Classifying Oryza sativa accessions into Indica and Japonica using logistic regression model with phenotypic data.
ABSTRACT: In Oryza sativa, indica and japonica are pivotal subpopulations, and other subpopulations such as aus and aromatic are considered to be derived from indica or japonica. In this regard, Oryza sativa accessions are frequently viewed from the indica/japonica perspective. This study introduces a computational method for indica/japonica classification by applying phenotypic variables to the logistic regression model (LRM). The population used in this study included 413 Oryza sativa accessions, of which 280 accessions were indica or japonica. Out of 24 phenotypic variables, a set of seven phenotypic variables was identified to collectively generate the fully accurate indica/japonica separation power of the LRM. The resulting parameters were used to define the customized LRM. Given the 280 indica/japonica accessions, the classification accuracy of the customized LRM along with the set of seven phenotypic variables was estimated by 100 iterations of ten-fold cross-validations. As a result, the classification accuracy of 100% was achieved. This suggests that the LRM can be an effective tool to analyze the indica/japonica classification with phenotypic variables in Oryza sativa.
Project description:Crop domestications are long-term selection experiments that have greatly advanced human civilization. The domestication of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa L.) ranks as one of the most important developments in history. However, its origins and domestication processes are controversial and have long been debated. Here we generate genome sequences from 446 geographically diverse accessions of the wild rice species Oryza rufipogon, the immediate ancestral progenitor of cultivated rice, and from 1,083 cultivated indica and japonica varieties to construct a comprehensive map of rice genome variation. In the search for signatures of selection, we identify 55 selective sweeps that have occurred during domestication. In-depth analyses of the domestication sweeps and genome-wide patterns reveal that Oryza sativa japonica rice was first domesticated from a specific population of O. rufipogon around the middle area of the Pearl River in southern China, and that Oryza sativa indica rice was subsequently developed from crosses between japonica rice and local wild rice as the initial cultivars spread into South East and South Asia. The domestication-associated traits are analysed through high-resolution genetic mapping. This study provides an important resource for rice breeding and an effective genomics approach for crop domestication research.
Project description:Differences in expression levels are an important source of phenotypic variation within and between populations. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key players in post-transcriptional gene regulation that are important for plant development and stress responses. We surveyed expression variation of miRNAs and mRNAs of six accessions from two rice subspecies Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica and Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica using deep sequencing. While more than half (53.7%) of the mature miRNAs exhibit differential expression between grains and seedlings of rice, only 11.0% show expression differences between subspecies, with an additional 2.2% differentiated for the development-by-subspecies interaction. Expression variation is greater for lowly conserved miRNAs than highly conserved miRNAs, whereas the latter show stronger negative correlation with their targets in expression changes between subspecies. Using a permutation test, we identified 51 miRNA-mRNA pairs that correlate negatively or positively in expression level among cultivated rice. Genes involved in various metabolic processes and stress responses are enriched in the differentially expressed genes between rice indica and japonica subspecies. Our results indicate that stabilizing selection is the major force governing miRNA expression in cultivated rice, albeit positive selection may be responsible for much of the between-subspecies expression divergence.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The domestication process of Asian rice (Oryza sativa L.) is complicated. It's well established that Oryza rufipogon is the ancestor of Asian rice, although the number of domestication events still controversial. Recently, numerous types of studies based on rice nuclear genome have been conducted, but the results are quite different. Chloroplasts (cp) are also part of the rice genome and have a conserved cyclic structure that is valuable for plant genetics and evolutionary studies. Therefore, we conducted chloroplast-based studies, aiming to provide more evidence for the domestication of Asian rice.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 1389 variants were detected from the chloroplast genomes of 412 accessions obtained through the world. Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica exhibited slightly less diversity (π) than Oryza sativa L. indica and wild rice. The fixation index values (F<sub>ST</sub>) revealed that indica and japonica exhibited farther genetic distances compared with wild rice. Across cp genome, Tajima's D test demonstrated that different selection sites occurred in Asian rice. Principal component analyses (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) clearly classify the Asian rice into different groups. Furthermore, introgression patterns identified that indica and japonica shared no introgression events in cp level, and phylogenetic studies showed cultivated rice were well separated from different type of wild rice.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Here, we focus on the domestication of Asian rice (indica and japonica). Diversity and phylogenetic analyses revealed some selection characteristics in the chloroplast genome that potentially occurred in different Asian rice during the domestication. The results shown that Asian rice had been domesticated at least twice. In additional, japonica may experience a strong positive selection or bottleneck event during the domestication.
