Cell-free hemoglobin augments acute kidney injury during experimental sepsis.
ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury is a common complication of severe sepsis and contributes to high mortality. The molecular mechanisms of acute kidney injury during sepsis are not fully understood. Because hemoproteins, including myoglobin and hemoglobin, are known to mediate kidney injury during rhabdomyolysis, we hypothesized that cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) would exacerbate acute kidney injury during sepsis. Sepsis was induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of cecal slurry (CS). To mimic elevated levels of CFH observed during human sepsis, mice also received a retroorbital injection of CFH or dextrose control. Four groups of mice were analyzed: sham treated (sham), CFH alone, CS alone, and CS + CFH. The addition of CFH to CS reduced 48-h survival compared with CS alone (67% vs. 97%, P = 0.001) and increased the severity of illness. After 24 and 48 h, CS + CFH mice had a reduced glomerular filtration rate from baseline, whereas sham, CFH, and CS mice maintained baseline glomerular filtration rate. Biomarkers of acute kidney injury, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), were markedly elevated in CS+CFH compared with CS (8-fold for NGAL and 2.4-fold for KIM-1, P < 0.002 for each) after 48 h. Histological examination showed a trend toward increased tubular injury in CS + CFH-exposed kidneys compared with CS-exposed kidneys. However, there were similar levels of renal oxidative injury and apoptosis in the CS + CFH group compared with the CS group. Kidney levels of multiple proinflammatory cytokines were similar between CS and CS + CFH groups. Human renal tubule cells (HK-2) exposed to CFH demonstrated increased cytotoxicity. Together, these results show that CFH exacerbates acute kidney injury in a mouse model of experimental sepsis, potentially through increased renal tubular injury.
Project description:Ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is one of the most common causes of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the pathogenesis and biomarkers predicting the progression of IRI-induced AKI to chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain unclear. A side-by-side comparison between different IRI animal models with variable ischemic duration and episodes was performed. The dynamic changes of KIM-1 and NGAL continuously from AKI to CKD phases were studied as well. Short-term duration of ischemia induced mild renal tubule-interstitial injury which was completely reversed at acute phase of kidney injury, while long-term duration of ischemia caused severe tubular damage, cell apoptosis and inflammatory infiltration at early disease stage, leading to permanent chronic kidney fibrosis at the late stage. Repeated attacks of moderate IRI accelerated the progression of AKI to CKD. Different from serum and urine levels of KIM-1 that increased at acute phase of IRI then declined gradually in chronic phase, NGAL increased continuously during AKI-to-CKD transition. Severity and frequency of ischemia injury determines the progression and outcome of ischemia-induced AKI. Inflammation, apoptosis and fibrogenesis likely participate in the progression of AKI to CKD. Both KIM-1 and NGAL enable noninvasive and early detection of AKI, but NGAL is associated better with the process of AKI-to-CKD progression.
Project description:The diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is currently defined as an increase in serum creatinine (Scr) concentration, provides little information on the condition's actual cause. To improve phenotyping of AKI, many urinary biomarkers of tubular injury are being investigated. Because AKI cases are not frequently biopsied, the diagnostic accuracy of concentrations of Scr and urinary biomarkers for histologic acute tubular injury is unknown.Cross-sectional analysis from multicenter prospective cohort.Hospitalized deceased kidney donors on whom kidney biopsies were performed at the time of organ procurement for histologic evaluation.(1) AKI diagnosed by change in Scr concentration during donor hospitalization and (2) concentrations of urinary biomarkers (neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [NGAL], liver-type fatty acid-binding protein [L-FABP], interleukin 18 [IL-18], and kidney injury molecule 1 [KIM-1]) measured at organ procurement.Histologic acute tubular injury.Of 581 donors, 98 (17%) had mild acute tubular injury and 57 (10%) had severe acute tubular injury. Overall, Scr-based AKI had poor diagnostic performance for identifying histologic acute tubular injury and 49% of donors with severe acute tubular injury did not have AKI. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of change in Scr concentration for diagnosing severe acute tubular injury was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.49-0.67) and for any acute tubular injury was 0.52 (95% CI, 0.45-0.58). Compared with Scr concentration, NGAL concentration demonstrated higher AUROC for diagnosing both severe acute tubular injury (0.67; 95% CI, 0.60-0.74; P=0.03) and any acute tubular injury (0.60; 95% CI, 0.55-0.66; P=0.005). In donors who did not have Scr-based AKI, NGAL concentrations were higher with increasing severities of acute tubular injury (subclinical AKI). However, compared with Scr concentration, AUROCs for acute tubular injury diagnosis were not significantly higher for urinary L-FABP, IL-18, or KIM-1.The spectrum of AKI cause in deceased donors may be different from that of a general hospitalized population.Concentrations of Scr and kidney injury biomarkers (L-FABP, IL-18, and KIM-1) lack accuracy for diagnosing acute tubular injury in hospitalized deceased donors. Although urinary NGAL concentration had slightly higher discrimination for acute tubular injury than did Scr concentration, its overall AUROC was still modest.
