Endoscopic Management of Tympanic Membrane Retraction Pockets: A Two Handed Technique with Endoscope Holder.
ABSTRACT: The tympanic membrane retraction pocket is a pathological invagination of tympanic membrane into the middle ear space. The most common sites for formation of retraction pocket are pars flaccida and postero-superior parts. Decision about the procedure and the timing of the treatment of retraction pockets is debatable and depends on the functional and anatomic condition of the ear. To evaluate the results of the technique of two handed endoscopic management of retraction pockets with sliced tragal cartilage. Prospective Non Randomized Clinical Study. The study included 41 ears operated with the technique of two handed endoscopic cartilage tympanoplasty for retraction pockets with endoscope holders from November 2013 to May 2016 with a follow up period ranging from 22 to 53 months. Cases of cholesteatoma and tympanic membrane perforation were excluded from the study. Pre and postoperative symptoms and air-bone gaps were recorded. The average preoperative air-bone gap in the study group was 24.53?±?4.326 dB. 28 ears were of pars tensa retractions (stage II-4, stage III-15, and stage IV-9) and 13 were pars flaccida retractions (stage III-8 and stage IV-5). 24 ears had ossicular erosion. The follow up revealed that, the results of two handed endoscopic sliced cartilage tympanoplasty for retraction pockets were stable and there was no recurrence of the retraction and the post-operative air-bone-gap closure was achieved to 13.62?±?4.78, 14.13?±?5.91 dB, 14.32?±?3.46 and 14.57?±?3.88 dB at 6 months, 1?year, 2?years, 3?years respectively. Though, indications for surgery are based mostly on anatomic status and observation of behaviour of retraction pocket over time, we recommend early management of retraction pockets by the technique of endoscopic sliced tragal cartilage tympanoplasty with tragal cartilage of 0.5 mm thickness using endoscope holder. Level of Evidence: Level 4.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Inlay butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty makes the graft easy, and reduces operating time. The present study aimed to investigate the outcomes of microscopic versus endoscopic inlay butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:In this retrospective study, the outcomes of 63 patients who underwent inlay butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty with small to medium chronic tympanic membrane perforation were evaluated. Twenty-four patients underwent conventional microscopic tympanoplasty and 39 underwent endoscopic tympanoplasty. The outcomes were analyzed in terms of the hearing gain and graft success rate. RESULTS:The surgical success rate was 95.8% in the patients who underwent conventional microscopic tympanoplasty and 92.3% in those who underwent endoscopic tympanoplasty. In both groups of patients, the postoperative air-bone gap (ABG) was significantly lower than the preoperative ABG. There were no significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative ABG values in either group. CONCLUSIONS:Endoscopic inlay tympanoplasty using the butterfly cartilage technique appears to be an effective alternative to microscopic tympanoplasty and results in excellent hearing.
Project description:<h4>Unlabelled</h4>The well established techniques in tympanoplasty are routinely performed with operating microscopes for many decades now. Endoscopic ear surgeries provide minimally invasive approach to the middle ear and evolving new science in the field of otology. The disadvantage of endoscopic ear surgeries is that it is one-handed surgical technique as the non-dominant left hand of the surgeon is utilized for holding and manipulating the endoscope. This necessitated the need for development of the endoscope holder which would allow both hands of surgeon to be free for surgical manipulation and also allow alternate use of microscope during tympanoplasty. To report the preliminary utility of our designed and developed endoscope holder attachment gripping to microscope for two handed technique of endoscopic tympanoplasty. Prospective Non Randomized Clinical Study. Our endoscope holder attachment for microscope was designed and developed to aid in endoscopic ear surgery and to overcome the disadvantage of single handed endoscopic surgery. It was tested for endoscopic Tympanoplasty. The design of the endoscope holder attachment is described in detail along with its manipulation and manoeuvreing. A total of 78 endoholder assisted type 1 endoscopic cartilage tympanoplasties were operated to evaluate its feasibility for the two handed technique and to evaluate the results of endoscopic type 1 cartilage tympanoplasty. In early follow up period ranging from 6 to 20 months, the graft uptake was seen in 76 ears with one residual perforation and 1 recurrent perforations giving a success rate of 97.435 %. Our endocsope holder attachment for gripping microscope is a good option for two handed technique in endoscopic type 1 cartilage tympanoplasty. The study reports the successful application and use of our endoscope holder attachment for gripping microscope in two handed technique of endoscopic type 1 cartilage tympanoplasty and comparable results with microscopic techniques.<h4>Level of evidence</h4>IV.
