Functionalized azetidines via visible light-enabled aza Paterno-Buchi reactions.
ABSTRACT: Azetidines are four-membered nitrogen-containing heterocycles that hold great promise in current medicinal chemistry due to their desirable pharmacokinetic effects. However, a lack of efficient synthetic methods to access functionalized azetidines has hampered their incorporation into pharmaceutical lead structures. As a [2+2] cycloaddition reaction between imines and alkenes, the aza Paternò-Büchi reaction arguably represents the most direct approach to functionalized azetidines. Hampered by competing reaction paths accessible upon photochemical excitation of the substrates, the current synthetic utility of these transformations is greatly restricted. We herein report the development of a visible light-enabled aza Paternò-Büchi reaction that surmounts existing limitations and represents a mild solution for the direct formation of functionalized azetidines from imine and alkene containing precursors.
Project description:Furan-2-ylmethyl 2-oxoacetates 1a,b, in which the furan ring and the carbonyl moiety were embedded intramolecularly, were synthesized from commercially available furan-2-ylmethanol and their photochemical reaction (h? > 290 nm) was investigated. Twelve-membered macrocyclic lactones 2a,b with C(i) symmetry including two oxetane-rings, which are the Paternò-Büchi dimerization products, were isolated in ca. 20% yield. The intramolecular cyclization products, such as 3-alkoxyoxetane and 2,7-dioxabicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene derivatives, were not detected in the photolysate.
Project description:Single cell MS (SCMS) techniques are under rapid development for molecular analysis of individual cells among heterogeneous populations. Lipids are basic cellular constituents playing essential functions in energy storage and the cellular signaling processes of cells. Unsaturated lipids are characterized with one or multiple carbon-carbon double (C?C) bonds, and they are critical for cell functions and human diseases. Characterizing unsaturated lipids in single cells allows for better understanding of metabolomic biomarkers and therapeutic targets of rare cells (e.g., cancer stem cells); however, these studies remain challenging. We developed a new technique using a micropipette needle, in which Paternò-Büchi (PB) reactions at C?C bond can be induced, to determine locations of C?C bonds in unsaturated lipids at the single-cell level. The micropipette needle is produced by combining a pulled glass capillary needle with a fused silica capillary. Cell lysis solvent and PB reagent (acetone or benzophenone) are delivered into the micropipette needle (tip size ? 15 um) through a fused silica capillary. The capillary needle plays multiple functions (i.e., single cell sampling probe, cell lysis container, microreactor, and nano-ESI emitter) in the experiments. Both regular (no reaction) and reactive (with PB reaction) SCMS analyses of the same cell can be achieved. C?C bond locations were determined from MS scan and MS/MS of PB products assisted by Python programs. This technique can potentially be used for other reactive SCMS studies to enhance molecular analysis for broad ranges of single cells.
Project description:Lipid dysregulation has been implicated in multiple sclerosis due to its involvement during and after inflammation. In this study, we have profiled fatty acids (FAs) in the mouse model of multiple sclerosis with new capabilities of assigning carbon-carbon double bond (C=C) location(s) and quantifying C=C location isomers. These new capabilities are enabled by pairing the solution phase Paternò-Büchi (PB) reaction that modifies C=C bonds in FAs, with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), termed as PB-MS/MS. A series of unsaturated FAs and C=C location isomers have been identified, including FA17:1 (?10), FA18:1 (?9 and ?11), FA18:2 (?9 and ?12), and FA 20:4 (?5, ?8, ?11, ?14). Notable differences in saturated and unsaturated FAs between normal and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice spinal cords have been detected. Furthermore, the effects of hydralazine, a scavenger of acrolein, on profile changes of FAs in mice were studied. Increased ?11-to-?9 isomer ratios for FA 18:1 were noted in the diseased samples as compared to the control. The present work provides a facile and robust analytical method for the quantitation of unsaturated FAs as well as identification of FA C=C location isomers, which will facilitate discovering prospective lipid markers in multiple sclerosis.
Project description:A porous polymer coating transfer enrichment method is developed for the direct mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of lipids. The enrichment is fast (ca. 1?min) and enables the profiling and quantitation of lipids in small-volume biofluid samples. Coupled with a photochemical Paternò-Büchi reaction, this method enables the fast determination of lipid structure at the C=C location level and point-of-care lipid biomarker analysis.
