Ikaros tumor suppressor function includes induction of active enhancers and super-enhancers along with pioneering activity.
ABSTRACT: Ikaros encodes a transcription factor that functions as a tumor suppressor in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). The mechanisms through which Ikaros regulates gene expression and cellular proliferation in T-ALL are unknown. Re-introduction of Ikaros into Ikaros-null T-ALL cells resulted in cessation of cellular proliferation and induction of T-cell differentiation. We performed dynamic, global, epigenomic, and gene expression analyses to determine the mechanisms of Ikaros tumor suppressor activity. Our results identified novel Ikaros functions in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression: Ikaros directly regulates de novo formation and depletion of enhancers, de novo formation of active enhancers and activation of poised enhancers; Ikaros directly induces the formation of super-enhancers; and Ikaros demonstrates pioneering activity by directly regulating chromatin accessibility. Dynamic analyses demonstrate the long-lasting effects of Ikaros DNA binding on enhancer activation, de novo formation of enhancers and super-enhancers, and chromatin accessibility. Our results establish that Ikaros' tumor suppressor function occurs via global regulation of the enhancer and super-enhancer landscape and through pioneering activity. Expression analysis identified a large number of novel signaling pathways that are directly regulated by Ikaros and Ikaros-induced enhancers, and that are responsible for the cessation of proliferation and induction of T-cell differentiation in T-ALL cells.
Project description:IKAROS is required for the differentiation of highly proliferative pre-B cell precursors and loss-of-IKAROS function indicates poor prognosis in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Here we show that IKAROS regulates this developmental stage by positive and negative regulation of super-enhancers with distinct lineage affiliation. IKAROS together with B cell master regulators, such as PAX5, EBF1 and IRF4, defines super-enhancers at pre-B cell differentiation genes and is required for a highly permissive chromatin environment, a function that cannot be compensated for by the other transcription factors. IKAROS, is also highly enriched at inactive enhancers of genes normally expressed in stem-epithelial cells. Upon IKAROS loss, expression of pre-B cell differentiation genes is attenuated, while a group of extra-lineage transcription factors, directly repressed by IKAROS, and dependent on EBF1 re-localization at their enhancers, are induced. LHX2, LMO2 and TEAD-YAP1 together with other native B cell transcription regulators induce a feed-forward transcriptional loop based on their direct cooperation within a de novo super-enhancer network normally kept separate by IKAROS. Induction of de novo super-enhancers antagonizes Polycomb repression and superimposes aberrant stem-epithelial cell properties in a B cell precursor. This dual mechanism of IKAROS regulation promotes differentiation while safeguarding against a hybrid stem-epithelial-B cell phenotype that underlies high-risk B-ALL. Overall design: 35 CHiPseq samples including input controls from WT and IKDN stromal adherent preB cells
Project description:IKAROS is required for the differentiation of highly proliferative pre-B-cell precursors, and loss of IKAROS function indicates poor prognosis in precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Here we show that IKAROS regulates this developmental stage by positive and negative regulation of superenhancers with distinct lineage affiliations. IKAROS defines superenhancers at pre-B-cell differentiation genes together with B-cell master regulators such as PAX5, EBF1, and IRF4 but is required for a highly permissive chromatin environment, a function that cannot be compensated for by the other transcription factors. IKAROS is also highly enriched at inactive enhancers of genes normally expressed in stem-epithelial cells. Upon IKAROS loss, expression of pre-B-cell differentiation genes is attenuated, while a group of extralineage transcription factors that are directly repressed by IKAROS and depend on EBF1 relocalization at their enhancers for expression is induced. LHX2, LMO2, and TEAD-YAP1, normally kept separate from native B-cell transcription regulators by IKAROS, now cooperate directly with them in a de novo superenhancer network with its own feed-forward transcriptional reinforcement. Induction of de novo superenhancers antagonizes Polycomb repression and superimposes aberrant stem-epithelial cell properties in a B-cell precursor. This dual mechanism of IKAROS regulation promotes differentiation while safeguarding against a hybrid stem-epithelial-B-cell phenotype that underlies high-risk B-ALL.
