Tumor-associated macrophages predict prognosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and correlation with peripheral absolute monocyte count.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is characterized by its clinical and biological heterogeneity. The clinical prognostic implications of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in DLBCL remain controversial and the correlation between TAMs and peripheral absolute monocyte count (AMC) has not yet been elucidated. METHODS:In 221 untreated, newly diagnosed patients with DLBCL, we evaluated the prognostic value of TAMs using immunohistochemical analysis, as well as the association of TAMs and AMC. RESULTS:We found that high CD68 or high CD163 expression was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics, high CD163 expression was an adverse predictor for both overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR)?=?2.265, P?=?0.005] and progression- free survival (PFS) (HR?=?1.925, P?=?0.017) in patients with DLBCL. Patients with high CD68 or high CD163 expression had significantly poorer OS and PFS than those with low CD68 or low CD163 expression, respectively (CD68: OS: P<0.001, PFS: P<0.001; CD163: OS: P<0.001, PFS: P<0.001), even in the rituximab era. Moreover, high-risk patients could be further identified by the expression of CD68 or CD163, especially in those classified as low/intermediate risk by International Prognostic Index (IPI). Furthermore, the significant positive correlation was also detected between CD68 expression or CD163 expression and AMC (r?=?0.256, P<0.001; r?=?0.303, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Patients with high expression of TAMs tend to have poorer OS and PFS, even in the rituximab era, and have positive correlation with AMC. Therefore, the peripheral AMC is a useful prognostic marker reflecting the status of the tumor microenvironment (TME) in DLBCL.
Project description:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are correlated with the prognosis of different types of solid tumors and lymphoma, according to many clinical studies. In vitro experiments have demonstrated the roles of these cells in myeloma cell survival, angiogenesis, immunomodulation, drug resistance, and the interaction between malignant myeloma cells and the microenvironment. Here, we investigated the prognostic significance of TAMs in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We evaluated the polarized functional status of bone marrow infiltrated by TAMs by immunohistochemical staining of CD68, iNOS, and CD163 in 240 patients with MM from January 2009 to December 2014. The overall response rates to chemotherapy were lower in patients with high CD68+ or CD163+ TAM densities than in those with low densities. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the progression-free survival (PFS, p = 0.001) and overall survival (OS, p < 0.001) of patients with low CD163+ TAM density were significantly higher than those of patients with high CD163+ TAM density. Furthermore, combined analysis of iNOS+ and CD163+ TAMs (iNOS/CD163 signature) exhibited greater power in predicting patient outcomes for both PFS (p < 0.001) and OS (p < 0.001). Moreover, Cox regression analysis identified iNOS+ and CD163+ TAMs as independent prognostic factors (p = 0.007, p < 0.001, respectively). These factors could be combined with the international staging system (ISS) to generate a predictive nomogram for patient outcomes. Our findings suggest that the mosaic of diametrically polarized TAMs is a novel independent prognostic factor that could be integrated into the evaluation of and therapy for MM.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Despite the use of modern immunochemotherapy regimens, a significant proportion of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients will relapse. We proposed absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count ratio (ALC/AMC ratio) as a new prognostic factor in relapsed or primary refractory DLBCL. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 163 patients who have been diagnosed with relapsed or primary refractory DLBCL. The overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were measured from the time of first relapse. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to evaluate ALC/AMC ratio as prognostic factors for OS and PFS. RESULTS: On univariate and multivariate analysis performed with factors included in the saaIPI, early relapse, prior exposure to rituximab and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT), the ALC/AMC ratio at the time of first relapse remained an independent predictor of PFS and OS (PFS: P?<?0.001; OS: P?<?0.001). Patients with lower ALC/AMC ratio (<2.0) had lower overall response rate, 1-year PFS and 2-year OS rate compared with those with higher ALC/AMC ratio (?2.0). Moreover, the ALC/AMC ratio can provide additional prognostic information when superimposed on the saaIPI. CONCLUSIONS: Lower ALC/AMC ratio at the time of first relapse is a adverse prognostic factor for OS and PFS in relapsed or primary refractory DLBCL, and leads to the identification of high-risk patients otherwise classified as low/intermediate risk by the saaIPI alone.
