Tai Chi for improving balance and reducing falls: A protocol of systematic review and meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:To investigate the effectiveness and safety of Tai Chi for improving balance and reducing falls on people. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The following databases will be searched: China Biology Medicine (CBM), China National Knowledge infrastructure (CNKI), Wan Fang Data, the Chinese Science and Technology Periodical Database (VIP), Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, The Cochrane Library from inception to March 2019. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) utilized Tai Chi to improve balance ability and reduce falls will be included. Primary outcomes are the fall-related indicators, including the number of falls, fall rate, and other fall-related outcomes. Additional outcomes include the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), standing-walk test, single-legged time, or other balance-related outcomes. Study selection, data extraction, and quality assessment will be performed independently by 2 reviewers. Assessment of risk of bias and data synthesis will be performed using Review Manager V5.3 software. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The findings of this systematic review will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publication or conference presentations.Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42019127810.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Falls are a public health issue for the older adult population and more so for people with dementia (PWD). Compared with their cognitively intact peers, PWD are at higher risk of falls and injurious falls. This randomised controlled trial aims to test the clinical and cost effectiveness of Tai Chi to improve postural balance among community-dwelling PWD and to assess the feasibility of conducting a larger definitive trial to reduce the incidence of falls among PWD. METHODS:A 3-centre parallel group randomised controlled trial with embedded process evaluation. One hundred and fifty community-dwelling dyads of a person with dementia and their informal carer will be recruited and assessed at baseline and at six-month follow-up. Dyads will be randomised in a 1:1 ratio to either usual care or usual care plus a Tai Chi intervention for 20 weeks. The Tai Chi intervention will consist of weekly classes (45 min' Tai Chi plus up to 45 min for informal discussion, with up to 10 dyads per class) and home-based exercises (20 min per day to be facilitated by the carer). Home practice of Tai Chi will be supported by the use of behaviour change techniques with the Tai Chi instructor at a home visit in week 3-4 of the intervention (action planning, coping planning, self-monitoring, and alarm clock reminder) and at the end of each class (feedback on home practice). The primary outcome is dynamic balance measured using the Timed Up and Go test, coinciding with the end of the 20-week intervention phase for participants in the Tai Chi arm. Secondary outcomes for PWD include functional balance, static balance, fear of falling, global cognitive functioning, visual-spatial cognitive functioning, quality of life, and falls. Secondary outcomes for carers include dynamic balance, static balance, quality of life, costs, and carer burden. DISCUSSION:This trial is the first in the UK to test the effectiveness of Tai Chi to improve balance among PWD. The trial will inform a future study that will be the first in the world to use Tai Chi in a trial to prevent falls among PWD. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT02864056 .
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Stair ascent and descent require complex integration between sensory and motor systems; individuals with knee osteoarthritis (KOA) have an elevated risk for falls and fall injuries, which may be in part due to poor dynamic postural control during locomotion. Tai chi exercise has been shown to reduce fall risks in the ageing population and is recommended as one of the non-pharmocological therapies for people with KOA. However, neuromuscular mechanisms underlying the benefits of tai chi for persons with KOA are not clearly understood. Postural control deficits in performing a primary motor task may be more pronounced when required to simultaneously attend to a cognitive task. This single-blind, parallel design randomised controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the effects of a 12-week tai chi programme versus balance and postural control training on neuromechanical characteristics during dual-task stair negotiation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Sixty-six participants with KOA will be randomised into either tai chi or balance and postural control training, each at 60?min per session, twice weekly for 12 weeks. Assessed at baseline and 12 weeks (ie, postintervention), the primary outcomes are attention cost and dynamic postural stability during dual-task stair negotiation. Secondary outcomes include balance and proprioception, foot clearances, self-reported symptoms and function. A telephone follow-up to assess symptoms and function will be conducted at 20 weeks. The findings will help determine whether tai chi is beneficial on dynamic stability and in reducing fall risks in older adults with KOA patients in community. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethics approval was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Affiliated Rehabilitation Hospital of Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (#2018KY-006-1). Study findings will be disseminated through presentations at scientific conferences or publications in peer-reviewed journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ChiCTR1800018028.
Project description:PURPOSE:The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility, safety, and preliminary estimates of effectiveness of Tai Chi on functional outcomes in stroke survivors. DESIGN:A mixed-method study with a single-group repeated-measure design and in-depth interviews. METHODS:Fourteen stroke survivors with hemiplegia were recruited to participate in a Tai Chi program, twice weekly for 12 months. Outcomes included physical function, self-efficacy, and activity of daily living measured at 3-month intervals for 12 months. FINDINGS:Ten participants (mean age, 68.5 years) completed all assessments with significantly improved balance (? = 14.08, p = .007), flexibility (? = 11.70, p = .020), and self-efficacy (? = 21.84, p < .001) over 12 months. Qualitative results highlighted the positive impact on physical improvement, psychological well-being, social support, and improved confidence in performing activities of daily living. CONCLUSION:An adapted Tai Chi program was safe, feasible, and well received in community-dwelling stroke survivors. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:The Tai Chi-based rehabilitation program shows promise for improving function and balance outcomes related to fall prevention in stroke survivors.
Project description:Patients with Parkinson's disease have substantially impaired balance, leading to diminished functional ability and an increased risk of falling. Although exercise is routinely encouraged by health care providers, few programs have been proven effective.We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to determine whether a tailored tai chi program could improve postural control in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. We randomly assigned 195 patients with stage 1 to 4 disease on the Hoehn and Yahr staging scale (which ranges from 1 to 5, with higher stages indicating more severe disease) to one of three groups: tai chi, resistance training, or stretching. The patients participated in 60-minute exercise sessions twice weekly for 24 weeks. The primary outcomes were changes from baseline in the limits-of-stability test (maximum excursion and directional control; range, 0 to 100%). Secondary outcomes included measures of gait and strength, scores on functional-reach and timed up-and-go tests, motor scores on the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, and number of falls.The tai chi group performed consistently better than the resistance-training and stretching groups in maximum excursion (between-group difference in the change from baseline, 5.55 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 9.97; and 11.98 percentage points; 95% CI, 7.21 to 16.74, respectively) and in directional control (10.45 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.89 to 17.00; and 11.38 percentage points; 95% CI, 5.50 to 17.27, respectively). The tai chi group also performed better than the stretching group in all secondary outcomes and outperformed the resistance-training group in stride length and functional reach. Tai chi lowered the incidence of falls as compared with stretching but not as compared with resistance training. The effects of tai chi training were maintained at 3 months after the intervention. No serious adverse events were observed.Tai chi training appears to reduce balance impairments in patients with mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease, with additional benefits of improved functional capacity and reduced falls. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00611481.).
Project description:Purpose:To investigate the effect of Tai Chi exercise on postural balance among people with dementia (PWD) and the feasibility of a definitive trial on falls prevention. Patients and methods:Dyads, comprising community-dwelling PWD and their informal carer (N=85), were randomised to usual care (n=43) or usual care plus weekly Tai Chi classes and home practice for 20 weeks (n=42). The primary outcome was the timed up and go test. All outcomes for PWD and their carers were assessed six months post-baseline, except for falls, which were collected prospectively over the six-month follow-up period. Results:For PWD, there was no significant difference at follow-up on the timed up and go test (mean difference [MD] = 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] = -2.17, 3.81). At follow-up, PWD in the Tai Chi group had significantly higher quality of life (MD = 0.051, 95% CI = 0.002, 0.100, standardised effect size [ES] = 0.51) and a significantly lower rate of falls (rate ratio = 0.35, 95% CI =0.15, 0.81), which was no longer significant when an outlier was removed. Carers in the Tai Chi group at follow-up were significantly worse on the timed up and go test (MD = 1.83, 95% CI = 0.12, 3.53, ES = 0.61). The remaining secondary outcomes were not significant. No serious adverse events were related to participation in Tai Chi. Conclusion:With refinement, this Tai Chi intervention has potential to reduce the incidence of falls and improve quality of life among community-dwelling PWD [Trial registration: NCT02864056].
Project description:Women with cancer are significantly more likely to fall than women without cancer placing them at higher risk of fall-related fractures, other injuries and disability. Currently, no evidence-based fall prevention strategies exist that specifically target female cancer survivors. The purpose of the GET FIT (Group Exercise Training for Functional Improvement after Treatment) trial is to compare the efficacy of two distinct types of exercise, tai chi versus strength training, to prevent falls in women who have completed treatment for cancer. The specific aims of this study are to: 1) Determine and compare the efficacy of both tai chi training and strength training to reduce falls in older female cancer survivors, 2) Determine the mechanism(s) by which tai chi and strength training each reduces falls and, 3) Determine whether or not the benefits of each intervention last after structured training stops.We will conduct a three-group, single-blind, parallel design, randomized controlled trial in women, aged 50-75 years old, who have completed chemotherapy for cancer comparing 1) tai chi 2) strength training and 3) a placebo control group of seated stretching exercise. Women will participate in supervised study programs twice per week for six months and will be followed for an additional six months after formal training stops. The primary outcome in this study is falls, which will be prospectively tracked by monthly self-report. Secondary outcomes are maximal leg strength measured by isokinetic dynamometry, postural stability measured by computerized dynamic posturography and physical function measured by the Physical Performance Battery, all measured at baseline, 3, 6 and 12 months. The sample for this trial (N=429, assuming 25% attrition) will provide adequate statistical power to detect at least a 47% reduction in the fall rate over 1 year by being in either of the 2 exercise groups versus the control group.The GET FIT trial will provide important new knowledge about preventing falls using accessible and implementable exercise interventions for women following chemotherapy for cancer. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01635413.