Project description:Background Eating and cooking qualities (ECQs) of rice (Oryza sativa L.) determine consumer acceptance and the economic value of rice varieties. The starch physicochemical properties, i.e. amylose content, gel consistency, gelatinization temperature and pasting viscosity are important indices for evaluating rice ECQs. Genetic factors are required for development of rice varieties with excellent ECQs and association mapping is one of the promising approaches for discovering such associated genetic factors. Results A genome-wide association mapping was performed on a set of 253 non-glutinous rice accessions consisting of 83 indica and 170 japonica cultivated rice varieties through phenotyping for 11 ECQ traits in two consecutive years and genotyping with 210 polymorphic SSR and candidate-gene markers. These markers amplified 747 alleles with an average of 3.57 alleles per locus. The structure, phylogenetic relationship, and principal component analysis indicated a strong population differentiation between indica and japonica accessions and association mapping was thus undertaken within indica and japonica subpopulations. All traits showed a large phenotypic variation and highly significant phenotypic correlations were present between most of traits. A total of 33 and 30 loci were located for 11 ECQs in indica and japonica subpopulations respectively. Most of associated loci were overlapped with starch synthesis-related genes (SSRGs), and the Wx locus gathered 14 associated loci with the largest effects on amylose content, gel consistency and pasting viscosities. Eight subpopulation specific markers, RM588, Wx-(CT)n, SSI and SBE1 for indica subpopulation and RM550, Wxmp, SSIIa and SBE4 for japonica subpopulation, were identified, suggesting alleles of SSRGs showed the subspecific tendency. Nevertheless, allelic variation in SSIIa showed no tendency towards subspecies. One associated maker RM550 detected in japonica subpopulation for amylose content and pasting viscosity was verified a potential novel and stably expressed locus and could be selected for further fine mapping. Conclusion This study illustrated the potential for dissecting genetic factors of complex traits in domesticated rice subspecies and provided highly associated markers to facilitate marker-assisted selection for breeding high-quality indica or japonica rice varieties.
Project description:We previously identified a cluster of yield-related quantitative trait loci (QTLs) including plant height in CR4379, a near-isogenic line from a cross between Oryza sativa spp. japonica cultivar 'Hwaseong' and the wild relative Oryza rufipogon. Map-based cloning and transgenic approaches revealed that APX9, which encodes an l-ascorbate peroxidase 4, is associated with this cluster. A 3 bp InDel was observed leading to the addition of a valine in Hwaseong compared with O. rufipogon. APX9-overexpressing transgenic plants in the Hwaseong background were taller than Hwaseong. Consistent with these results, APX9 T-DNA insertion mutants in the japonica cultivar Dongjin were shorter. These results confirm that APX9 is the causal gene for the QTL cluster. Sequence analysis of APX9 from 303 rice accessions revealed that the 3 bp InDel clearly differentiates japonica (APX9HS) and O. rufipogon (APX9OR) alleles. indica accessions shared both alleles, suggesting that APX9HS was introgressed into indica followed by crossing. The finding that O. rufipogon accessions with different origins carry APX9OR suggests that the 3 bp insertion was specifically selected in japonica during its domestication. Our findings demonstrate that APX9 acts as a major regulator of plant development by controlling a valuable suite of agronomically important traits in rice.
Project description:Here we report that the change from the red seeds of wild rice to the white seeds of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) resulted from the strong selective sweep of a single mutation, a frame-shift deletion within the Rc gene that is found in 97.9% of white rice varieties today. A second mutation, also within Rc, is present in less than 3% of white accessions surveyed. Haplotype analysis revealed that the predominant mutation originated in the japonica subspecies and crossed both geographic and sterility barriers to move into the indica subspecies. A little less than one Mb of japonica DNA hitchhiked with the rc allele into most indica varieties, suggesting that other linked domestication alleles may have been transferred from japonica to indica along with white pericarp color. Our finding provides evidence of active cultural exchange among ancient farmers over the course of rice domestication coupled with very strong, positive selection for a single white allele in both subspecies of O. sativa.
