Our aim was to investigate the effects of LF on lncRNAs expression profiles, during osteogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), by RNA sequencing. A total number of 1331 putative lncRNAs were identified in rBMSCs during osteogenic differentiation in the study. LF influenced the expression of 120 lncRNAs (differentially expressed lncRNAs [DELs], Fold change > 1.5 or < -1.5; p < 0.05) in rBMSCs on day 14 of osteogenic differentiation, consisted of 60 upregulated and 60 down-regulated. Furthermore, the potential functions of DELs were of prediction by searching their target cis- and trans-regulated protein-coding genes. The bioinformatic analysis of DELs target gene revealed that LF led to the disfunction of transforming growth factor beta stimulus (TGF-β) and positive regulation of I-κappa B kinase/NF-κappa B signaling pathway, which may relate to osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs. Our work is the first profiling of lncRNA in osteogenic differentiation of rBMSCs induced by LF, and provides valuable insights into the potential mechanisms for LF promoting osteogenic activity.
Project description:Secreted frizzled-related protein (sFRP)-3 is a negative regulator of Wnt signaling in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The present study investigated the effects sFRP-3 on osteogenic differentiation by assessing osteogenic gene expression in hMSCs in vitro and by examining bone regeneration in a rat bone defect model. sFRP-3 treatment induced osteogenic differentiation in hMSCs as determined by alkaline phosphatase, collagen type I, osteocalcin, and Runt-related transcription factor 2 gene expression. hMSCs with or without sFRP-3 were implanted into a rat calvarial bone defect; a radiographic analysis by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis 4 and 8 weeks after implantation showed greater bone regeneration in the sFRP(+) than in the sFRP(-) group. These results suggest that modulation of Wnt signaling contributes to osteogenic differentiation in hMSCs. Specifically, sFRP-3 induces osteoblastic differentiation of cultured MSCs and bone regeneration in a calvarial bone defect, suggesting that it can be a useful agent for the treatment of bone defects.