Project description:Lipids are biomolecules with a broad variety of chemical structures, which renders them essential not only for various biological functions but also interestingly for biotechnological applications. Rhamnolipids are microbial glycolipids with surface-active properties and are widely used biosurfactants. They are composed of one or two L-rhamnoses and up to three hydroxy fatty acids. Their biosynthetic precursors are 3-hydroxy(alkanoyloxy)alkanoic acids (HAAs). The latter are also present in cell supernatants as complex mixtures and are extensively studied for their potential to replace synthetically derived surfactants. The carbon chain lengths of HAAs determine their physical properties, such as their abilities to foam and emulsify, and their critical micelle concentration. Despite growing biotechnological interest, methods for structural elucidation are limited and often rely on hydrolysis and analysis of free hydroxy fatty acids losing the connectivity information. Therefore, a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was developed for comprehensive structural characterization of intact HAAs. Information is provided on chain length and number of double bonds in each hydroxy fatty acid and their linkage by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Post-column photochemical derivatization by online Patern?-Büchi reaction and MS/MS fragmentation experiments generated diagnostic fragments allowing structural characterization down to the double bond position level. Furthermore, the presented experiments demonstrate a powerful approach for structure elucidation of complex lipids by tailored fragmentation.
Project description:Intramolecular photoinduced cyclizations are investigated in photoprecursors assembled in a modular fashion via a Diels-Alder reaction of acetylenic dienophiles with subsequent Michael additions of aromatic ketones to install a chromophore capable of initiating Paternò-Büchi cycloadditions or radical cyclization cascades. The protolytic oxametathesis in these systems allows for rapid access to novel polycyclic scaffolds decorated by formyl groups and carboxylates suitable for subsequent modifications. In conformationally constrained photoprecursors, a radical rearrangement takes place resulting in intramolecular 1,3-diradical cyclopentanation of the double bond.
Project description:Electron transfer involving nucleic acids and their derivatives is an important field in bioorganic chemistry, specifically in connection with its role in the photo-driven DNA damage and repair. Four-membered ring heterocyclic oxetanes and azetidines have been claimed to be the intermediates involved in the repair of DNA (6-4) photoproduct by photolyase. In this context, we examine here the redox properties of the two azetidine isomers obtained from photocycloaddition between 6-aza-1,3-dimethyluracil and cyclohexene. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence experiments using a series of photoreductants and photooxidants have been run to evaluate the efficiency of the electron transfer process. Analysis of the obtained quenching kinetics shows that the azetidine compounds can act as electron donors. Additionally, it appears that the cis isomer is more easily oxidized than its trans counterpart. This result is in agreement with electrochemical studies performed on both azetidine derivatives.
Project description:The reaction of rhodium-bound carbenes with strained bicyclic methylene aziridines results in a formal [3+1] ring expansion to yield highly substituted methylene azetidines with excellent regio- and stereoselectivity. The reaction appears to proceed through an ylide-type mechanism, where the unique strain and structure of the methylene aziridine promotes a ring-opening/ring-closing cascade that efficiently transfers chirality from substrate to product. The resultant products can be elaborated into new azetidine scaffolds containing vicinal tertiary-quaternary and even quaternary-quaternary stereocenters.
Project description:Mass spectrometry-based lipidomics is the primary tool for the structural analysis of lipids but the effective localization of carbon-carbon double bonds (C=C) in unsaturated lipids to distinguish C=C location isomers remains challenging. Here, we develop a large-scale lipid analysis platform by coupling online C=C derivatization through the Paternò-Büchi reaction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. This provides rich information on lipid C=C location isomers, revealing C=C locations for more than 200 unsaturated glycerophospholipids in bovine liver among which we identify 55 groups of C=C location isomers. By analyzing tissue samples of patients with breast cancer and type 2 diabetes plasma samples, we find that the ratios of C=C isomers are much less affected by interpersonal variations than their individual abundances, suggesting that isomer ratios may be used for the discovery of lipid biomarkers.
Project description:The field of lipidomics has been significantly advanced by mass spectrometric analysis. The distinction and quantitation of the unsaturated lipid isomers, however, remain a long-standing challenge. In this study, we have developed an analytical tool for both identification and quantitation of lipid C=C location isomers from complex mixtures using online Paternò-Büchi reaction coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The potential of this method has been demonstrated with an implementation into shotgun lipid analysis of animal tissues. Among 96 of the unsaturated fatty acids and glycerophospholipids identified from rat brain tissue, 50% of them were found as mixtures of C=C location isomers; for the first time, to our knowledge, the quantitative information of lipid C=C isomers from a broad range of classes was obtained. This method also enabled facile cross-tissue examinations, which revealed significant changes in C=C location isomer compositions of a series of fatty acids and glycerophospholipid (GP) species between the normal and cancerous tissues.