Project description:China is rich of germplasm resources of common wild rice (Oryza rufipogon Griff.) and Asian cultivated rice (O. sativa L.) which consists of two subspecies, indica and japonica. Previous studies have shown that China is one of the domestication centers of O. sativa. However, the geographic origin and the domestication times of O. sativa in China are still under debate. To settle these disputes, six chloroplast loci and four mitochondrial loci were selected to examine the relationships between 50 accessions of Asian cultivated rice and 119 accessions of common wild rice from China based on DNA sequence analysis in the present study. The results indicated that Southern China is the genetic diversity center of O. rufipogon and it might be the primary domestication region of O. sativa. Molecular dating suggested that the two subspecies had diverged 0.1 million years ago, much earlier than the beginning of rice domestication. Genetic differentiations and phylogeography analyses indicated that indica was domesticated from tropical O. rufipogon while japonica was domesticated from O. rufipogon which located in higher latitude. These results provided molecular evidences for the hypotheses of (i) Southern China is the origin center of O. sativa in China and (ii) the two subspecies of O. sativa were domesticated multiple times.
Project description:The history of the domestication of rice is controversial, as it remains unknown whether domestication processes occurred once or multiple times. To date, genetic architecture and phylogenetic studies based on the rice nuclear genome have been extensively studied, but the results are quite different. Here, we found interesting results for different selections in Oryza sativa based on comprehensive studies of the rice mitochondrial (mt) genome. In detail, 412 rice germplasms were collected from around the world for variant architecture studies. A total of 10632 variants were detected in the mt genome, including 7277 SNPs and 3355 InDels. Selection signal (?w/?c) indicated that the selection sites in Oryza sativa L. ssp. japonica were different from those of Oryza sativa L. indica rice. The fixation index (FST) was higher between indica and japonica than between indica and wild rice. Moreover, haplotype and phylogenetic analyses also revealed indica clusters and japonica clusters that were well separated from wild rice. As mentioned above, our studies indicate that the selection sites of the indica type were different from those of the japonica type. This means that indica and japonica have experienced different domestication processes. We also found that japonica may have experienced a bottleneck event during domestication.
Project description:Cold temperature is an important abiotic stress which negatively affects morphological development and seed production in rice (Oryza sativa L.). At the seedling stage, cold stress causes poor germination, seedling injury and poor stand establishment; and at the reproductive stage cold decreases seed yield. The Rice Diversity Panel 1 (RDP1) is a global collection of over 400 O. sativa accessions representing the five major subpopulations from the INDICA and JAPONICA varietal groups, with a genotypic dataset consisting of 700,000 SNP markers. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the RDP1 accessions for the complex, quantitatively inherited cold tolerance traits at the germination and reproductive stages, and to conduct genome-wide association (GWA) mapping to identify SNPs and candidate genes associated with cold stress at these stages. GWA mapping of the germination index (calculated as percent germination in cold divided by warm treatment) revealed 42 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with cold tolerance at the seedling stage, including 18 in the panel as a whole, seven in temperate japonica, six in tropical japonica, 14 in JAPONICA, and nine in INDICA, with five shared across all subpopulations. Twenty-two of these QTLs co-localized with 32 previously reported cold tolerance QTLs. GWA mapping of cold tolerance at the reproductive stage detected 29 QTLs, including seven associated with percent sterility, ten with seed weight per panicle, 14 with seed weight per plant and one region overlapping for two traits. Fifteen co-localized with previously reported QTLs for cold tolerance or yield components. Candidate gene ontology searches revealed these QTLs were associated with significant enrichment for genes related to with lipid metabolism, response to stimuli, response to biotic stimuli (suggesting cross-talk between biotic and abiotic stresses), and oxygen binding. Overall the JAPONICA accessions were more tolerant to cold stress than INDICA accessions.
Project description:Due to the importance of the rice crop in Iraq, this study was conducted to determine the origin of the major varieties and understand the evolutionary relationships between Iraqi rice varieties and other Asian rice accessions that could be significant in the improvement of this crop. Five varieties of Oryza sativa were obtained from Baghdad/Iraq, and the whole genomic DNA was sequenced, among these varieties, Amber33, Furat, Yasmin, Buhooth1 and Amber al-Baraka. Raw sequence reads of 33 domesticated Asian rice accessions were obtained from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA-NCBI). The sequence of the whole chloroplast-genome was assembled while only the sequence of 916 concatenated nuclear-genes was assembled. The phylogenetic analysis of both chloroplast and nuclear genomes showed that two main clusters, Indica and Japonica, and further five sub-clusters based upon their ecotype, indica, aus, tropical-japonica, temperate-japonica and basmati were created; moreover, Amber33, Furat, Yasmin and Buhooth1 belonged to the basmati, indica and japonica ecotypes, respectively, where Amber33 was placed in the basmati group as a sister of cultivars from Pakistan and India. This confirms the traditional story that Amber was transferred by a group of people who had migrated from India and settled in southern Iraq a long time ago.