Project description:To evaluate the success rate, in terms of anatomical and functional results, in our technique of cartilage support for fascia graft in type I tympanoplasty. Retrospective study of tragal cartilage support for fascia graft in tympanoplasty for large central perforation in 748 patients was carried at an academic institution during January 2004 to March 2012. Patients' age ranged from 11 to 65 years. 325 (43.4 %) male and 423 (56.6 %) female patients were operated and mean post-operative follow up was of 24 months (range 6-48 months). The inclusion criteria were large central or subtotal perforation, anterior quadrant perforation, anterior tympanosclerotic patch with perforation and revision myringoplasty. Small central perforation, posterior perforations, traumatic perforations and Ossiculplasty were excluded from this study. In this technique, a piece of tragal cartilage carved in semi lunar shape is inserted medial to anterior remnant of tympanic membrane. Temporalis fascia graft is sandwiched between cartilage and anterior remnant of tympanic membrane. Post-operative closure of perforation was noted. Pure-tone average pre and post-operative air-bone gap in dB at 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4,000 Hz were compared. The overall success rate of our technique was 98.3 % in terms of graft uptake and within 13.35 ± 5.22 dB of air bone gap closure in terms of hearing improvement. This study reveals that cartilage support for fascia graft in type I tympanoplasty is a highly reliable technique and gives significant improvement in graft take-up and hearing status.
Project description:To evaluate the surgical outcome of two handed technique of endoscopic ear surgery with endoscope holder. Retrospective Non Randomized Clinical Study. A total of 547 endoscope holder (Justtach) assisted ear surgeries (331 cartilage tympanoplasties and 216 cholesteatoma surgeries) were operated with Justtach from July 2013 to April 2016 with a follow up period ranging from 12 to 45 months to evaluate its feasibility and results with the technique. The design of the endoscope holder, Justtach is described along with its functioning and maneuvering techniques. In the endoscopic tympanoplasty group, at 1 year follow up, the graft uptake was seen in 323 ears with three residual perforation and 5 recurrent perforations giving a success rate of 97.58%. At the 2 years follow up, the graft uptake was in 322 ears with 6 recurrent perforations and 3 residual perforations with a success rate of 97.28%. Whereas in case of endoscopic cholesteatoma surgery, there was residual cholesteatoma in 5 and recurrent in 6 out of 216 cases. The study reports the successful application and use of endoscope holder in two handed technique of endoscopic ear surgery. Level of Evidence Level 4.
Project description:Objective:Transcanal endoscopic type 1 tympanoplasty is a minimally invasive procedure that enables better visualization of deep and narrow spaces compared to conventional microscopic methods. In our study, we aimed to evaluate air-bone gap difference, graft success, and hearing gain according to the perforation size and location in pediatric patients who underwent transcanal endoscopic type 1 cartilage tympanoplasty. Methods:Fifty pediatric patients who underwent transcanal endoscopic type 1 cartilage tympanoplasty for chronic otitis media were included in the study. Tragal cartilage grafts were used in all patients. Air conduction pure tone audiometry hearing results (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz), mean air-bone gap levels, operating times, postoperative gap closure, and graft success rates were evaluated. Results:Mean operating time was 43.34±8.56 minutes. Overall graft success was 94% (47/50). Mean hearing levels at all frequencies (500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz) were found to have significantly improved after the operation (p<0.001). Mean preoperative air conduction pure tone threshold and mean air-bone gap had statistically significantly improved by the 6th postoperative month (p<0.001). Conclusion:Transcanal endoscopic type 1 cartilage tympanoplasty was found to be a minimally traumatic, easy and safe method with a low complication rate. In pediatric patients, this method allows for high rates of anatomic and functional recovery with optimal surgery time regardless of the location and the size of the perforation.