Project description:Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) have multifaceted roles in the development of many tumor types. However, the prognostic value of TAMs in bladder cancer is still not conclusive.This review evaluated the prognostic value of TAMs density in bladder cancer by reviewing published literatures and integrating the results via a meta-analysis. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Embase and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang, and Web of Science databases for relevant studies. Overall survival (OS), relapse free survival (RFS), disease specific survival (DSS), and progression free survival (PFS) were assessed in bladder cancer patients.The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) indicated that TAMs identified with CD68 alone have no significant correlation with OS (HR = 1.01, 95% CI = 1.00-1.02), RFS (HR = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.91-1.06), or PFS (HR = 1.19, 95% CI = 0.70-1.68) in bladder cancer patients. Subgroup analyses involved with Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) treatment or sample locations either showed that CD68+ TAMs presented no prognostic value with regard to OS in bladder cancer patients. However, TAMs detected by CD163 are significantly correlated with poor RFS in bladder cancer patients (HR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.16-1.92).Our data indicated that TAMs identified only with CD68 have no significant correlation with the prognosis and clinicopathological parameters of bladder cancer patients. However, TAMs detected with CD163 could serve as a prognostic marker for bladder cancer patients. These findings invite further research on the role of TAM subsets in bladder cancer patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recent studies have reported the prognostic value of tissue-associated magrophages (TAMs) in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). In addition, TAMs are implicated in the tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we examined the prognostic relevance of TAMs in relation to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and angiogenesis in uniformly treated cases of cHL.<h4>Methods</h4>Diagnostic tissue from 116 patients with ABVD-treated cHL was evaluated retrospectively by immunohistochemical analysis for CD68, CD163 and VEGF expression and for CD31 expression as a measure of microvessel density (MVD).<h4>Results</h4>High CD163 expression (? 35% of cellularity) correlated with VEGF expression (Pearson's Chi-square test, P = 0.008) and MVD (Spearman correlation coefficient 0.310, P<0.001). High CD163 expression was associated with inferior event-free survival (EFS, P = 0.005) and overall survival (OS, P<0.001) in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, high CD163 expression was strongly associated with inferior EFS (P = 0.043) and OS (P = 0.008). Patients with high MVD had a lower OS than those with low MVD, but the difference was not significant (P = 0.071, respectively). While high expression of CD68 was also associated with inferior EFS (P = 0.007), it showed no correlation with VEGF or MVD.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data confirms that CD163 expression provides independent prognostic information in cHL. The correlation of CD163 with VEGF expression and MVD suggests the role of CD163-positive cells in tumor angiogenesis of cHL.
Project description:The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR), lymphocyte/monocyte ratio (LMR), and absolute lymphocyte count/absolute monocyte count prognostic score (ALC/AMC PS) have been described as the most useful prognostic tools for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We retrospectively analyzed 148 Taiwanese patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma under rituximab (R)-CHOP-like regimens from January 2001 to December 2010 at the Tri-Service General Hospital and investigated the utility of these inexpensive tools in our patients. In a univariate analysis, the NLR, LMR, and ALC/AMC PS had significant prognostic value in our DLBCL patients (NLR: 5-year progression-free survival [PFS], P = 0.001; 5-year overall survival [OS], P = 0.007. LMR: PFS, P = 0.003; OS, P = 0.05.PFS, P < 0.001; OS, P < 0.001). In a separate multivariate analysis, the ALC/AMC PS appeared to interact less with the other clinical factors but retained statistical significance in the survival analysis (PFS, P = 0.023; OS, P = 0.017). The akaike information criterion (AIC) analysis produced scores of 388.773 in the NLR, 387.625 in the LMR, and 372.574 in the ALC/AMC PS. The results suggested that the ALC/AMC PS appears to be more reliable than the NLR and LMR and may provide additional prognostic information when used in conjunction with the International Prognostic Index.
