B(C6F5)3-catalyzed dehydrogenative cyclization of N-tosylhydrazones and anilines via a Lewis adduct: a combined experimental and computational investigation.
ABSTRACT: Tris(pentafluorophenyl)borane-catalyzed dehydrogenative-cyclization of N-tosylhydrazones with aromatic amines has been disclosed. This metal-free catalytic protocol is compatible with a range of functional groups to provide both symmetrical and unsymmetrical 3,4,5-triaryl-1,2,4-triazoles. Mechanistic experiments and density functional theory (DFT) studies suggest an initial Lewis adduct formation of N-tosylhydrazone with B(C6F5)3 followed by sequential intermolecular amination of the borane adduct with aniline, intramolecular cyclization and frustrated Lewis pair (FLP)-catalyzed dehydrogenation for the generation of substituted 1,2,4-triazoles.
Project description:Some N-tosylhydrazone derivatives were effectively synthesized under solvent-free conditions by using a grinding method at room temperature. The short reaction time, clean and mild process with simple workup and easy purification of the target compounds were salient features of the present protocol, which enables straightforward access to N-tosylhydrazones. Among the tosylhydrazone derivatives evaluated, compound 3?l exhibits excellent apoptosis-promoting and anticancer potential against triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. This research shows that our synthesized compound 3?l may be a desirable and effective therapeutic drug against TNBC.
Project description:<i>N</i>-Tosylhydrazones have proven to be versatile synthons over the past several decades. However, to our knowledge, the construction of isoxazolines based on <i>N</i>-tosylhydrazones has not been examined. Herein, we report the first demonstrations of [2 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition reactions that allow the facile synthesis of isoxazolines, employing <i>N</i>-tosylhydrazones, <i>tert</i>-butyl nitrite (TBN) and alkenes as reactants. This process represents a new type of cycloaddition reaction with a distinct mechanism that does not involve the participation of nitrile oxides. This approach is both general and practical and exhibits a wide substrate scope, nearly universal functional group compatibility, tolerance of moisture and air, the potential for functionalization of complex bioactive molecules and is readily scaled up. Both control experiments and theoretical calculations indicate that this transformation proceeds <i>via</i> the <i>in situ</i> generation of a nitronate from the coupling of <i>N</i>-tosylhydrazone and TBN, followed by cycloaddition with an alkene and subsequent elimination of a <i>tert</i>-butyloxy group to give the desired isoxazoline.
Project description:This work reveals the contrasting reactivity of amine/E(C6F5)3 (E = B, Al) Lewis pairs toward linear and cyclic acrylic monomers, methyl methacrylate (MMA) and biorenewable ?-methyl-?-methylene-?-butyrolactone (?MMBL). While mixing of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine (TMP) and B(C6F5)3 leads to a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP), Et3N reacts with B(C6F5)3 to form disproportionation products, ammonium hydridoborate ionic pair and iminium zwitterion. On the other hand, the stoichiometric reaction of either TMP or Et3N with Al(C6F5)3 leads to clean formation of a classic Lewis adduct (CLA). Neither TMP nor Et3N, when paired with E(C6F5)3, polymerizes MMA, but the Et3N/2B(C6F5)3 pair promotes transfer hydrogenation of MMA to form methyl isobutyrate. In contrast, the amine/E(C6F5)3 pairs promote rapid polymerization of ?MMBL carrying the more reactive exocyclic methylene moiety, achieving full conversion in less than 3 min even at a low catalyst loading of 0.0625 mol %. TMP is more effective than Et3N for the polymerization when paired with either the borane or the alane, while the alane exhibits higher polymerization activity than the borane when paired with Et3N. Overall, the TMP/Al(C6F5)3 system exhibits the highest polymerization activity, achieving a maximum turn-over frequency of 96,000 h-1 at 0.125 mol % of catalyst loading, producing high molecular weight P?MMBL with Mn = 1.29 × 105 g?mol-1.