Project description:Acute kidney injury, often caused by an ischemic insult, is associated with significant short-term morbidity and mortality, and increased risk of chronic kidney disease. The factors affecting the renal response to injury following ischemia and reperfusion remain to be clarified. We found that the Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1), commonly used as a stem cell marker, is heavily expressed in renal tubules of the adult mouse kidney. We evaluated its potential role in the kidney using Sca-1 knockout mice submitted to acute ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), as well as cultured renal proximal tubular cells in which Sca-1 was stably silenced with shRNA. IRI induced more severe injury in Sca-1 null kidneys, as assessed by increased expression of Kim-1 and Ngal, rise in serum creatinine, abnormal pathology, and increased apoptosis of tubular epithelium, and persistent significant renal injury at day 7 post IRI, when recovery of renal function in control animals was nearly complete. Serum creatinine, Kim-1 and Ngal were slightly but significantly elevated even in uninjured Sca-1-/- kidneys. Sca-1 constitutively bound both TGF? receptors I and II in cultured normal proximal tubular epithelial cells. Its genetic loss or silencing lead to constitutive TGF? receptor-mediated activation of canonical Smad signaling even in the absence of ligand and to KIM-1 expression in the silenced cells. These studies demonstrate that by normally repressing TGF?-mediated canonical Smad signaling, Sca-1 plays an important in renal epithelial cell homeostasis and in recovery of renal function following ischemic acute kidney injury.
Project description:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an initial factor in many kidney disorders. Pre- and intra-renal AKI biomarkers have recently been reported. Recovery from AKI by herbal medicine has rarely been reported. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the dose- and time-dependent effects of herbal medicines to protect against AKI in cisplatin-induced human kidney 2 (HK-2) cells by assessing the activities of high-mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1).Proximal tubular HK-2 cell lines were treated with either 400 ?M of cisplatin for 6 h or 10 ?M of cisplatin for 24 h and then exposed to ten types of single herbal medicines, including Nelumbo nymphaea (NY) at a dose of 100 ?g/mL. The AKI biomarkers HMGB1, NGAL and KIM-1 were repeatedly measured by an ELISA assay at 2, 4, and 6 h in the group treated with 400 ?M of cisplatin to confirm necrotic cell death and at 6, 24, and 48 h in the group treated with 10 ?M of cisplatin to examine apoptotic cell death. Recovery confirm was conducted through in vivo study using ICR mice for 3 day NY or Paeonia suffruticosa intake.Cisplatin treatment at a concentration of 10 ?M decreased cell viability. Treatment with 400 ?M of cisplatin reduced HMBG1 activity and resulted in lactate dehydrogenase release. In longer exposure durations (up to 48 h), NGAL and KIM-1 exhibited activity from 24 h onward. Additionally, NY treatment resulted in an approximately 50% change in all three biomarkers. The time-dependent profiles of HMGB1, NGAL and KIM-1 activities up to 48 h were notably different; HMGB1 exhibited a 7-fold change at 6 h, and NGAL and KIM-1 exhibited 1.7-fold changes at 24 h, respectively. Consistently, serum and urine NGAL and KIM-1 activities were all reduced in ICR mice.Several single herbal medicines, including NY, have a potential as effectors of AKI due to their ability to inhibit the activation of HMGB1, NGAL and KIM-1 in an in vitro AKI-mimicked condition and simple in vivo confirm. Furthermore, an in vivo proof-of-concept study is needed.