Project description:Increased tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are reported to be associated with poor prognosis in classic Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). We investigated the prognostic significance of TAMs in the E2496 Intergroup trial, a multicenter phase 3 randomized controlled trial comparing ABVD and Stanford V chemotherapy in locally extensive and advanced stage CHL. Tissue microarrays were constructed from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue and included 287 patients. Patients were randomly assigned into training (n = 143) and validation (n = 144) cohorts. Immunohistochemistry for CD68 and CD163, and in situ hybridization for EBV-encoded RNA were performed. CD68 and CD163 IHC were analyzed by computer image analysis; optimum thresholds for overall survival (OS) were determined in the training cohort and tested in the independent validation cohort. Increased CD68 and CD163 expression was significantly associated with inferior failure-free survival and OS in the validation cohort. Increased CD68 and CD163 expression was associated with increased age, EBV-encoded RNA positivity, and mixed cellularity subtype of CHL. Multivariate analysis in the validation cohort showed increased CD68 or CD163 expression to be significant independent predictors of inferior failure-free survival and OS. We demonstrate the prognostic significance of TAMs in locally extensive and advanced-stage CHL in a multicenter phase 3 randomized controlled clinical trial.
Project description:BACKGROUND: We investigated the prognostic role of tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy (CRT). METHODS: The expression of CD68+, CD163+ and CD11b+ cells was assessed using immunohistochemistry in n=106 pre-treatment tumour biopsy samples and was correlated with clinicopathological characteristics, including T-stage, N-stage, grading, tumour localisation, age and sex as well as local failure-free survival (LFFS), distant metastases-free survival (DMFS), progression-free (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Finally, TAMs expression and vessel density (CD31) were examined in n=12 available early local recurrence samples and compared with their matched primary tumours . The diagnostic images and radiotherapy plans of these 12 patients were also analysed. All local recurrences occurred in the high radiation dose region (?70?Gy). RESULTS: With a median follow-up of 40 months, OS at 2 years was 60.5%. High CD163 expression in primary tumours was associated with decreased OS (P=0.010), PFS (P=0.033), LFFS (P=0.036) and DMFS (P=0.038) in multivariate analysis. CD163 demonstrated a strong prognostic value only in human papillomavirus (p16(INK4))-negative patients. Early local recurrence specimens demonstrated a significantly increased infiltration of CD11b+ myeloid cells (P=0.0097) but decreased CD31-positive vessel density (P=0.0004) compared with their matched primary samples. CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, baseline CD163 expression predicts for an unfavourable clinical outcome in HNSCC after definitive CRT. Early local recurrences showed increased infiltration by CD11b+ cells. These data provide important insight on the role of TAMs in mediating response to CRT in patients with HNSCC.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Microenvironment has a prognostic influence in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL); among its components, tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) play a leading role. TAM can be classified into M1 (anti-tumor) and M2 (pro-tumor). Another prognostic factor could be represented by lymphocyte-to-monocyte and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (LMR and NLR). OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study is to evaluate the prognostic impact of M1 and M2 TAM subtypes, LMR and NLR in DLBCL. METHODS:We analyzed 37 consecutive patients between 2009 and 2013. Out of 37 patients, 28/37 (75.6%) received R-CHOP/CHOP-like regimens, 9/37 (24.4%) less intensive therapies. Immunohistochemistry was performed with antibodies against CD68 and CD163. We divided our cohort into 2 categories according to the Steidl score. TAM who coexpressed CD68 and CD163 were considered as M2. For LMR and NLR we used previously published cut-offs of 2.71 and 2.81. RESULTS:CR rate was 70.3%; we did not record a significant correlation between CD68+ TAM, CD163+ TAM, CD68+/CD163+ TAM, LMR, NLR and CR. We observed a reduced PFS in patients with IPI ? 2 and high M2 TAM expression and a trend between higher expression of CD68+ TAM and improved PFS. CONCLUSION:M2 TAM could have a prognostic role for IPI ? 2 DLBCL patients receiving R-CHOP, which thus warrants further investigation.
Project description:Aims: Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) play a critical role in the initiation and progression of breast cancer. However, their prognostic significance in the molecular subtype of basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and patterns of TAMs in BLBC and their associations with clinicopathological features and patient survival. Methods and Results: We evaluated TAMs in 200 cases of BLBC by immunohistochemistry using the M2 macrophage marker CD163 and the pan-macrophage marker CD68 in tumor nest and stroma, and assessed their prognostic significance. The study demonstrated that infiltration of CD163+ and CD68+ macrophages in tumor stroma was of clinical relevance in BLBC, but not those in tumor nest. Increased stromal infiltration of CD68+ or CD163+ macrophages correlated with larger tumor size, higher histological grade, higher 5-year recurrence and 5-year breast cancer mortality. Although both of CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages in tumor stroma were associated with poor recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS), multivariate analysis demonstrated that only CD163+ macrophage was an independent predictor of RFS and OS. Conclusions: Our results highlight the prognostic importance of TAMs' location in BLBC. CD163, a highly specific biomarker for M2 macrophages, is an independent prognostic marker for BLBC patients, and may serve as an indicator or potential target of macrophage-centred therapeutic strategies.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> The interaction and crosstalk between tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been demonstrated to play a critical role in the progression and metastasis of multiple cancers. However, the roles of the M2-polarized TAMs in different tumor location in EMT and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) have not been elucidated. Therefore, the present study was designed to set up a reliable ratio of CD163<sup>+</sup>/CD68<sup>+</sup> to assess M2-polarized TAMs infiltration in the tumor center (TC) and tumor invasive front (TF) and to further evaluate their prognostic value and biological effects on tumor cells in CRC. <b>Methods:</b> TAMs markers (CD68 and CD163) and EMT markers (E-cadherin and Vimentin) expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 81 patients with CRC. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of peripheral blood from above patients was also isolated. The correlation of CD163<sup>+</sup>/CD68<sup>+</sup> ratio in different locations, EMT and CTCs counts were further analyses. Kaplan-Meier and the model analyses of univariate Cox proportional hazards were utilized to compare the survival of patients with high CD163<sup>+</sup>/CD68<sup>+</sup> ratio with those with low CD163<sup>+</sup>/CD68<sup>+</sup> ratio. Furthermore, the effects of the M2-polarized TAMs on growth, migration and invasion of CRC cells were explored <i>in vivo</i> and <i>in vitro</i> co-culture system. <b>Results</b>: The results showed that the level of CD163<sup>+</sup>/CD68<sup>+</sup> ratio in TF was significant higher than that in TC, and higher CD163<sup>+</sup>/CD68<sup>+</sup> <sub>TF</sub> ratio were closely correlated with enhanced lymphovascular invasion, tumor invasion and TNM stage. Interestingly, higher CD163<sup>+</sup>/CD68<sup>+</sup> <sub>TF</sub> ratio were also significantly associated with EMT program and CTCs counts. Meanwhile, Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that CD163<sup>+</sup>/CD68<sup>+</sup> <sub>TF</sub> was associated with both recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients with CRC. Multivariate Cox regression analyses demonstrated that CD163<sup>+</sup>/CD68<sup>+</sup> <sub>TF</sub> remained an independent prognostic factor for RFS and OS. Further receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis found that CD163<sup>+</sup>/CD68<sup>+</sup> <sub>TF</sub> was a better prognosticator compared with CD68<sup>+</sup> <sub>TF</sub> and CD163<sup>+</sup> <sub>TF</sub> for CRC patients. What's more, M2-polarized TAMs secreted TGF-? to facilitate the EMT, growth, proliferation and invasion of CRC cells by <i>in vivo</i> and <i>in vitro</i> experiments. <b>Conclusions:</b> Our studies preliminarily elucidated the prognostic value of CD163<sup>+</sup>/CD68<sup>+</sup> ratio in different tumor locations and the biological functions of M2-polarized TAMs in CRC progression via TGF-?.