Broad Substrate-Specific Phosphorylation Events Are Associated With the Initial Stage of Plant Cell Wall Recognition in Neurospora crassa.
ABSTRACT: Fungal plant cell wall degradation processes are governed by complex regulatory mechanisms, allowing the organisms to adapt their metabolic program with high specificity to the available substrates. While the uptake of representative plant cell wall mono- and disaccharides is known to induce specific transcriptional and translational responses, the processes related to early signal reception and transduction remain largely unknown. A fast and reversible way of signal transmission are post-translational protein modifications, such as phosphorylations, which could initiate rapid adaptations of the fungal metabolism to a new condition. To elucidate how changes in the initial substrate recognition phase of Neurospora crassa affect the global phosphorylation pattern, phospho-proteomics was performed after a short (2 min) induction period with several plant cell wall-related mono- and disaccharides. The MS/MS-based peptide analysis revealed large-scale substrate-specific protein phosphorylation and de-phosphorylations. Using the proteins identified by MS/MS, a protein-protein-interaction (PPI) network was constructed. The variance in phosphorylation of a large number of kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors indicate the participation of many known signaling pathways, including circadian responses, two-component regulatory systems, MAP kinases as well as the cAMP-dependent and heterotrimeric G-protein pathways. Adenylate cyclase, a key component of the cAMP pathway, was identified as a potential hub for carbon source-specific differential protein interactions. In addition, four phosphorylated F-Box proteins were identified, two of which, Fbx-19 and Fbx-22, were found to be involved in carbon catabolite repression responses. Overall, these results provide unprecedented and detailed insights into a so far less well known stage of the fungal response to environmental cues and allow to better elucidate the molecular mechanisms of sensory perception and signal transduction during plant cell wall degradation.
Project description:The emergence of multigene families has been hypothesized as a major contributor to the evolution of complex traits and speciation. To help understand how such multigene families arose and diverged during plant evolution, we examined the phylogenetic relationships of F-Box (FBX) genes, one of the largest and most polymorphic superfamilies known in the plant kingdom. FBX proteins comprise the target recognition subunit of SCF-type ubiquitin-protein ligases, where they individually recruit specific substrates for ubiquitylation. Through the extensive analysis of 10,811 FBX loci from 18 plant species, ranging from the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to numerous monocots and eudicots, we discovered strikingly diverse evolutionary histories. The number of FBX loci varies widely and appears independent of the growth habit and life cycle of land plants, with a little as 198 predicted for Carica papaya to as many as 1350 predicted for Arabidopsis lyrata. This number differs substantially even among closely related species, with evidence for extensive gains/losses. Despite this extraordinary inter-species variation, one subset of FBX genes was conserved among most species examined. Together with evidence of strong purifying selection and expression, the ligases synthesized from these conserved loci likely direct essential ubiquitylation events. Another subset was much more lineage specific, showed more relaxed purifying selection, and was enriched in loci with little or no evidence of expression, suggesting that they either control more limited, species-specific processes or arose from genomic drift and thus may provide reservoirs for evolutionary innovation. Numerous FBX loci were also predicted to be pseudogenes with their numbers tightly correlated with the total number of FBX genes in each species. Taken together, it appears that the FBX superfamily has independently undergone substantial birth/death in many plant lineages, with its size and rapid evolution potentially reflecting a central role for ubiquitylation in driving plant fitness.
Project description:Candida albicans is an important human fungal pathogen in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. C. albicans regulation has been studied in many contexts, including morphological transitions, mating competence, biofilm formation, stress resistance, and cell wall synthesis. Analysis of kinase- and phosphatase-deficient mutants has made it clear that protein phosphorylation plays an important role in the regulation of these pathways. In this study, to further our understanding of phosphorylation in C. albicans regulation, we performed a deep analysis of the phosphoproteome in C. albicans. We identified 19,590 unique peptides that corresponded to 15,906 unique phosphosites on 2,896 proteins. The ratios of serine, threonine, and tyrosine phosphosites were 80.01%, 18.11%, and 1.81%, respectively. The majority of proteins (2,111) contained at least two detected phosphorylation sites. Consistent with findings in other fungi, cytoskeletal proteins were among the most highly phosphorylated proteins, and there were differences in Gene Ontology (GO) terms for proteins with serine and threonine versus tyrosine phosphorylation sites. This large-scale analysis identified phosphosites in protein components of Mediator, an important transcriptional coregulatory protein complex. A targeted analysis of the phosphosites in Mediator complex proteins confirmed the large-scale studies, and further in vitro assays identified a subset of these phosphorylations that were catalyzed by Cdk8 (Ssn3), a kinase within the Mediator complex. These data represent the deepest single analysis of a fungal phosphoproteome and lay the groundwork for future analyses of the C. albicans phosphoproteome and specific phosphoproteins.
