Identification of HLA-A*02:06:01 as the primary disease susceptibility HLA allele in cold medicine-related Stevens-Johnson syndrome with severe ocular complications by high-resolution NGS-based HLA typing.
ABSTRACT: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are life-threatening acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reactions of the skin and mucous membranes. These severe cutaneous drug reactions are known to be caused by inciting drugs and infectious agents. Previously, we have reported the association of HLA-A*02:06 and HLA-B*44:03 with cold medicine (CM)-related SJS/TEN with severe ocular complications (SOCs) in the Japanese population. However, the conventional HLA typing method (PCR-SSOP) sometimes has ambiguity in the final HLA allele determination. In this study, we performed HLA-disease association studies in CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs at 3- or 4-field level. 120 CM-SJS/TEN patients with SOCs and 817 Japanese healthy controls are HLA genotyped using the high-resolution next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based HLA typing of HLA class I genes, including HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C. Among the alleles of HLA class I genes, HLA-A*02:06:01 was strongly associated with susceptibility to CM-SJS/TEN (p?=?1.15?×?10-18, odds ratio?=?5.46). Four other alleles (HLA-A*24:02:01, HLA-B*52:01:01, HLA-B*46:01:01, and HLA-C*12:02:02) also demonstrated significant associations. HLA haplotype analyses indicated that HLA-A*02:06:01 is primarily associated with susceptibility to CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs. Notably, there were no specific disease-causing rare variants among the high-risk HLA alleles. This study highlights the importance of higher resolution HLA typing in the study of disease susceptibility, which may help to elucidate the pathogenesis of CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs.
Project description:Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is an acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reaction of the skin and mucosa, such as the ocular surface, oral cavity, and genitals. In patients with extensive skin detachment and a poor prognosis, the condition is called toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Severe ocular complications (SOCs) appear in some-but not all-SJS/TEN patients who are diagnosed by dermatologists, and cold medicines including multi-ingredient cold medications and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the main causative drugs particularly for SJS/TEN with SOCs and all SJS and TEN. In this review, we focus on the genetic predisposition of cold medicine-related SJS/TEN (CM-SJS/TEN) with SOCs. CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs was strongly associated with HLA-A*02:06 and significantly associated with HLA-B*44:03 in Japanese individuals, significantly associated with HLA-B*44:03 in Indian and Brazilian individuals, and associated with HLA-A*02:06 in Korean individuals. In the first genome-wide association study (GWAS), we found an association between the prostaglandin E receptor 3 (PTGER3) gene and SJS/TEN with SOCs. In this study, we focused on CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs and found that the association of CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs became stronger than all SJS/TEN with SOCs. In the second GWAS, we found an association between the IKZF1 gene and CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs not only in Japanese, but also in Korean and Indian populations. Moreover, we found that TSHZ2 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) also showed especially low p values in the Japanese population; however, this association was not found in the Korean population. Furthermore, we investigated the interaction between susceptibility genes, and found multiplicative interactions of HLA-A*02:06 and TLR3 SNPs and additive interactions of HLA-A*02:06 and PTGER3 SNPs.
Project description:Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and its severe variant, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), are acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reactions of the skin and mucous membranes. Cold medicines including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and multi-ingredient cold medications are reported to be important inciting drugs. Recently, we reported that cold medicine related SJS/TEN (CM-SJS/TEN) with severe mucosal involvement including severe ocular surface complications (SOC) is associated with HLA-A*02:06 and HLA-B*44:03 in the Japanese. In this study, to determine whether HLA-B*44:03 is a common risk factor for CM-SJS/TEN with SOC in different ethnic groups we used samples from Indian, Brazilian, and Korean patients with CM-SJS/TEN with SOC, and investigated the association between CM-SJS/TEN with SOC and HLA-B*44:03 and/or HLA-A*02:06. We found that HLA-B*44:03 was significantly associated with CM-SJS/TEN with SOC in the Indian and Brazilian but not the Korean population, and that HLA-A*02:06 might be weakly associated in the Korean- but not the Indian and Brazilian population.