Project description:The zinc finger protein CTCF has been invoked in establishing boundaries between genes, thereby controlling spatial and temporal enhancer activities. However, there is limited genetic evidence to support the concept that these boundaries restrict the search space of enhancers. We have addressed this question in the casein locus containing five mammary and two non-mammary genes under the control of at least seven putative enhancers. We have identified two CTCF binding sites flanking the locus and two associated with a super-enhancer. Individual deletion of these sites from the mouse genome did not alter expression of any of the genes. However, deletion of the border CTCF site separating the Csn1s1 mammary enhancer from neighboring genes resulted in the activation of Sult1d1 at a distance of more than 95 kb but not the more proximal and silent Sult1e1 gene. Loss of this CTCF site led to de novo interactions between the Sult1d1 promoter and several enhancers in the casein locus. Our study demonstrates that only one out of the four CTCF sites in the casein locus had a measurable in vivo activity. Studies on additional loci are needed to determine the biological role of CTCF sites associated with enhancers.
Project description:Evolutionary innovation relies partially on changes in gene regulation. While a growing body of evidence demonstrates that such innovation is generated by functional changes or translocation of regulatory elements via mobile genetic elements, the de novo generation of enhancers from non-regulatory/non-mobile sequences has, to our knowledge, not previously been demonstrated. Here we show evidence for the de novo genesis of enhancers in vertebrates. For this, we took advantage of the massive gene loss following the last whole genome duplication in teleosts to systematically identify regions that have lost their coding capacity but retain sequence conservation with mammals. We found that these regions show enhancer activity while the orthologous coding regions have no regulatory activity. These results demonstrate that these enhancers have been de novo generated in fish. By revealing that minor changes in non-regulatory sequences are sufficient to generate new enhancers, our study highlights an important playground for creating new regulatory variability and evolutionary innovation.
Project description:Transcriptional enhancers are critical for maintaining cell-type-specific gene expression and driving cell fate changes during development. Highly transcribed genes are often associated with a cluster of individual enhancers such as those found in locus control regions. Recently, these have been termed stretch enhancers or super-enhancers, which have been predicted to regulate critical cell identity genes. We employed a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated deletion approach to study the function of several enhancer clusters (ECs) and isolated enhancers in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Our results reveal that the effect of deleting ECs, also classified as ES cell super-enhancers, is highly variable, resulting in target gene expression reductions ranging from 12% to as much as 92%. Partial deletions of these ECs which removed only one enhancer or a subcluster of enhancers revealed partially redundant control of the regulated gene by multiple enhancers within the larger cluster. Many highly transcribed genes in ES cells are not associated with a super-enhancer; furthermore, super-enhancer predictions ignore 81% of the potentially active regulatory elements predicted by cobinding of five or more pluripotency-associated transcription factors. Deletion of these additional enhancer regions revealed their robust regulatory role in gene transcription. In addition, select super-enhancers and enhancers were identified that regulated clusters of paralogous genes. We conclude that, whereas robust transcriptional output can be achieved by an isolated enhancer, clusters of enhancers acting on a common target gene act in a partially redundant manner to fine tune transcriptional output of their target genes.
Project description:RNA functions at enhancers remain mysterious. Here we show that the 7SK small nuclear RNA (snRNA) inhibits enhancer transcription by modulating nucleosome position. 7SK occupies enhancers and super enhancers genome wide in mouse and human cells, and it is required to limit enhancer-RNA initiation and synthesis in a manner distinct from promoter pausing. Clustered elements at super enhancers uniquely require 7SK to prevent convergent transcription and DNA-damage signaling. 7SK physically interacts with the BAF chromatin-remodeling complex, recruits BAF to enhancers and inhibits enhancer transcription by modulating chromatin structure. In turn, 7SK occupancy at enhancers coincides with that of Brd4 and is exquisitely sensitive to the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1. Thus, 7SK uses distinct mechanisms to counteract the diverse consequences of pervasive transcription that distinguish super enhancers, enhancers and promoters.
