Engineering Intravenously Administered Nanoparticles to Reduce Infusion Reaction and Stop Bleeding in a Large Animal Model of Trauma.
ABSTRACT: Bleeding from traumatic injury is the leading cause of death for young people across the world, but interventions are lacking. While many agents have shown promise in small animal models, translating the work to large animal models has been exceptionally difficult in great part because of infusion-associated complement activation to nanomaterials that leads to cardiopulmonary complications. Unfortunately, this reaction is seen in at least 10% of the population. We developed intravenously infusible hemostatic nanoparticles that were effective in stopping bleeding and improving survival in rodent models of trauma. To translate this work, we developed a porcine liver injury model. Infusion of the first generation of hemostatic nanoparticles and controls 5 min after injury led to massive vasodilation and exsanguination even at extremely low doses. In naïve animals, the physiological changes were consistent with a complement-associated infusion reaction. By tailoring the zeta potential, we were able to engineer a second generation of hemostatic nanoparticles and controls that did not exhibit the complement response at low and moderate doses but did at the highest doses. These second-generation nanoparticles led to cessation of bleeding within 10 min of administration even though some signs of vasodilation were still seen. While the complement response is still a challenge, this work is extremely encouraging in that it demonstrates that when the infusion-associated complement response is managed, hemostatic nanoparticles are capable of rapidly stopping bleeding in a large animal model of trauma.
Project description:In response to the lack of therapeutics for internal bleeding following a traumatic event, we synthesized hemostatic dexamethasone nanoparticles (hDNP) to help alleviate internal hemorrhaging. hDNP consist of a block copolymer, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(l-lysine)-poly(ethylene glycol) conjugated to a peptide, glycine-arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine (GRGDS). These particles were evaluated as treatment for primary blast lung injury in a rodent model. Animals were randomly placed into test and control groups, exposed to blast and given immediate injection. Recovery was assessed using physiological parameters and immunohistochemistry. We found that dexamethasone-loaded hemostatic nanoparticles alleviate physiological deprivation caused by blast injury and reduce lung injury damage.
Project description:Targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents in the vascular compartment represents a significant hurdle in using nanomedicine for treating hemorrhage, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis. While several types of nanoparticles have been developed to meet this goal, their utility is limited by poor circulation, limited margination, and minimal targeting. Platelets have an innate ability to marginate to the vascular wall and specifically interact with vascular injury sites. These platelet functions are mediated by their shape, flexibility, and complex surface interactions. Inspired by this, we report the design and evaluation of nanoparticles that exhibit platelet-like functions including vascular injury site-directed margination, site-specific adhesion, and amplification of injury site-specific aggregation. Our nanoparticles mimic four key attributes of platelets, (i) discoidal morphology, (ii) mechanical flexibility, (iii) biophysically and biochemically mediated aggregation, and (iv) heteromultivalent presentation of ligands that mediate adhesion to both von Willebrand Factor and collagen, as well as specific clustering to activated platelets. Platelet-like nanoparticles (PLNs) exhibit enhanced surface-binding compared to spherical and rigid discoidal counterparts and site-selective adhesive and platelet-aggregatory properties under physiological flow conditions in vitro. In vivo studies in a mouse model demonstrated that PLNs accumulate at the wound site and induce ?65% reduction in bleeding time, effectively mimicking and improving the hemostatic functions of natural platelets. We show that both the biochemical and biophysical design parameters of PLNs are essential in mimicking platelets and their hemostatic functions. PLNs offer a nanoscale technology that integrates platelet-mimetic biophysical and biochemical properties for potential applications in injectable synthetic hemostats and vascularly targeted payload delivery.
