Bacterial Community Shifts Driven by Nitrogen Pollution in River Sediments of a Highly Urbanized City.
ABSTRACT: Effects of nitrogen pollution on bacterial community shifts in river sediments remain barely understood. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities in sediments of urban and suburban rivers in a highly urbanized city, Shanghai. Sediment nitrate (NO3-) and ammonia (NH4+) were highly accumulated in urban river. Operation Taxonomic Units (OTUs), Abundance-based Coverage Estimators (ACEs) and Chao 1 estimator in urban rivers were slightly lower than those in suburban rivers, while Shannon and Simpson indices were higher in urban rivers than those in suburban rivers. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant bacterial phylum communities, accounting for 68.5-84.9% of all communities. In particular, the relative abundances of Firmicutes and Nitrospirae were significantly higher in suburban rivers than in urban rivers, while relative abundances of Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Spirochaetes were significantly lower in suburban rivers than in urban rivers. NH4+ was significantly and negatively correlated with abundances of Firmicutes, Nitrospirae, and Actinobacteria. Importantly, the significant and negative effects of sediment NH4+ on bacterial richness and diversity suggested that nitrogen pollution likely contribute to the decrease in the bacterial richness and diversity. The results highlight that nitrogen enrichment could drive the shifts of bacterial abundance and diversity in the urban river sediments where are strongly influenced by human activities under the rapid urbanization stress.
Project description:Sediment microbial communities from plain river networks exert different effects on pollutant transformation and migration in lake basins. In this study, we examined millions of Illumina reads (16S rRNA gene amplicons) to compare lake, lake wetland, and estuary bacterial communities through a technically consistent approach. Results showed that bacterial communities in the sampled lake sediments had the highest alpha-diversity (Group B), than in sampled lake wetland sediments and estuary sediments. Proteobacteria was the most abundant (more than 30%) phyla in all the sediments. The lake sediments had more Nitrospirae (1.63%-11.75%) and Acidobacteria (3.46%-10.21%) than the lake wetland and estuary sediments, and estuary sediments had a greater abundance of the phylum Firmicutes (mean of 22.30%). Statistical analysis (LEfSe) revealed that lake wetland sediments contained greater abundances of the class Anaerolineaceae, orders Xanthomonadales, Pseudomonadales, and genera Flavobacterium, Acinetobacter. The lake sediments had a distinct community of diverse primary producers, such as phylum Acidobacteria, order Ignavibacteriales, and families Nitrospiraceae, Hydrogenophilaceae. Total phosphorus and organic matter were the main factors influencing the bacterial communities in sediments from several parts of the lake wetland and river estuary (p < .05). The novel insights into basin pollution control in plain river networks may be obtained from microbial distribution in sediments from different basin regions.
Project description:The excessive supply of contaminants from urban areas to rivers during the last centuries has led to deleterious impacts on aquatic ecosystems. The sources, the behavior, and the dynamics of these contaminants must be better understood in order to reduce this excessive anthropogenic pollution. Accordingly, the current research investigated the particle-bound trace element (TE) contamination of the 900-km<sup>2</sup> Orge River (Seine basin, France) and the potential sources of these particles (agricultural or forest soils, channel banks, road deposited sediments), through the analysis of multiple fallout radionuclides, elemental geochemistry, and lead isotopic composition on suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected during a hydrological year at four stations following an increasing urbanization gradient (300 to 5000 inhab.km<sup>-2</sup>). Fallout radionuclide measurements showed an increasing contribution of recently eroded particles from urban areas to the SPM in downstream direction. However, this contribution varied depending on hydrological conditions. A greater contribution of particles originating from urban areas was observed during low stage periods. On the contrary, the contribution of agricultural soils and channel banks that are less enriched in contaminants and fallout radionuclides was higher during seasonal floods, which explained the dilution of radionuclide contents in sediment transiting the river during those events. Trace element contamination of SPM in Cu, Zn, Pb, and Sb increased from moderate to significant levels with urban pressure in downstream direction (with corresponding enrichment factors raising from 2 to 6). In addition, Pb isotopic ratios indicated that the main source of Pb corresponded to the "urban" signature found in road deposited sediments. The low variations in lead isotope ratios found in the SPM for contrasting hydrological conditions demonstrated the occurrence of a single source of Pb contamination. These results demonstrate the need to better manage urban runoff during both flood and low precipitation events to prevent the supply of diffuse particle-bound contamination to rivers draining urban areas.