Project description:We previously reported that PTGER3 (prostaglandin E receptor 3 (subtype EP3)) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS)/toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) with severe ocular complications (SOC). We also documented that approximately 80% of our SJS/TEN patients had taken cold medicines within several days before disease onset, and we thus designated them cold medicine-related SJS/TEN (CM-SJS/TEN) patients. Moreover, we reported that HLA-A*02:06 with TLR3 polymorphisms exerted more than additive effects in SJS/TEN with SOC. In this study, we focused on CM-SJS/TEN with SOC and analyzed the association with PTGER3 SNPs and an interactive effect between PTGER3 SNPs and HLA-A*02:06 in not only the Japanese but also the Korean population. In the Japanese population, PTGER3 SNP rs1327464 was most significantly associated with CM-SJS/TEN with SOC (G versus A; odds ratio (OR)=0.232, P=7.92×10(-10)), and we found an interaction with additive effects between HLA-A*02:06 and the high-risk genotypes PTGER3 rs1327464 GA or AA (OR=10.8, P=2.56×10(-7)). We also found a significant association between Korean CM-SJS/TEN with SOC and PTGER3 SNP rs1327464 (GG versus GA+AA, OR=0.246, P=0.00101), and we detected an additive effect between HLA-A*02:06 and the high-risk genotypes PTGER3 rs1327464 GA or AA (OR=14.2, P=5.58×10(-6)).
Project description:Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are acute-onset mucocutaneous diseases induced by infectious agents and/or inciting drugs. We have reported that the main causative drugs for SJS/TEN with severe ocular complications (SOC) were cold medicines, including multi-ingredient cold medications and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Moreover, we also reported that acetaminophen is the most frequent causative drug in various cold medicines. In this study, we focused on acetaminophen-related SJS/TEN with SOC and analyzed HLA-class II (HLA-DRB1, DQB1) in addition to HLA-class I (HLA-A, B, C). We studied the histocompatibility antigen genes HLA-DRB1 and DQB1 in addition to HLA-A, B, and C in 80 Japanese patients with acetaminophen-related SJS/TEN with SOC. We performed polymerase chain reaction amplification followed by hybridization with sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (PCR-SSO) using commercial bead-based typing kits. We also used genotyped data from 113 healthy volunteers for HLA-DRB1 and DQB1, and 639 healthy volunteers for HLA-A, B, and C. HLA-DRB1*08:03 and DRB1*12:02 were associated with acetaminophen-related SJS/TEN with SOC, although the results ceased to be significant when we corrected the p-value for the number of alleles detected. HLA-A*02:06 was strongly associated with acetaminophen-related SJS/TEN with SOC (carrier frequency: p = 4.7 × 10-12, Pc = 6.6 × 10-11, OR = 6.0; gene frequency: p = 8.0 × 10-13, Pc = 1.1 × 10-11, OR = 4.9). HLA-B*13:01 (carrier frequency: p = 2.0 × 10-3, Pc = 0.042, OR = 4.1; gene frequency: p = 2.2 × 10-3, Pc = 0.047, OR = 3.9), HLA-B*44:03 (carrier frequency: p = 2.1 × 10-3, Pc = 0.045, OR = 2.4) and HLA-C*14:03 (carrier frequency: p = 3.4 × 10-3, Pc = 0.045, OR = 2.3) were also significantly associated, while HLA-A*24:02 was inversely associated (gene frequency: p = 6.3 × 10-4, Pc = 8.8 × 10-3, OR = 0.5). Acetaminophen-related SJS/TEN with SOC was not associated with HLA-class II (HLA-DRB1, DQB1). However, for acetaminophen-related SJS/TEN with SOC, we found an association with HLA-B*13:01 and HLA- C*14:03 in addition to HLA-A*02:06 and HLA-B*44:03, which have been described previously.