Project description:The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) for acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with scrub typhus.From 2014 to 2015, 145 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus. Of these, we enrolled 138 patients who were followed up until renal recovery or for at least 3 months. We measured serum and urine NGAL and KIM-1 levels and evaluated prognostic factors affecting scrub typhus-associated AKI.Of the 138 patients, 25 had scrub typhus-associated AKI. The incidence of AKI was 18.1%; of which 11.6%, 4.3%, and 2.2% were classified as risk, injury, and failure, respectively, according to RIFLE criteria. Compared with patients in the non-AKI group, patients in the AKI group were older and showed higher total leukocyte counts and hypoalbuminemia or one or more comorbidities such as hypertension (72% vs 33%, p<0.01), diabetes (40% vs 14%, p<0.01), or chronic kidney disease (32% vs 1%, p<0.01). In addition, serum NGAL values (404± 269 vs 116± 78 ng/mL, P<0.001), KIM-1 values (0.80± 0.52 vs 0.33± 0.68 ng/mL, P<0.001), urine NGAL/creatinine values (371± 672 vs 27± 39 ng/mg, P<0.001) and urine KIM-1/creatinine values (4.04± 2.43 vs 2.38± 1.89 ng/mg, P<0.001) were higher in the AKI group than in the non-AKI group. By multivariate logistic regression, serum NGAL and the presence of chronic kidney disease were significant predictors of AKI.Serum NGAL might be an additive predictor for scrub typhus-associated AKI.
Project description:To better understand the diagnostic and predictive performance of urinary biomarkers of kidney injury, we evaluated ?-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (AP), neutrophil-gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C (CysC), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in a prospective observational study of 529 patients in 2 general intensive care units (ICUs). Comparisons were made using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) for diagnosis or prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI), dialysis, or death, and reassessed after patient stratification by baseline renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR) and time after renal insult. On ICU entry, no biomarker had an AUC above 0.7 in the diagnosis or prediction of AKI. Several biomarkers (NGAL, CysC, and IL-18) predicted dialysis (AUC over 0.7), and all except KIM-1 predicted death at 7 days (AUC between 0.61 and 0.69). Performance was improved by stratification for eGFR or time or both. With eGFR <60?ml/min, CysC and KIM-1 had AUCs of 0.69 and 0.73, respectively, within 6?h of injury, and between 12 and 36?h, CysC (0.88), NGAL (0.85), and IL-18 (0.94) had utility. With eGFR >60?ml/min, GGT (0.73), CysC (0.68), and NGAL (0.68) had the highest AUCs within 6?h of injury, and between 6 and 12?h, all AUCs except AP were between 0.68 and 0.78. Beyond 12?h, NGAL (0.71) and KIM-1 (0.66) performed best. Thus, the duration of injury and baseline renal function should be considered in evaluating biomarker performance to diagnose AKI.