Project description:Along with urbanization, the intensified nitrogen pollution in urban rivers and the form of black-odor rivers has become one of the biggest concerns. Better understanding of the nitrogen transformations and microbial mechanisms occurring within urban rivers could help to manage their water quality. In this study, pollution characteristics, potential nitrogen removal rate, composition and function of bacterial community, and abundance of functional genes associated with nitrogen transformation were comparatively investigated in a typical urban river (FC) and a suburban river (LH). Compared with LH, FC was characterized by higher content of nutrients, lower potential nitrogen removal rate and lower abundance of functional genes associated with nitrogen transformation in both overlying water and sediment, especially in summer. Sediment dissolved organic matter characterized by excitation-emission matrix (EEM) showed that FC was more severely polluted by high nitrogen organic matter. Our results revealed that anammox was the main nitrogen removal pathway in both rivers and potential nitrogen removal rates decreased significantly in summer. Bacterial community analysis showed that the benthic communities were more severely influenced by the pollutant than aquatic ones in both rivers. Furthermore, the FC benthic community was dominated by anaerobic respiring, fermentative, sulfate reduction bacteria. Quantitatively, the denitrification rate showed a significant positive correlation with the abundance of denitrification genes, whilst the anammox rate was significantly negatively correlated with bacterial diversity. Meanwhile, NH4+-N had a significant negative correlation to both denitrification and anammox in sediment. Taken together, the results indicated that the increased nitrogen pollutants in an urban river altered nitrogen removal pathways and bacterial communities, which could in turn exacerbate the nitrogen pollution to this river.
Project description:In this present study we report the profile of bacterial community at variable depth of soil sediment in the world's largest tropical mangrove sediments of Sundarbans, India using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Metagenome of three samples consisted of 61301 sequences with 32.0 Mbp and 55.6% G + C content. Metagenome data of this study are available at NCBI under the Biosample data base accession no. SRX883521. The taxonomic analysis of 2746 species belonged to 33 different phyla revealing the dominance of Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Nitrospirae and Actinobacteria respectively. Remarkably less than 5.0% sequences belong to a poorly characterized group. Our pyrosequencing data report unfolds the bacterial community profile at different depth of soil sediment indicating the changing community pattern, in the light of specific chronology.
Project description:Microbial diversity of sediments from the northern slope of the South China Sea was studied by constructing bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Fourteen bacterial phylogenetic groups were detected, including Gammaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Nitrospirae, candidate divisions OP8 and OP11, and an unknown group. Gammaproteobacteria was the predominant group in bacterial libraries with the percentage ranging from 31.8% to 63.2%. However, archaeal libraries had relatively lower diversity, with most clones belonging to marine archaeal group capital I, Ukrainian uncultured Crenarchaeota. In addition, two novel euryarchaeal clones were detected not to match any culture-dependent or -independent isolates. Compared with other gas hydrate-rich ecosystems and different areas of the South China Sea, a distinct microbial community was revealed in this study.