Project description:Explosions account for 79% of combat-related injuries, leading to multiorgan hemorrhage and uncontrolled bleeding. Uncontrolled bleeding is the leading cause of death in battlefield traumas as well as in civilian life. We need to stop the bleeding quickly to save lives, but, shockingly, there are no treatments to stop internal bleeding. A therapy that halts bleeding in a site-specific manner and is safe, stable at room temperature, and easily administered is critical for the advancement of trauma care. To address this need, we have developed hemostatic nanoparticles that are administered intravenously. When tested in a model of blast trauma with multiorgan hemorrhaging, i.v. administration of the hemostatic nanoparticles led to a significant improvement in survival over the short term (1 h postblast). No complications from this treatment were apparent out to 3 wk. This work demonstrates that these particles have the potential to save lives and fundamentally change trauma care.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatments for major internal bleeding after injury include permissive hypotension to decrease the rate of blood loss, intravenous infusion of plasma or clotting factors to improve clot formation, and rapid surgical hemostasis or arterial embolization to control bleeding vessels. Yet, little is known regarding major internal arterial hemostasis, or how these commonly used treatments might influence hemostasis. OBJECTIVES:(i) To use a swine model of femoral artery bleeding to understand the perivascular hemostatic response to contained arterial hemorrhage. (ii) To directly confirm the association between hemodynamics and bleeding velocity. (iii) To observe the feasibility of delivering an activated clotting factor directly to internal sites of bleeding using a simplified angiographic approach. METHODS:Ultrasound was used to measure bleeding velocity and in vivo clot formation by elastography in a swine model of contained femoral artery bleeding with fluid resuscitation. A swine model of internal pelvic and axillary artery hemorrhage was also used to demonstrate the feasibility of local delivery of an activated clotting factor. RESULTS:In this model, clots formed slowly within the peri-wound hematoma, but eventually contained the bleeding. Central hemodynamics correlated positively with bleeding velocity. Infusion of recombinant human activated factor VII into the injured artery near the site of major internal hemorrhage in the pelvis and axillae was feasible. CONCLUSIONS:We rediscovered that clot formation within the peri-wound hematoma is an integral component of hemostasis and a feasible target for the treatment of major internal bleeding using activated clotting factors delivered using a simplified angiographic approach.
Project description:Desmopressin (dDAVP) is a well-known peptide analog of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin, used to prevent excessive bleeding during surgical procedures. dDAVP increases hemostatic mediators, such as the von Willebrand factor (vWF), recently considered a key element in resistance to metastasis. Studies in mouse models and veterinary trials in dogs with locally-advanced mammary tumors demonstrated that high doses of perioperative dDAVP inhibited lymph node and early blood-borne metastasis and significantly prolonged survival. We conducted a phase II dose-escalation trial in patients with breast cancer, administering a lyophilized formulation of dDAVP by intravenous infusion in saline, 30-60 min before and 24 h after surgical resection. Primary endpoints were safety and tolerability, as well as selection of the best dose for cancer surgery. Secondary endpoints included surgical bleeding, plasma levels of vWF, and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as measured by quantitative PCR of cytokeratin-19 transcripts. Only 2 of a total of 20 patients experienced reversible adverse events, including hyponatremia (grade 4) and hypersensitivity reaction (grade 2). Reactions were adequately managed by slowing the infusion rate. A reduced intraoperative bleeding was noted with increasing doses of dDAVP. Treatment was associated with higher vWF plasma levels and a postoperative drop in CTC counts. At the highest dose level evaluated (2 ?g/kg) dDAVP appeared safe when administered in two slow infusions of 1 ?g/kg, before and after surgery. Clinical trials to establish the effectiveness of adjunctive perioperative dDAVP therapy are warranted. This trial is registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01606072).
Project description:Hemophilia A is a common X chromosome-linked genetic bleeding disorder caused by abnormalities in the coagulation factor VIII gene (F8). Hemophilia A patients suffer from a bleeding diathesis, such as life-threatening bleeding in the brain and harmful bleeding in joints and muscles. Because it could potentially be cured by gene therapy, subhuman animal models have been sought. Current mouse hemophilia A models generated by gene targeting of the F8 have difficulties to extrapolate human disease due to differences in the coagulation and immune systems between mice and humans. Here, we generated a porcine model of hemophilia A by nuclear transfer cloning from F8-targeted fibroblasts. The hemophilia A pigs showed a severe bleeding tendency upon birth, similar to human severe hemophiliacs, but in contrast to hemophilia A mice which rarely bleed under standard breed conditions. Infusion of human factor VIII was effective in stopping bleeding and reducing the bleeding frequency of a hemophilia A piglet but was blocked by the inhibitor against human factor VIII. These data suggest that the hemophilia A pig is a severe hemophilia A animal model for studying not only hemophilia A gene therapy but also the next generation recombinant coagulation factors, such as recombinant factor VIII variants with a slower clearance rate.