Project description:Comparisons within expanding sequence databases have revealed a dynamic interplay among genomic and epigenomic forces in driving plant evolution. Such forces are especially obvious within the F-Box (FBX) superfamily, one of the largest and most polymorphic gene families in land plants, where its frequent lineage-specific expansions and contractions provide an excellent model to assess how genetic variation impacted gene function before and after speciation. Previous phylogenetic comparisons based on orthology, diversity, and expression patterns identified three plant FBX groups--Common, Lineage-Specific, and Pseudo(genized)--whose emergences are consistent with genomic drift evolution. Here, we examined this variance within Arabidopsis thaliana by evaluating SNPs for all 877 FBX loci from 432 naturally occurring accessions and their relationships to variations in natural selection, expression, and DNA/histone methylation. In line with their phenotypic importance, Common FBX loci have low polymorphism but high deleterious mutation rates indicative of stringent functional constraints. In contrast, the Lineage-Specific and Pseudo groups are enriched in genes with basal expression and higher SNP density and more correlated with methylation marks (RNA-directed DNA methylation and histone H3K27 trimethylation) that promote transcriptional silencing. Taken together, we propose that reversible epigenomic modifications helped shape FBX gene evolution by transcriptionally suppressing the adverse effects of gene dosage imbalance and harmful FBX alleles that arise during genomic drift, while simultaneously allowing innovations to emerge through epigenomic reprogramming.
Project description:COP9 signalosome (CSN) and Den1/A deneddylases physically interact and promote multicellular development in fungi. CSN recognizes Skp1/cullin-1/Fbx E3 cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) without substrate and removes their posttranslational Nedd8 modification from the cullin scaffold. This results in CRL complex disassembly and allows Skp1 adaptor/Fbx receptor exchange for altered substrate specificity. We characterized the novel ubiquitin-specific protease UspA of the mold Aspergillus nidulans, which corresponds to CSN-associated human Usp15 and interacts with six CSN subunits. UspA reduces amounts of ubiquitinated proteins during fungal development, and the uspA gene expression is repressed by an intact CSN. UspA is localized in proximity to nuclei and recruits proteins related to nuclear transport and transcriptional processing, suggesting functions in nuclear entry control. UspA accelerates the formation of asexual conidiospores, sexual development, and supports the repression of secondary metabolite clusters as the derivative of benzaldehyde (dba) genes. UspA reduces protein levels of the fungal NF-kappa B-like velvet domain protein VeA, which coordinates differentiation and secondary metabolism. VeA stability depends on the Fbx23 receptor, which is required for light controlled development. Our data suggest that the interplay between CSN deneddylase, UspA deubiquitinase, and SCF-Fbx23 ensures accurate levels of VeA to support fungal development and an appropriate secondary metabolism.
Project description:Chitin, a major component of the fungal cell wall, triggers plant innate immunity in Arabidopsis via a receptor complex including two major lysin motif receptor-like kinases, AtLYK5, and AtCERK1. Although AtLYK5 has been proposed to be a major chitin-binding receptor, the pseudokinase domain of AtLYK5 is required to mediate chitin-triggered immune responses in plants. In this study, 48 AtLYK5-interacting proteins were identified using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry assay. Among them, Arabidopsis CALCIUM-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASE 5 (AtCPK5) is a protein kinase interacting with both AtLYK5 and AtCERK1. Chitin-induced immune responses are inhibited in both Arabidopsis atcpk5 and atcpk5/6 mutant plants. AtLYK5 and AtLYK4 but not AtCERK1 are phosphorylated by AtCPK5 and AtCPK6 in vitro. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis and in vitro kinase assay identified that Ser-323 and Ser-542 of AtLYK5 are important phosphorylation residues by AtCPK5. Transgenic Arabidopsis expressing either AtLYK5-S323A or AtLYK5-S542A in the atlyk5-2 mutant only partially rescue the defects in chitin-triggered MPK3/MPK6 phosphorylation. Overexpression of AtCPK5 could increase AtCERK1 protein level after chitin treatment. These data proposed a model in which AtCPK5 directly phosphorylates AtLYK5 and regulates chitin-induced defense responses in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Protein phosphorylation and membrane proteins play an important role in the infection of plants by phytopathogenic fungi, given their involvement in signal transduction cascades. Botrytis cinerea is a well-studied necrotrophic fungus taken as a model organism in fungal plant pathology, given its broad host range and adverse economic impact. To elucidate relevant events during infection, several proteomics analyses have been performed in B. cinerea, but they cover only 10% of the total proteins predicted in the genome database of this fungus. To increase coverage, we analysed by LC-MS/MS the first-reported overlapped proteome in phytopathogenic fungi, the "phosphomembranome" of B. cinerea, combining the two most important signal transduction subproteomes. Of the 1112 membrane-associated phosphoproteins identified, 64 and 243 were classified as exclusively identified or overexpressed under glucose and deproteinized tomato cell wall conditions, respectively. Seven proteins were found under both conditions, but these presented a specific phosphorylation pattern, so they were considered as exclusively identified or overexpressed proteins. From bioinformatics analysis, those differences in the membrane-associated phosphoproteins composition were associated with various processes, including pyruvate metabolism, unfolded protein response, oxidative stress response, autophagy and cell death. Our results suggest these proteins play a significant role in the B. cinerea pathogenic cycle.