Project description:The present study compared the taxonomic diversity and evaluated the functional attributes of the bacterial species from Mandovi and Zuari mangrove sediments, Goa, using paired-end amplicon sequencing of 16S rDNA and culture-based analyses, respectively. 16S rDNA sequencing revealed Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria as the dominant phyla in both the sediments. However, the abundance of these phyla significantly differed between the samples. Bacteroidetes from Mandovi sediment, and Acidobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes from Zuari sediment were the other exclusive major phyla. Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, and WS3 were the minor phyla observed in both. However, a significant difference in the distribution of minor phyla and lower bacterial taxa under each phylum was noted between the sediments, indicating that the resident microbial flora completely differed between them. This was further validated by high values from distance matrix analyses between the samples. In addition, the pathogenic Vibrio sp. was recorded exclusively in Mandovi sediment, while higher abundance of ecologically important bacterial classes including Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, and Bacilli was observed in Zuari sediment. Taken together, the data indicated that Zuari sediment was taxonomically richer than Mandovi sediment, while a greater incidence of anthropogenic activities occurred in the latter. This observation was further validated by non-parametric richness estimators which were found to be higher for Zuari sediment. The cultured bacterial isolates, all identified as Firmicutes, were tested for activities related to biofertilization and production of enzymes to be used for bioremediation and chemotherapeutic applications. Higher number of bacterial isolates from Mandovi was found to produce indole-acetic-acid, tannase, xylanase, and glutaminase enzymes, and could solubilize phosphate. In contrast, higher proportion of bacterial isolates from Zuari sediment were capable of producing amylase, cellulase, gelatinase, laccase, lipase, protease, and asparaginase enzymes, emphasizing the fact that the Zuari mangrove sediment is a rich reservoir for economically and biotechnologically important bacterial species.
Project description:Bacteria play a vital role in various biogeochemical processes in lacustrine sediment ecosystems. This study is among the first to investigate the spatial distribution patterns of bacterial community composition in the sediments of Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake of China. Sediment samples were collected from the main basins and mouths of major rivers that discharge into the Poyang Lake in May 2011. Quantitative PCR assay and pyrosequencing analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that the bacteria community abundance and compositions of Poyang Lake sediment varied largely among sampling sites. A total of 25 phyla and 68 bacterial orders were distinguished. Burkholderiales, Gallionellales (Beta-proteobacteria), Myxococcales, Desulfuromonadales (Delta-proteobacteria), Sphingobacteriales (Bacteroidetes), Nitrospirales (Nitrospirae), Xanthomonadales (Gamma-proteobacteria) were identified as the major taxa and collectively accounted for over half of annotated sequences. Moreover, correlation analyses suggested that higher loads of total phosphorus and heavy metals (copper, zinc and cadmium) could enhance bacterial abundance in the sediment.
Project description:<i>Acidimicrobiaceae</i> sp. strain A6 (A6), from the <i>Actinobacteria</i> phylum, was recently identified as a microorganism that can carry out anaerobic ammonium (NH<sub>4</sub> <sup>+</sup>) oxidation coupled to iron reduction, a process also known as Feammox. Being an iron-reducing bacterium, A6 was studied as a potential electrode-reducing bacterium that may transfer electrons extracellularly onto electrodes while gaining energy from NH<sub>4</sub> <sup>+</sup> oxidation. <i>Actinobacteria</i> species have been overlooked as electrogenic bacteria, and the importance of lithoautotrophic iron reducers as electrode-reducing bacteria at anodes has not been addressed. By installing electrodes in the soil of a forested riparian wetland where A6 thrives, in soil columns in the laboratory, and in A6-bioaugmented constructed wetland (CW) mesocosms and by operating microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) with pure A6 culture, the characteristics and performances of this organism as an electrode-reducing bacterium candidate were investigated. In this study, we show that <i>Acidimicrobiaceae</i> sp. strain A6, a lithoautotrophic bacterium, is capable of colonizing electrodes under controlled conditions. In addition, A6 appears to be an electrode-reducing bacterium, since current production was boosted shortly after the CWs were seeded with enrichment A6 culture and current production was detected in MECs operated with pure A6, with the anode as the sole electron acceptor and NH<sub>4</sub> <sup>+</sup> as the sole electron donor.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Most studies on electrogenic microorganisms have focused on the most abundant heterotrophs, while other microorganisms also commonly present in electrode microbial communities, such as <i>Actinobacteria</i> strains, have been overlooked. The novel <i>Acidimicrobiaceae</i> sp. strain A6 (<i>Actinobacteria</i>) is an iron-reducing bacterium that can colonize the surface of anodes in sediments and is linked to electrical current production, making it an electrode-reducing bacterium. Furthermore, A6 can carry out anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to iron reduction. Therefore, findings from this study open the possibility of using electrodes instead of iron as electron acceptors, as a means to promote A6 to treat NH<sub>4</sub> <sup>+</sup>-containing wastewater more efficiently. Altogether, this study expands our knowledge of electrogenic bacteria and opens the possibility of developing Feammox-based technologies coupled to bioelectric systems for the treatment of NH<sub>4</sub> <sup>+</sup> and other contaminants in anoxic systems.