Project description:Importance:Falls in older adults are a serious public health problem associated with irreversible health consequences and responsible for a substantial economic burden on health care systems. However, identifying optimal choices from among evidence-based fall prevention interventions is challenging as few comparative data for effectiveness are available. Objective:To determine the effectiveness of a therapeutically tailored tai ji quan intervention, Tai Ji Quan: Moving for Better Balance (TJQMBB), developed on the classic concept of tai ji (also known as tai chi), and a multimodal exercise (MME) program relative to stretching exercise in reducing falls among older adults at high risk of falling. Design, Setting, and Participants:A single-blind, 3-arm, parallel design, randomized clinical trial (February 20, 2015, to January 30, 2018), in 7 urban and suburban cities in Oregon. From 1147 community-dwelling adults 70 years or older screened for eligibility, 670 who had fallen in the preceding year or had impaired mobility consented and were enrolled. All analyses used intention-to-treat assignment. Interventions:One of 3 exercise interventions: two 60-minute classes weekly for 24 weeks of TJQMBB, entailing modified forms and therapeutic movement exercises; MME, integrating balance, aerobics, strength, and flexibility activities; or stretching exercises. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary measure at 6 months was incidence of falls. Results:Among 670 participants randomized, mean (SD) age was 77.7 (5.6) years, 436 (65%) were women, 617 (92.1%) were white, 31 (4.6%) were African American. During the trial, there were 152 falls (85 individuals) in the TJQMBB group, 218 (112 individuals) in the MME group, and 363 (127 individuals) in the stretching exercise group. At 6 months, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) was significantly lower in the TJQMBB (IRR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.31-0.56; P?<?.001) and MME groups (IRR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.45-0.80; P?=?.001) compared with the stretching group. Falls were reduced by 31% for the TJQMBB group compared with the MME group (IRR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52-0.94; P?=?.01). Conclusions and Relevance:Among community-dwelling older adults at high risk for falls, a therapeutically tailored tai ji quan balance training intervention was more effective than conventional exercise approaches for reducing the incidence of falls. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02287740.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE:In Parkinson's disease (PD), wearing off and side effects of long-term medication and complications pose challenges for neurologists. Although Tai Chi is beneficial for many illnesses, its efficacy for PD remains uncertain. The purpose of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi for PD. METHODS:Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Tai Chi for PD were electronically searched by the end of December 2013 and identified by two independent reviewers. The tool from the Cochrane Handbook 5.1 was used to assess the risk of bias. A standard meta-analysis was performed using RevMan 5.2 software. RESULTS:Ten trials with PD of mild-to-moderate severity were included in the review, and nine trials (n = 409) were included in the meta-analysis. The risk of bias was generally high in the blinding of participants and personnel. Improvements in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (mean difference (MD) -4.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) -6.67--2.01), Berg Balance Scale (MD: 4.25, 95% CI: 2.83-5.66), functional reach test (MD: 3.89, 95% CI: 1.73-6.04), Timed Up and Go test (MD: -0.75, 95% CI: -1.30--0.21), stride length (standardized MD: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.03-1.09), health-related quality of life (standardized MD: -1.10, 95% CI: -1.81--0.39) and reduction of falls were greater after interventions with Tai Chi plus medication. Satisfaction and safety were high. Intervention with Tai Chi alone was more effective for only a few balance and mobility outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Tai Chi performed with medication resulted in promising gains in mobility and balance, and it was safe and popular among PD patients at an early stage of the disease. This provides a new evidence for PD management. More RCTs with larger sample size that carefully address blinding and prudently select outcomes are needed. PROSPERO registration number CRD42013004989.