Project description:The trimethylene-linked bis-allene 3a reacts with Piers' borane [HB(C6F5)2] by a hydroboration/allylboration sequence to generate the cyclization product 5a. Its pyridine adduct was isolated and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Compound 5a undergoes a typical frustrated Lewis pair 1,2-P/B alkene addition reaction with PPh3 to give the heterobicyclic bridged olefinic zwitterionic product 9a. The tetramethylene-linked bis-allene 3b and its phenylene annulated analogue 3c react with HB(C6F5)2 to give the analogous seven-membered ring products 5b,c under mild conditions. The cyclization product 5a undergoes a series of sequential allylboration reactions with two equivalents of allene followed by ring-closure to give the four-component coupling product 12a. It undergoes FLP addition to an exo-methylene group upon treatment with PPh3. Compound 12a is oxidatively converted to the boron-free alcohol. The borane induced cyclization of the bis-allene followed by reaction with two molar equivalents of allene gives the functionalized decalin product.
Project description:1,2,4-Triazoles and 1,3,4-oxadiazoles are prevalent moieties in pharmaceutical agents, yet fused [1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles are surprisingly under-represented for both synthesis and biological application. We report a rapid, two-step synthesis of [1,2,4]-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]oxadiazoles from commercial 4-amino-1,2,4-triazoles that is highlighted by a microwave accelerated intramolecular cyclization to generate the fused ring system. Our efforts to optimize reaction conditions and elucidate reaction mechanism are also described.
Project description:An iodine/DMSO catalyzed selective cyclization of <i>N</i>-tosylhydrazones with sulfur without adding external oxidant was developed for the synthesis of 4-aryl-1,2,3-thiadiazoles. In this reaction, oxidation of HI by using DMSO as dual oxidant and solvent is the key, which allowed the regeneration of I<sub>2</sub>, ensuring thus the success of the synthesis. This protocol features by simple operation, high step-economy (one-pot fashion), broad substrate scope as well as scale-up ability.
Project description:3-Acylpyridine N-oxide tosylhydrazones give good overall yields of a mixture of pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridines and pyrazolo[4,3-c]pyridines when treated with an electrophilic additive and an amine base. (Z)-Hydrazones cyclize readily, while (E)-hydrazones fail to react under the reported conditions. The reaction takes place at room temperature, and moderate regiocontrol over the cyclization can be achieved by varying the electrophile/solvent combination.
Project description:Trialkylborane additives promote reduction of CO(2) to formate by bis(diphosphine) Ni(II) and Rh(III) hydride complexes. The late transition metal hydrides, which can be formed from dihydrogen, transfer hydride to CO(2) to give a formate-borane adduct. The borane must be of appropriate Lewis acidity: weaker acids do not show significant hydride transfer enhancement, while stronger acids abstract hydride without CO(2) reduction. The mechanism likely involves a pre-equilibrium hydride transfer followed by formation of a stabilizing formate-borane adduct.
Project description:We describe a general approach for the synthesis of complex aryl 1,2,4-triazoles. The electronic character of the C-H bonds and the triazole ring allows for the regioselective C-H arylation of 1-alkyl- and 4-alkyltriazoles under catalytic conditions. We have also developed the SEM and THP switch as well as trans-N-alkylation, which enable sequential arylation of the triazole ring to prepare 3,5-diaryltriazoles. This new strategy provides rapid access to a variety of arylated 1,2,4-triazoles and well complements existing cyclization methods.
Project description:The reaction of bis(silylenyl)-substituted ferrocene 1 with two molar equivalents of BPh3 yields the corresponding bis(silylene-borane) Lewis adduct 2. The latter is capable to activate CO2 to furnish the borane-stabilized bis(silanone) 3 through mono-oxygenation of the dative SiII ?B silicon centers under release of CO. Removal of BPh3 from 3 with PMe3 affords the corresponding 1,3,2,4-cyclodisiloxane and the Me3 P-BPh3 adduct. All isolated new compounds were characterized and their molecular structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses.