Impact of negative tuberculin skin test on growth among disadvantaged Bangladeshi children.
ABSTRACT: Millions of children are suffering from tuberculosis (TB) worldwide and often end-up with fatal outcome especially in resource-poor settings. Tuberculin skin test (TST) is a conventionally used diagnostic test, less sensitive but highly specific for the diagnosis of clinical TB especially in undernourished children. However, we do not have any data on the role of TST positivity among the children who received nutritional intervention. Our aim was to examine the growth differences between TST-positive and TST-negative undernourished children aged 12 to 18 months who received nutritional intervention prospectively for 90 feeding days. Our further aim was to explore the determinants of TST positivity at enrollment. TB screening as one of the secondary causes of malnutrition was performed on 243 stunted [length for age Z score (LAZ) <-2 standard deviations] or at-risk of stunting (LAZ score between <-1 and -2 standard deviations) children in a community-based intervention study designed to improve their growth parameters. Differences of growth between TST-positives (n = 29) and TST-negatives (n = 214) were compared using paired samples t-test and multivariable linear regression from anthropometric data collected before and after nutritional intervention. Multivariable logistic regression was used to find out possible predictors of TST positivity using baseline sociodemographic data. Of the 243 children screened, 29 (11.9%) were TST-positive and 11 (4.5%) had clinically diagnosed pulmonary TB. Statistically significant improvement of LAZ and weight for age Z-score (WAZ) were observed among the TST-negative participants at the end of intervention period (p = 0.03 for LAZ and p = 0.01 for WAZ). However, we did not find any association between TST status and response to nutritional intervention in our multivariable linear regression models. Our study findings demonstrated a positive impact of nutritional intervention on growth parameters among TST-negative participants.
Project description:Background:Current nutritional intervention strategies have not proven effective in improving childhood ponderal and linear growth in underweight and stunted children. Novel markers are needed to classify children who are likely to respond to available interventions and to identify those requiring additional interventions. Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 (FGF21), an endocrine hormone that regulates metabolism and growth during periods of reduced protein intake, may be useful in this context. Objectives:We aimed to determine the associations between plasma FGF21 concentrations and subsequent growth, and the association between change in FGF21 concentrations and concurrent growth, in children receiving nutritional supplementation. Methods:A total of 120 children between ages 6 and 13 mo with weight-for-age z score (WAZ) between -3 and -2 were enrolled from an urban slum in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Children received 376-kcal feeding supplements daily for 5 mo and were followed for 5 additional mo. FGF21 was measured in plasma collected at enrollment and month 5. FGF21 values that fell above the 90th percentile of baseline concentrations (1056.5 pg/mL) were considered high. Linear regression was used to examine the association between baseline FGF21 status and 5-mo change in WAZ and length-for-age z score (LAZ), and the association between 5-mo change in FGF21 and concurrent WAZ and LAZ change. Results:The median baseline FGF21 concentration was 241.4 pg/mL (IQR: 111.7, 451.3 pg/mL). On average, children with high baseline FGF21 gained 0.58 WAZ (95% CI: 0.28, 0.88) and 0.54 LAZ (95% CI: 0.23, 0.84) more during supplementation than those with low values. Change in FGF21 concentration during supplementation was negatively associated with change in WAZ (-0.48; 95% CI: -0.67, -0.29) and LAZ (-0.31; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.11). Conclusions:FGF21 may be a useful marker of growth faltering and may allow identification of children who are more or less likely to respond to nutritional supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02441426.
Project description:We aimed to describe the co-occurrence of known risk factors for undernutrition and the prevalence of modifiable risks in wasted, stunted and healthy children. Quota sampling was used to recruit healthy [weight for age Z scores (WAZ) > -2 SD] and undernourished [weight for length (WLZ) or WAZ scores ≤ -2 SD] children aged 6-24 months from seven clinics in low-income areas of Nairobi. Structured interviews were used to identify exposure to socioeconomic, water and hygiene, infant feeding, dietary and behavioural risks (low interest in food, high food refusal and force feeding). We recruited 92 wasted WLZ ≤ -2 SD, 133 stunted (length for age Z scores LAZ ≤ -2 SD) and 172 healthy (LAZ and WLZ > 2SD) children. Nearly all children were exposed to hygiene risks (90%) and low dietary diversity (95%) regardless of nutritional status. Stunted children were more likely to be exposed to socio-economic risks (54% healthy, 64% wasted and 72% stunted; P = 0.001). Compared with healthy children, wasted and stunted children were more likely to be exposed to infant feeding (25% healthy, 40% wasted and 41% stunted; P = 0.02) and behaviour risks (24% healthy, 49% wasted, and 44% stunted; P = 0.004). Overall, wasted and stunted children were twice as likely to be exposed to more than three risks (23% healthy, 48% wasted, and 50% stunted; P = <0.001). They were also more likely to be exposed to more than three modifiable risks (dietary, handwashing and behaviour risks). Wasting and stunting are associated with exposure to multiple risk factors, many of which are potentially modifiable using targeted advice.
Project description:To assess associations between in-utero triple antiretrovirals (cART) versus zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy exposure and growth among HIV-uninfected children of HIV-infected women in Botswana.Secondary retrospective data analysis from two randomized intervention trials of mother-to-child HIV transmission prevention.The Mashi and Mma Bana studies enrolled HIV-infected pregnant women, following their children through 24 months of age. This analysis includes singleton, full-term, HIV-exposed uninfected children. Mothers received cART or ZDV at least 2 weeks predelivery, and breastfed up to 6 months. Weight-for-age (WAZ), length-for-age (LAZ) and weight