Project description:The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals in healthy children for two novel urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL).Urinary biomarkers were determined in samples from children in the UK (n = 120) and the USA (n = 171) using both Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) and Luminex-based analytical approaches.95% reference intervals for each biomarker in each cohort are presented and stratified by sex or ethnicity where necessary, and age-related variability is explored using quantile regression. We identified consistently higher NGAL concentrations in females than males (p < 0.0001), and lower KIM-1 concentrations in African-Americans than Caucasians (p = 0.02). KIM-1 demonstrated diurnal variation, with higher concentrations in the morning (p < 0.001).This is the first report of reference intervals for KIM-1 and NGAL using two analytical methods in a healthy pediatric population in both UK and US-based populations.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Recent trials have suggested use of balanced crystalloids may decrease the incidence of major adverse kidney events compared to saline in critically ill adults. The effect of crystalloid composition on biomarkers of early acute kidney injury remains unknown.<h4>Methods</h4>From February 15 to July 15, 2016, we conducted an ancillary study to the Isotonic Solutions and Major Adverse Renal Events Trial (SMART) comparing the effect of balanced crystalloids versus saline on urinary levels of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) among 261 consecutively-enrolled critically ill adults admitted from the emergency department to the medical ICU. After informed consent, we collected urine 36?± 12?h after hospital admission and measured NGAL and KIM-1 levels using commercially available ELISAs. Levels of NGAL and KIM-1 at 36?± 12?h were compared between patients assigned to balanced crystalloids versus saline using a Mann-Whitney U test.<h4>Results</h4>The 131 patients (50.2%) assigned to the balanced crystalloid group and the 130 patients (49.8%) assigned to the saline group were similar at baseline. Urinary NGAL levels were significantly lower in the balanced crystalloid group (median, 39.4?ng/mg [IQR 9.9 to 133.2]) compared with the saline group (median, 64.4?ng/mg [IQR 27.6 to 339.9]) (P <?0.001). Urinary KIM-1 levels did not significantly differ between the balanced crystalloid group (median, 2.7?ng/mg [IQR 1.5 to 4.9]) and the saline group (median, 2.4?ng/mg [IQR 1.3 to 5.0]) (P =?0.36).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this ancillary analysis of a clinical trial comparing balanced crystalloids to saline among critically ill adults, balanced crystalloids were associated with lower urinary concentrations of NGAL and similar urinary concentrations of KIM-1, compared with saline. These results suggest only a modest reduction in early biomarkers of acute kidney injury with use of balanced crystalloids compared with saline.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT02444988 . Date registered: May 15, 2015.
Project description:Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory state in response to infection, and concomitant acute kidney injury (AKI) increases mortality significantly. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is activated in many cell types upon microbial infection and modulates inflammation. The role of endoplasmic reticulum signaling in the kidney during septic AKI is unknown. Here we tested the role of the spliced X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1s), a key component of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-activated pathways, in the renal response to sepsis in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model. Xbp1s was increased in the kidneys of mice treated with LPS but not in other models of AKI, or several chronic kidney disease models. The functional significance of Xbp1s induction was examined by genetic manipulation in renal tubules. Renal tubule-specific overexpression of Xbp1s caused severe tubule dilation and vacuolation with expression of the injury markers Kim1 and Ngal, the pro-inflammatory molecules interleukin-6 (Il6) and Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4), decreased kidney function and 50% mortality in five days. Renal tubule-specific genetic ablation of Xbp1 had no phenotype at baseline. However, after LPS, Xbp1 knockdown mice displayed lower renal NGAL, pro-apoptotic factor CHOP, serum creatinine levels, and a tendency towards lower Tlr4 compared to LPS-treated mice with intact Xbp1s. LPS treatment in Xbp1s-overexpressing mice caused a mild increase in NGAL and CHOP compared to LPS-treated mice without genetic Xbp1s overexpression. Thus, increased Xbp1s signaling in renal tubules is unique to sepsis-induced AKI and contributes to renal inflammation and injury. Inhibition of this pathway may be a potential portal to alleviate injury.
Project description:Cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRP) is a novel sepsis inflammatory mediator and C23 is a putative CIRP competitive inhibitor. Therefore, we hypothesized that C23 can ameliorate sepsis-associated injury to the lungs and kidneys. First, we confirmed that C23 dose-dependently inhibited TNF-? release, I?B? degradation, and NF-?B nuclear translocation in macrophages stimulated with CIRP. Next, we observed that male C57BL/6 mice treated with C23 (8?mg/kg BW) at 2?h after cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) had lower serum levels of LDH, ALT, IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-1? (reduced by ?39%) at 20?h after CLP compared with mice treated with vehicle. C23-treated mice also had improved lung histology, less TUNEL-positive cells, lower serum levels of creatinine (34%) and BUN (26%), and lower kidney expression of NGAL (50%) and KIM-1 (86%). C23-treated mice also had reduced lung and kidney levels of IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-1?. E-selectin and ICAM-1 mRNA was significantly lower in C23-treated mice. The 10-day survival after CLP of vehicle-treated mice was 55%, while that of C23-treated mice was 85%. In summary, C23 decreased systemic, lung, and kidney injury and inflammation, and improved the survival rate after CLP, suggesting that it may be developed as a new treatment for sepsis.