Project description:Super-enhancers are tissue-specific cis-regulatory elements that drive expression of genes associated with cell identity and malignancy. A cardinal feature of super-enhancers is that they are transcribed to produce enhancer-derived RNAs (eRNAs). It remains unclear whether super-enhancers robustly activate genes in situ and whether their functions are attributable to eRNAs or the DNA element. CRISPR/Cas9 was used to systematically delete three discrete super-enhancers at the Nanog locus in embryonic stem cells, revealing functional differences in Nanog transcriptional regulation. One distal super-enhancer 45 kb upstream of Nanog (-45 enhancer) regulates both nearest neighbor genes, Nanog and Dppa3. Interestingly, eRNAs produced at the -45 enhancer specifically regulate Dppa3 expression by stabilizing looping of the -45 enhancer and Dppa3. Our work illustrates that genomic editing is required to determine enhancer function and points to a method to selectively target a subset of super-enhancer-regulated genes by depleting eRNAs.
Project description:Super-enhancers are clusters of gene-regulatory sites bound by multiple transcription factors that govern cell transcription, development, phenotype, and oncogenesis. By examining Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs), we identified four EBV oncoproteins and five EBV-activated NF-?B subunits co-occupying ?1,800 enhancer sites. Of these, 187 had markedly higher and broader histone H3K27ac signals, characteristic of super-enhancers, and were designated "EBV super-enhancers." EBV super-enhancer-associated genes included the MYC and BCL2 oncogenes, which enable LCL proliferation and survival. EBV super-enhancers were enriched for B cell transcription factor motifs and had high co-occupancy of STAT5 and NFAT transcription factors (TFs). EBV super-enhancer-associated genes were more highly expressed than other LCL genes. Disrupting EBV super-enhancers by the bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 or conditionally inactivating an EBV oncoprotein or NF-?B decreased MYC or BCL2 expression and arrested LCL growth. These findings provide insight into mechanisms of EBV-induced lymphoproliferation and identify potential therapeutic interventions.
Project description:Drosophila dorso-ventral (DV) patterning is one of the best-understood regulatory networks to date, and illustrates the fundamental role of enhancers in controlling patterning, cell fate specification, and morphogenesis during development. Histone acetylation such as H3K27ac is an excellent marker for active enhancers, but it is challenging to obtain precise locations for enhancers as the highest levels of this modification flank the enhancer regions. How to best identify tissue-specific enhancers in a developmental system de novo with a minimal set of data is still unclear.Using DV patterning as a test system, we develop a simple and effective method to identify tissue-specific enhancers de novo. We sample a broad set of candidate enhancer regions using data on CREB-binding protein co-factor binding or ATAC-seq chromatin accessibility, and then identify those regions with significant differences in histone acetylation between tissues. This method identifies hundreds of novel DV enhancers and outperforms ChIP-seq data of relevant transcription factors when benchmarked with mRNA expression data and transgenic reporter assays. These DV enhancers allow the de novo discovery of the relevant transcription factor motifs involved in DV patterning and contain additional motifs that are evolutionarily conserved and for which the corresponding transcription factors are expressed in a DV-biased fashion. Finally, we identify novel target genes of the regulatory network, implicating morphogenesis genes as early targets of DV patterning.Taken together, our approach has expanded our knowledge of the DV patterning network even further and is a general method to identify enhancers in any developmental system, including mammalian development.
Project description:The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) plays a central role in low-grade adipose tissue inflammation and development of insulin resistance during obesity. In this context, nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) is directly involved and required for the acute activation of the inflammatory gene program. Here, we show that the major transactivating subunit of NFκB, v-rel avian reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (RELA), is also required for acute TNF-induced suppression of adipocyte genes. Notably, this repression does not involve RELA binding to the associated enhancers but rather loss of cofactors and enhancer RNA (eRNA) selectively from high-occupancy sites within super-enhancers. Based on these data, we have developed models that, with high accuracy, predict which enhancers and genes are repressed by TNF in adipocytes. We show that these models are applicable to other cell types where TNF represses genes associated with super-enhancers in a highly cell-type-specific manner. Our results propose a novel paradigm for NFκB-mediated repression, whereby NFκB selectively redistributes cofactors from high-occupancy enhancers, thereby specifically repressing super-enhancer-associated cell identity genes.