Project description:The external auditory canal is less susceptible to infections than the sensitive middle-ear cavity. Since recent research has provided insight to the production of potent antimicrobial peptides from various surface epithelia, we wanted to investigate whether protection of the external auditory canal in part could be explained by the production of human beta-defensin-1 (HBD-1). This particular peptide is known to be constitutively expressed in various surface epithelia, such as airway, skin, and urogenital tissues. By reverse transcriptase PCR we demonstrate HBD-1 mRNA in the pars tensa and pars flaccida of the tympanic membrane and in the meatal skin. In situ hybridization studies localized the HBD-1 mRNA to the epidermal layer of these tissues. The HBD-1 transcripts were also evident in the sebaceous glands and in hair follicles of the meatal skin. In contrast, HBD-1 mRNA was not detected in the tympanal epithelium of the eardrum. The widespread presence of mRNA encoding for this broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptide in the meatal skin and tympanic membrane suggests that HBD-1 participates in the innate antimicrobial defense of the external auditory canal and middle-ear cavity.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Inlay butterfly cartilage tympanoplasty (IBCT) is a simple grafting technique. Endoscopy facilitates visualization by eliminating blind spots. We analyzed the outcomes of IBCT using both endoscopic and microscopic approaches, and assessed how trainees perceived the educational opportunities afforded. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Sixty patients who underwent IBCT were allocated to Group I (n = 30; microscopic IBCT) and Group II (n = 30; endoscopic IBCT) by the dates of their visits. Anatomical success was defined as an intact, repaired tympanic membrane; functional success was defined as a significant decrease in the air-bone gap. Postoperative discomfort was analyzed using a visual analog scale (VAS). Thirteen trainees completed structured questionnaires exploring anatomical identification and the surgical steps. RESULTS:The surgical success rates were 96.7% in Group I and 100% in Group II. We found no between-group differences in the mean decrease in the air-bone gap or the extent of postoperative discomfort. Significant postoperative hearing improvements were evident in both groups. The mean operative time was shorter when the microscopic approach was chosen (17.7±4.53 vs. 26.13±9.94 min). The two approaches significantly differed in terms of the identification of external and middle ear anatomical features by the trainees, and their understanding of the surgical steps. CONCLUSION:Both endoscopic and microscopic IBCT were associated with good success rates. The endoscopic approach facilitates visualization, and a better understanding of the middle ear anatomy and the required surgical steps and thus is of greater educational utility.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To endoscopically evaluate the patency of the isthmus tympanicum and integrity of the tensor tympani fold as routes of ventilation of the attic and mastoid in chronic otitis media (COM) and to assess their effects on mastoid pneumatization. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Sixty patients with COM were categorized into two groups: (1) Group A: 36 patients with tympanic membrane perforation (2) Group B: 24 patients with limited attic disease of whom 14 patients had attic retraction pockets and 10 with limited attic cholesteatoma. A multislice computed tomography scan of the temporal bone was performed for each patient to assess the degree of mastoid pneumatization. Notably, either myringoplasty or tympanomastoid surgery was performed in all patients. An endoscope was inserted into the middle ear for evaluation of the isthmus tympanicum and tensor fold area. RESULTS:The isthmus tympanicum was patent in most ears (83.3%) of group A, whereas it was blocked in most ears (83.3%) of group B. The tensor fold was complete in 77.8% of ears in group A and 83.3% of ears in group B. It was observed that 94.1% of ears with patent isthmus in both groups had normal mastoid pneumatization and 5.9% of ears had poorly pneumatized mastoid. By contrast, 7.7% of ears with blocked isthmus tympanicum had normal mastoid pneumatization and 92.3% had poor mastoid pneumatization. Normal mastoid pneumatization was observed in 50% of ears in both groups with complete tensor fold, and 83.3% of ears with an incomplete tensor fold. CONCLUSION:A significant correlation was observed between COM with limited attic disease and obstruction of the isthmus tympanicum. Obstruction of isthmus tympanicum was associated with poor mastoid pneumatization. Furthermore, an incomplete tensor fold was associated with well pneumatized mastoid.
Project description:To investigate the feasibility of repairing osteochondral defects of critical size by performing mosaicplasty using multiple sliced costal cartilage grafts, which enables repair of extensively injured knees using grafts from a single rib.Critical osteochondral defects were prepared on the femoral groove of skeletally mature Japanese white rabbits. Costal cartilage grafts from a single rib were harvested and sliced into multiple segments (approximately 3-5 mm in length). The defects were left untreated or repaired by performing mosaicplasty using costal cartilage grafts (with or without a longitudinal cut along the middle). At 4 and 12 weeks after transplantation, International Cartilage Repair Society macroscopic and histological grading was performed.The macroscopic score and visual histological score were significantly higher in the repaired groups than in the untreated group at 4 and 12 weeks after surgery. Histological continuous integration between grafted costal cartilage and host bone was observed in both repaired groups.The findings suggest that costal cartilage might be a useful alternative source for chondral grafting. We were able to repair large osteochondral defects by performing mosaicplasty using multiple sliced costal cartilage grafts from a single rib.
Project description:Sensory losses or reductions are frequently attributed to relaxed selection. However, anuran species have lost tympanic middle ears many times, despite anurans' use of acoustic communication and the benefit of middle ears for hearing airborne sound. Here we determine whether pre-existing alternative sensory pathways enable anurans lacking tympanic middle ears (termed earless anurans) to hear airborne sound as well as eared species or to better sense vibrations in the environment. We used auditory brainstem recordings to compare hearing and vibrational sensitivity among 10 species (six eared, four earless) within the Neotropical true toad family (Bufonidae). We found that species lacking middle ears are less sensitive to high-frequency sounds, however, low-frequency hearing and vibrational sensitivity are equivalent between eared and earless species. Furthermore, extratympanic hearing sensitivity varies among earless species, highlighting potential species differences in extratympanic hearing mechanisms. We argue that ancestral bufonids may have sufficient extratympanic hearing and vibrational sensitivity such that earless lineages tolerated the loss of high frequency hearing sensitivity by adopting species-specific behavioural strategies to detect conspecifics, predators and prey.