Project description:Describing the association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles could facilitate the understanding of increased risk factors for development of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) in patients with severe ocular complications (SOCs).To investigate the association between HLA class I genes and cold medicine (CM)-associated SJS/TEN with SOCs.This case-control study was conducted between February 8, 2013, and August 29, 2014. Thirty-nine Brazilian patients with CM-SJS/TEN of 74 patients with SJS/TEN with SOCs and 133 healthy Brazilian volunteers were enrolled. Human leukocyte antigen class I genes (HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C) were examined to determine whether there was a genetic predisposition for CM-SJS/TEN with SOC. Patients were interviewed to identify possible etiologic factors. Data analysis was performed from April 14, 2013, to August 29, 2014.Genetic predisposition for CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs by analysis of HLA class I genes.Of 74 patients included in the analysis, 32 (43%) were male; mean (SD) age was 36.01 [15.42] years. HLA-A*66:01 (odds ratio [OR], 24.0; 95% CI, 2.79-206.0; P?<?.001), HLA-B*44:03 (OR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.11-6.65; P?=?.04), and HLA-C*12:03 (OR, 5.6; 95% CI, 1.67-18.80; P?=?.006) were associated with Brazilian CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs, and HLA-A*11:01 (OR, 0.074; 95% CI, 0.004-1.26; P?=?.008), HLA-B*08:01 (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.02-1.15; P?=?.048), and HLA-B*51:01 (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.05-1.03; P?=?.045) were inversely associated with Brazilian CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs (39 cases: 19 Pardo and 16 European ancestry; 14 males and 25 females; age, 35.2 [14.4] years; and 133 controls: 66 Pardo and 61 European ancestry; 55 males and 78 females; age, 41.2 [12.9] years). When multiple test correction within the HLA locus, HLA-A*66:01 and HLA-C*12:03 demonstrated associations. When participants were segregated into Pardo and locus is considered, HLA-A*66:01 was associated with CM-SJS/TEN with SOC among individuals of both ethnic groups (Pardo: OR, 12.2; 95% CI, 1.19-125.0; P?=?.03; and European: OR, 21.2; 95% CI, 0.97-465.0; P?=?.04). An association was observed only in the European cohort for HLA-B*44:03 (OR, 5.50; 95% CI, 1.47-20.50; P?=?.01) and HLA-C*12:03 (OR, 8.79; 95% CI, 1.83-42.20; P?=?.008).This study suggests that HLA-A*66:01 might be a marker for CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs in Brazilian individuals of Pardo and European ancestry and that HLA-B*44:03 and HLA-C*12:03 might be markers only in those of European ancestry. Moreover, HLA-A*11:01 might be a marker of resistance to CM-SJS/TEN with SOCs.
Project description:Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and its severe variant, toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), are acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reactions of the skin and mucous membranes. Cold medicines including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and multi-ingredient cold medications are reported to be important inciting drugs. We used two sample sets of Japanese patients to investigate the association between HLA genotypes and cold medicine-related SJS/TEN (CM-SJS/TEN), including acetaminophen-related SJS/TEN (AR-SJS/TEN) with severe mucosal involvement such as severe ocular surface complications (SOC). HLA-A*02:06 was strongly associated with CM-SJS/TEN with SOC and AR-SJS/TEN with SOC. HLA-B*44:03 was also detected as an independent risk allele for CM-, including AR-SJS/TEN with SOC. Analyses using data obtained from CM-SJS/TEN patients without SOC and patients with CM-unrelated SJS/TEN with SOC suggested that these two susceptibility alleles are involved in the development of only CM-SJS/TEN with SOC patients.
Project description:Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS) is part of a spectrum of adverse drug reactions resulting in the destruction of skin, mucous membranes, and the ocular surface. A similar, more severe form of the disorder included in this spectrum is toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Approximately 35% of patients suffer chronic sequelae such as vascularization, corneal scarring, conjunctival inversion to the cornea, keratinization, symblepharon, scarring of the palpebral conjunctiva, trichiasis, and severe dry eye. We focused on 80 Indian patients with SJS/TEN with severe ocular complications (SOC) and investigated the association of alleles at HLA -A, HLA-B and HLA-C loci; the controls were 50 healthy Indian volunteers. Genotyping at HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C loci showed a significant positive association with HLA-A*33:03, HLA-B*44:03, and HLA-C*07:01 alleles, and a significant negative association with HLA-B*57:01 and HLA-C*06:02. This indicates that HLA-A*33:03, HLA-B*44:03 and HLA-C*07:01 are risk alleles, and HLA-B*57:01 and HLA-C*06:02 are protective alleles in this population. We also found that the haplotypes consisting of HLA-B*44:03 and HLA-C*07:01 were strongly associated with SJS/TEN with SOC in our Indian population (p?=?1.1?×?10-7, odds ratio?=?11.0). Describing the association of the haplotype could facilitate the understanding of increased risk factors for developing SJS/TEN with SOC.
Project description:Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are severe drug hypersensitivities with high mortality. Typical over-the-counter drugs of cold medicines are suggested to be causative. As multiple ingredients are generally contained in cold medicines, it is of particular interest to investigate which ingredients are responsible for SJS/TEN. However, experimental examination of causal relationships between SJS/TEN and a particular drug molecule is not straightforward. Significant association between HLA-A*02:06 and SJS/TEN with severe ocular surface complications has been observed in the Japanese. In the present study, we have undertaken in silico docking simulations between various ingredients contained in cold medicines available in Japan and the HLA-A*02:06 molecule. We use the composite risk index (CRI) that is the absolute value of the binding affinity multiplied by the daily dose to assess the potential risk of the adverse reactions. The drugs which have been recognized as causative drugs of SJS/TEN in Japan have revealed relatively high CRI, and the association between SJS/TEN and HLA-A*02:06 has been qualitatively verified. The results have also shown that some drugs whose links to SJS/TEN have not been clinically recognized in Japan show the high CRI and suggested that attention should be paid to their adverse drug reactions.