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Rhizopus oryzae is a zygomycete filamentous fungus, well-known as a saprobe ubiquitous in soil and as a pathogenic/spoilage fungus, causing Rhizopus rot and mucomycoses.<h4>Results</h4>Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZy) annotation of the R. oryzae identified, in contrast to other filamentous fungi, a low number of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and a high number of glycosyl transferases (GTs) and carbohydrate esterases (CEs). A detailed analysis of CAZy families, supported by growth data, demonstrates highly specialized plant and fungal cell wall degrading abilities distinct from ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. The specific genomic and growth features for degradation of easily digestible plant cell wall mono- and polysaccharides (starch, galactomannan, unbranched pectin, hexose sugars), chitin, chitosan, ?-1,3-glucan and fungal cell wall fractions suggest specific adaptations of R. oryzae to its environment.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CAZy analyses of the genome of the zygomycete fungus R. oryzae and comparison to ascomycetes and basidiomycete species revealed how evolution has shaped its genetic content with respect to carbohydrate degradation, after divergence from the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.
Project description:F-box proteins determine substrate specificity of the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Previous work has demonstrated that the F-box protein Fbp1, a component of the SCF(Fbp1) E3 ligase complex, is essential for invasive growth and virulence of the fungal plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. Here, we show that, in addition to invasive growth, Fbp1 also contributes to vegetative hyphal fusion and fungal adhesion to tomato roots. All of these functions have been shown previously to require the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) Fmk1. We found that Fbp1 is required for full phosphorylation of Fmk1, indicating that Fbp1 regulates virulence and invasive growth via the Fmk1 pathway. Moreover, the Δfbp1 mutant is hypersensitive to sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS) and calcofluor white (CFW) and shows reduced phosphorylation levels of the cell wall integrity MAPK Mpk1 after SDS treatment. Collectively, these results suggest that Fbp1 contributes to both the invasive growth and cell wall integrity MAPK pathways of F. oxysporum.
Project description:F-Box (FBX) proteins are encoded by a multigene family present in major lineages of eukaryotes. A number of FBX proteins are shown to be subunits of SCF complex, a type of E3 ligases composed of SKP1, CULLIN, FBX and RBX1 proteins. The Arabidopsis SKP-LIKE (ASK) proteins are also members of a family and some of them interact with FBX proteins directly. To clarify how FBX and ASK proteins combine, we carried out a large-scale interaction analysis between FBX and ASK proteins using yeast two-hybrid assay (Y2H) in Arabidopsis thaliana. FBX proteins randomly chosen from those proteins that interacted with more than one ASK protein were further analyzed for their subcellular localization and in vivo interaction with ASK proteins. Furthermore, the expression profiles of FBX and ASK genes were compared. This work reveals that FBX proteins had a preference for interacting with ASK proteins depending on the domains they contain such as the FBX-associated (FBA) domain, the Kelch domain and leucine rich repeat (LRR). In addition, it was found that a single FBX protein could form multiple SCF complexes by interacting with several ASK proteins in many cases. Furthermore, it was suggested that the variation of SCF complexes were especially abundant in tissues related to male gametophyte and seed development. More than half of the FBX proteins studied did not interact with any of the ASK proteins, implying the necessity for certain regulations for their interaction in vivo and/or distinct roles from subunits of the SCF complex.
Project description:The functional impact of multisite protein phosphorylation can depend on both the numbers and the positions of phosphorylated sites-the global pattern of phosphorylation or 'phospho-form'-giving biological systems profound capabilities for dynamic information processing. A central problem in quantitative systems biology, therefore, is to measure the 'phospho-form distribution': the relative amount of each of the 2(n) phospho-forms of a protein with n-phosphorylation sites. We compared four potential methods-western blots with phospho-specific antibodies, peptide-based liquid chromatography (LC) and mass spectrometry (MS; pepMS), protein-based LC/MS (proMS) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR)-on differentially phosphorylated samples of the well-studied mitogen-activated protein kinase Erk2, with two phosphorylation sites. The MS methods were quantitatively consistent with each other and with NMR to within 10%, but western blots, while highly sensitive, showed significant discrepancies with MS. NMR also uncovered two additional phosphorylations, for which a combination of pepMS and proMS yielded an estimate of the 16-member phospho-form distribution. This combined MS strategy provides an optimal mixture of accuracy and coverage for quantifying distributions, but positional isomers remain a challenging problem.