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In elderly poeple, multimorbidity and polypharmacy increase while sensory, motor and cognitive functions decrease. Falls occur in 30% of people aged 65?years and older at least once per year, with injuries at 10-20%. Reducing falls and enhancing physical, emotional and cognitive capacities are essential for healthy aging despite chronic disease. Eurythmy therapy (EYT) and Tai Chi train balance, mobility and concentrative and sensory capacities. METHODS:In eight trial sites (academic or community hospitals), 550 outpatients aged 65?years and older with chronic disease and increased risk of falling (history of imbalance, Berg Balance Scale (BBS) score???49) will be randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive either EYT or Tai Chi (each provided in one-hour group sessions, twice, later once per week plus practice at home, for over 24?weeks) added to standard care or standard care alone. Standard care includes a detailed written recommendation on fall prevention and the visit of a primary care doctor. Seniors living a reclusive life or economically disadvantaged elderly will be particularly addressed. A motivation and communication concept supports the trial participants' compliance with trial procedures and practicing. Public and patient representatives are involved in the planning and conduction of the trial. Falls will be documented daily in a diary by the participants. These falls as well as injuries and complications will be ascertained during monthly phone visits. The falls efficacy scale, BBS, cognition (MoCA), Mood (GDS-15), quality of life (SF12), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), use of medical and non-medical services (FIMA) and adherence will be assessed at months 3, 6, and 12 and inner correspondence with practices (ICPH) at month 6. The trial is funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF 01GL1805). DISCUSSION:This study will determine whether EYT and Tai Chi reduce falls, injurious falls, fear of falling and healthcare utilisation and improve mobility, cognition, mood, quality of life and functional independence. A reduction of fall risk and fear of falling and an improvement of mobility, autonomy, quality of life, mood, and cognition are highly relevant for older people to cope with aging and diseases and to reduce healthcare costs. TRAIL REGISTRATION: www.drks.de. DRKS00016609. Registered 30th July 2019.
Project description:Background:The newly compiled Bafa Wubu of Tai Chi (Eight Methods and Five Footworks) is a fitness routine that has been developed in accordance with the appeal of the General Administration of Sport of China and promoted both in China and abroad. This paper aims to compare the differences in energy consumption and related parameters between the two types of Tai Chi. Methods:A total of 60 healthy participants were recruited; 37 males (aged 37.4?±?10.4?years) and 23 females (aged 31.9?±?12.8?years). The maximal exercise capacity of participants was measured at baseline. Then, they received Tai Chi training for 12-week and their energy metabolism was measured dynamically. Results:A set of the Bafa Wubu of Tai Chi requires approximately 3?min, while a set of 24 form simplified Tai Chi approximately 5?min and 40?s. The average oxygen uptake/kg (VO2/kg, 10.8?±?2.52?ml/kg/min vs. 12.9?±?2.59?ml/kg/min, P?=?0.000), the highest VO2/kg (19.3?±?6.03?ml/kg/min vs. 24.1?±?7.50?ml/kg/min, p?=?0.000, the average metabolic equivalent (METs,2.3?±?0.16 METs vs. 3.2?±?0.14 METs, p?=?0.000), the highest oxygen pulse (VO2/HR, 11.1?±?0.99?ml vs. 13.9?±?0.93?ml, p?=?0.000) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE, 10.7?±?0.70 vs. 1.3?±?0.62, p?=?0.000) gained immediately after Bafa Wubu of Tai Chi exercise were significantly lower than those in 24 form simplified Tai Chi; heart rate recovery (HRR,1.5?±?0.41 vs. 1.3?±?0.45, p?=?0.008) at 1?min after the practice was significantly higher than after the 24 form simplified Tai Chi. Meanwhile, the average heart rate (HR, 104.1?±?11.41?bpm vs. 105.7?±?9.68?bpm, p?=?0.696) and the highest respiratory quotient (RQ, 1.0?±?0.06 vs. 0.9?±?0.09, p?=?0.643) were not significantly different. The intensity of Tai Chi was described as the highest oxygen uptake of the participants when they performed the Tai Chi divided by their individual maximal oxygen uptake. Tai Chi intensity during Bafa Wubu of Tai Chi (50%?±?11.7% vs. 64%?±?12.5%) was significantly lower than during 24 form simplified Tai Chi. Conclusion:The newly compiled Bafa Wubu of Tai Chi is characterized by lower energy consumption than 24 form simplified Tai Chi. Trial registration:Ethics Committee of Sports Science Experiment, Beijing Sport University- 2018010H. Registered 19 June 2018.