Project description:The incidence of narcolepsy type 1 (NT1) increased in Sweden following the 2009-2010 mass-vaccination with the influenza Pandemrix-vaccine. NT1 has been associated with Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQB1*06:02 but full high-resolution HLA-typing of all loci in vaccine-induced NT1 remains to be done. Therefore, here we performed HLA typing by sequencing HLA-DRB3, DRB4, DRB5, DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, DPA1 and DPB1 in 31 vaccine-associated NT1 patients and 66 of their first-degree relatives (FDR), and compared these data to 636 Swedish general population controls (GP). Previously reported disease-related alleles in the HLA-DRB5*01:01:01-DRB1*15:01:01-DQA1*01:02:01-DQB1*06:02:01 extended haplotype were increased in NT1 patients (34/62 haplotypes, 54.8%) compared to GP (194/1272 haplotypes, 15.3%, p = 6.17E-16). Indeed, this extended haplotype was found in 30/31 patients (96.8%) and 178/636 GP (28.0%). In total, 15 alleles, four extended haplotypes, and six genotypes were found to be increased or decreased in frequency among NT1 patients compared to GP. Among subjects with the HLA-DRB5*01:01:01-DRB1*15:01:01-DQA1*01:02-DQB1*06:02 haplotype, a second DRB4*01:03:01-DRB1*04:01:01-DQA1*03:02//*03:03:01-DQB1*03:01:01 haplotype (p = 2.02E-2), but not homozygosity for DRB1*15:01:01-DQB1*06:02:01 (p = 7.49E-1) conferred association to NT1. Alleles with increased frequency in DQA1*01:02:01 (p = 1.07E-2) and DQA1*03:02//*03:03:01 (p = 3.26E-2), as well as with decreased frequency in DRB3*01:01:02 (p = 8.09E-3), DRB1*03:01:01 (p = 1.40E-2), and DQB1*02:01:01 (p = 1.40E-2) were found among patients compared to their FDR. High-resolution HLA sequencing in Pandemrix-associated NT1 confirmed the strong association with the DQB1*06:02:01-containing haplotype but also revealed an increased association to the not previously reported extended HLA-DRB4*01:03:01-DRB1*04:01:01-DQA1*03:02//*03:03:01-DQB1*03:01:01 haplotype. High-resolution HLA typing should prove useful in dissecting the immunological mechanisms of vaccination-associated NT1.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an independent risk factor for liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, polymorphisms in HLA-DQB1 play an important role in HBV infections. METHODS:This study examined the relationships between HLA-DQB1 alleles and HBV infection susceptibility among 256 HBV carriers and 433 healthy controls. Venous blood samples were subjected to DQB1 high-resolution typing and testing for interferon-gamma, interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-10, and DQB1 mRNA expression. A meta-analysis was also performed using relevant case-control studies that evaluated the associations of HLA-DQB1 alleles with HBV infection and clearance. RESULTS:We found that HLA-DQB1*06:03 protected against HBV infection. Levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 were significantly elevated in HBV cases with HLA-DQB1*06:05 (vs. HLA-DQB1*05:03), and the HBV group had higher DQB1 mRNA expression than the healthy control group with HLA-DQB1*05:03 and HLA-DQB1*06:02. The meta-analysis revealed that HLA-DQB1*04:01, HLA-DQB1*05:02, HLA-DQB1*05:03, and HLA-DQB1*06:01 were risk factors for HBV infection susceptibility, while HLA-DQB1*05:01, HLA-DQB1*06:03, and HLA-DQB1*06:04 protected against HBV infection. Spontaneous HBV clearance was associated withHLA-DQB1*06:04, while chronic HBV infection was associated with HLA-DQB1*02:01 and HLA-DQB1*05:02. CONCLUSION:DBQ1 typing can be used to identify patients who have elevated risks of HBV infection (i.e., patients with HLA-DQB1*04:01, HLA-DQB1*05:02, HLA-DQB1*05:03, and HLA-DQB1*06:01) or elevated risks of chronic HBV infection (i.e., patients with HLA-DQB1*02:01 and HLA-DQB1*05:02).