Project description:Hemostasis encompasses an ensemble of interactions among platelets, coagulation factors, blood cells, endothelium, and hemodynamic forces, but current assays assess only isolated aspects of this complex process. Accordingly, here we develop a comprehensive in vitro mechanical injury bleeding model comprising an "endothelialized" microfluidic system coupled with a microengineered pneumatic valve that induces a vascular "injury". With perfusion of whole blood, hemostatic plug formation is visualized and "in vitro bleeding time" is measured. We investigate the interaction of different components of hemostasis, gaining insight into several unresolved hematologic issues. Specifically, we visualize and quantitatively demonstrate: the effect of anti-platelet agent on clot contraction and hemostatic plug formation, that von Willebrand factor is essential for hemostasis at high shear, that hemophilia A blood confers unstable hemostatic plug formation and altered fibrin architecture, and the importance of endothelial phosphatidylserine in hemostasis. These results establish the versatility and clinical utility of our microfluidic bleeding model.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Andexanet alfa is a modified recombinant inactive form of human factor Xa developed for reversal of factor Xa inhibitors. METHODS:We evaluated 352 patients who had acute major bleeding within 18 hours after administration of a factor Xa inhibitor. The patients received a bolus of andexanet, followed by a 2-hour infusion. The coprimary outcomes were the percent change in anti-factor Xa activity after andexanet treatment and the percentage of patients with excellent or good hemostatic efficacy at 12 hours after the end of the infusion, with hemostatic efficacy adjudicated on the basis of prespecified criteria. Efficacy was assessed in the subgroup of patients with confirmed major bleeding and baseline anti-factor Xa activity of at least 75 ng per milliliter (or ?0.25 IU per milliliter for those receiving enoxaparin). RESULTS:Patients had a mean age of 77 years, and most had substantial cardiovascular disease. Bleeding was predominantly intracranial (in 227 patients [64%]) or gastrointestinal (in 90 patients [26%]). In patients who had received apixaban, the median anti-factor Xa activity decreased from 149.7 ng per milliliter at baseline to 11.1 ng per milliliter after the andexanet bolus (92% reduction; 95% confidence interval [CI], 91 to 93); in patients who had received rivaroxaban, the median value decreased from 211.8 ng per milliliter to 14.2 ng per milliliter (92% reduction; 95% CI, 88 to 94). Excellent or good hemostasis occurred in 204 of 249 patients (82%) who could be evaluated. Within 30 days, death occurred in 49 patients (14%) and a thrombotic event in 34 (10%). Reduction in anti-factor Xa activity was not predictive of hemostatic efficacy overall but was modestly predictive in patients with intracranial hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with acute major bleeding associated with the use of a factor Xa inhibitor, treatment with andexanet markedly reduced anti-factor Xa activity, and 82% of patients had excellent or good hemostatic efficacy at 12 hours, as adjudicated according to prespecified criteria. (Funded by Portola Pharmaceuticals; ANNEXA-4 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02329327.).
Project description:Traumatic non-compressible hemorrhage is a leading cause of civilian and military mortality and its treatment requires massive transfusion of blood components, especially platelets. However, in austere civilian and battlefield locations, access to platelets is highly challenging due to limited supply and portability, high risk of bacterial contamination and short shelf-life. To resolve this, we have developed an I.V.-administrable 'synthetic platelet' nanoconstruct (SynthoPlate), that can mimic and amplify body's natural hemostatic mechanisms specifically at the bleeding site while maintaining systemic safety. Previously we have reported the detailed biochemical and hemostatic characterization of SynthoPlate in a non-trauma tail-bleeding model in mice. Building on this, here we sought to evaluate the hemostatic ability of SynthoPlate in emergency administration within the 'golden hour' following traumatic hemorrhagic injury in the femoral artery, in a pig model. We first characterized the storage stability and post-sterilization biofunctionality of SynthoPlate in vitro. The nanoconstructs were then I.V.-administered to pigs and their systemic safety and biodistribution were characterized. Subsequently we demonstrated that, following femoral artery injury, bolus administration of SynthoPlate could reduce blood loss, stabilize blood pressure and significantly improve survival. Our results indicate substantial promise of SynthoPlate as a viable platelet surrogate for emergency management of traumatic bleeding.
Project description:Severe sepsis leads to massive activation of coagulation and complement cascades that could contribute to multiple organ failure and death. To investigate the role of the complement and its crosstalk with the hemostatic system in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of sepsis, we have used a potent inhibitor (compstatin) administered early or late after Escherichia coli challenge in a baboon model of sepsis-induced multiple organ failure. Compstatin infusion inhibited sepsis-induced blood and tissue biomarkers of complement activation, reduced leucopenia and thrombocytopenia, and lowered the accumulation of macrophages and platelets in organs. Compstatin decreased the coagulopathic response by down-regulating tissue factor and PAI-1, diminished global blood coagulation markers (fibrinogen, fibrin-degradation products, APTT), and preserved the endothelial anticoagulant properties. Compstatin treatment also improved cardiac function and the biochemical markers of kidney and liver damage. Histologic analysis of vital organs collected from animals euthanized after 24 hours showed decreased microvascular thrombosis, improved vascular barrier function, and less leukocyte infiltration and cell death, all consistent with attenuated organ injury. We conclude that complement-coagulation interplay contributes to the progression of severe sepsis and blocking the harmful effects of complement activation products, especially during the organ failure stage of severe sepsis is a potentially important therapeutic strategy.