Project description:Multidrug resistant bacterial infections threaten to become the number one cause of death by the year 2050. Development of antimicrobial dendritic polymers is considered promising as an alternative infection control strategy. For antimicrobial dendritic polymers to effectively kill bacteria residing in infectious biofilms, they have to penetrate and accumulate deep into biofilms. Biofilms are often recalcitrant to antimicrobial penetration and accumulation. Therefore, this work aims to determine the role of compact dendrons with different peripheral composition in their penetration into <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> biofilms. Red fluorescently labeled dendrons with pH-responsive NH<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup> peripheral groups initially penetrated faster from a buffer suspension at pH 7.0 into the acidic environment of <i>P. aeruginosa</i> biofilms than dendrons with OH or COO<sup>-</sup> groups at their periphery. In addition, dendrons with NH<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup> peripheral groups accumulated near the top of the biofilm due to electrostatic double-layer attraction with negatively charged biofilm components. However, accumulation of dendrons with OH and COO<sup>-</sup> peripheral groups was more evenly distributed across the depth of the biofilms than NH<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup> composed dendrons and exceeded accumulation of NH<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup> composed dendrons after 10 min of exposure. Unlike dendrons with NH<sub>3</sub><sup>+</sup> groups at their periphery, dendrons with OH or COO<sup>-</sup> peripheral groups, lacking strong electrostatic double-layer attraction with biofilm components, were largely washed-out during exposure to PBS without dendrons. Thus, penetration and accumulation of dendrons into biofilms is controlled by their peripheral composition through electrostatic double-layer interactions, which is an important finding for the further development of new antimicrobial or antimicrobial-carrying dendritic polymers.
Project description:Arsenic (As), a highly toxic metalloid, naturally present in Camarones River (Atacama Desert, Chile) is a great health concern for the local population and authorities. In this study, the taxonomic and functional characterization of bacterial communities associated to metal-rich sediments from three sites of the river (sites M1, M2 and M3), showing different arsenic concentrations, were evaluated using a combination of approaches. Diversity of bacterial communities was evaluated by Illumina sequencing. Strains resistant to arsenic concentrations varying from 0.5 to 100 mM arsenite or arsenate were isolated and the presence of genes coding for enzymes involved in arsenic oxidation (aio) or reduction (arsC) investigated. Bacterial communities showed a moderate diversity which increased as arsenic concentrations decreased along the river. Sequences of the dominant taxonomic groups (abundances ?1%) present in all three sites were affiliated to Proteobacteria (range 40.3-47.2%), Firmicutes (8.4-24.8%), Acidobacteria (10.4-17.1%), Actinobacteria (5.4-8.1%), Chloroflexi (3.9-7.5%), Planctomycetes (1.2-5.3%), Gemmatimonadetes (1.2-1.5%), and Nitrospirae (1.1-1.2%). Bacterial communities from sites M2 and M3 showed no significant differences in diversity between each other (p = 0.9753) but they were significantly more diverse than M1 (p<0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). Sequences affiliated with Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and Actinobacteria at M1 accounted for more than 89% of the total classified bacterial sequences present but these phyla were present in lesser proportions in M2 and M3 sites. Strains isolated from the sediment of sample M1, having the greatest arsenic concentration (498 mg kg-1), showed the largest percentages of arsenic oxidation and reduction. Genes aio were more frequently detected in isolates from M1 (54%), whereas arsC genes were present in almost all isolates from all three sediments, suggesting that bacterial communities play an important role in the arsenic biogeochemical cycle and detoxification of arsenical compounds. Overall, results provide further knowledge on the microbial diversity of arsenic contaminated fresh-water sediments.