Liver-on-a-Chip?Magnetic Nanoparticle Bound Synthetic Metalloporphyrin-Catalyzed Biomimetic Oxidation of a Drug in a Magnechip Reactor.
ABSTRACT: Biomimetic oxidation of drugs catalyzed by metalloporphyrins can be a novel and promising way for the effective and sustainable synthesis of drug metabolites. The immobilization of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)iron(II) porphyrin (FeTPFP) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfonatophenyl)iron(II) porphyrin (FeTSPP) via stable covalent or rapid ionic binding on aminopropyl-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs-NH2) were developed. These immobilized catalysts could be efficiently applied for the synthesis of new pharmaceutically active derivatives and liver related phase I oxidative major metabolite of an antiarrhythmic drug, amiodarone integrated in a continuous-flow magnetic chip reactor (Magnechip).
Project description:The use of Porphyrin derivatives as photosensitizers in Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) was investigated by means of a molecular docking study. These molecules can bind to intracellular targets such as P-type CaCa(2+) ATPase of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA1a). CAChe software was successfully employed for conducting the docking of Tetraphenylporphinesulfonate(TPPS), 5,10,15,20- Tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrinato Iron(III) Chloride (FeTPPS) and 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrinato Iron(III) nitrosyl Chloride (FeNOTPPS) with CaCa(2+) ATPase from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rabbit. The results show that FeNOTPPS forms the most stable complex with CaCa(2+) ATPase.
Project description:The catalytic oxidation of alkenes by most iron porphyrins using a variety of oxygen sources, but generally not dioxygen, yields the epoxide with minor quantities of other products. The turnover numbers for these catalysts are modest, ranging from a few hundred to a few thousand depending on the porphyrin structure, axial ligands, and other reaction conditions. Halogenation of substituents increases the activity of the metalloporphyrin catalyst and/or makes it more robust to oxidative degradation. Oxidation of cyclohexene by 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)porphyrinato iron(III), ([Fe(III)(tppf(20))]) and H(2)O(2) is typical of the latter: the epoxide is 99 % of the product and turnover numbers are about 350.1-4 Herein, we report that dynamic organic nanoparticles (ONPs) of [Fe(III)(tppf(20))] with a diameter of 10 nm, formed by host-guest solvent methods, catalytically oxidize cyclohexene with O(2) to yield only 2-cyclohexene-1-one and 2-cyclohexene-1-ol with approximately 10-fold greater turnover numbers compared to the non-aggregated metalloporphyrin in acetonitrile/methanol. These ONPs facilitate a greener reaction because the reaction solvent is 89 % water and O(2) is the oxidant in place of synthetic oxygen sources. This reactivity is unexpected because the metalloporphyrins are in close proximity and oxidative degradation of the catalyst should be enhanced, thus causing a significant decrease in catalytic turnovers. The allylic products suggest a different oxidative mechanism compared to that of the solvated metalloporphyrins. These results illustrate the unique properties of some ONPs relative to the component molecules or those attached to supports.
Project description:The kinetics of the reactions of three porphyrin-iron(IV)-oxo derivatives with alkenes and benzylic alcohols were measured. The iron-oxo systems studied were 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,6-dichlorophenyl)porphyrin-iron(IV)-oxo (2a), 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(2,6-difluorophenyl)porphyrin-iron(IV)-oxo (2b), and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin-iron(IV)-oxo (2c). Species 2 were stable for hours at room temperature as dilute solutions in acetonitrile and reacted hundreds to thousands of times faster in the presence of high concentrations of substrates. Typical second-order rate constants determined from pseudo-first-order kinetic studies are 1-2 x 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) for reactions with styrene and 3 x 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) for reactions with benzyl alcohol. The reactivity order for the iron-oxo species was 2a > 2b > 2c, which is inverted from that expected on the basis of the electron demand of the porphyrin macrocycles, and the oxidation reaction was suppressed when excess porphyrin-iron(III) complex was added to reaction mixtures. These observations indicate that the reactions involve disproportionation of the iron(IV)-oxo species 2 to give an iron(III) species and a more highly oxidized iron species, presumed to be an iron(IV)-oxo porphyrin radical cation, that is the true oxidant in the reactions. Analyses of the kinetics of oxidations of a series of para-substituted benzylic alcohols with Hammett sigma+ -substituent constants and with a dual-parameter method developed by Jiang (Jiang, X. K. Acc. Chem. Res. 1997, 30, 283) indicated that considerable positive charge developed on the benzylic carbons in the oxidation reactions, as expected for electrophilic oxidants, and also that substantial radical character developed on the benzyl carbon in the transition states.
Project description:The crystallization and the crystal and molecular structure of a very slightly soluble electrostatically interacting pair of porphyrins is described. The tetra-anion 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(4-sulfonatophenyl)-21,23H-porphyrin [H2TPPSO3]4- and the tetra-cation 5,10,15,20-tetra(N-methylpyridyl)21H,23H-porphyrin [H2TMePyP]4+ are found to form an alternating one-dimensional stack that is stabilised by electrostatic interactions between the porphyrin rings but also by ?-? interactions between all substituted phenyl rings in the ensemble. The resulting interactions between the porphyrins is exceptionally tight.
Project description:The cure for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still unknown. According to Cholinergic hypothesis, Alzheimer's disease is caused by the reduced synthesis of the neurotransmitter, Acetylcholine. Regional cerebral blood flow can be increased in patients with Alzheimer's disease by Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors. In this regard, Tetraphenylporphinesulfonate (TPPS), 5,10,15,20- Tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrinato Iron(III) Chloride (FeTPPS) and 5,10,15,20-Tetrakis (4-sulfonatophenyl) porphyrinatoIron(III) nitrosyl Chloride (FeNOTPPS) were investigated as candidate compounds for inhibition of Acteylcholinesterase of Drosophila melanogaster (DmAChE) by use of Molecular Docking. The results show that FeNOTPPS forms the most stable complex with DmAChE.
Project description:The four para fluoro groups on 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin (TPPF20) are known to react with a variety of nucleophiles, but the reaction conditions for this substitution reaction depend on the nature of the nucleophiles, e.g. primary amines versus thiols. Glycosylated derivatives of this core porphyrin have been shown to be effective photodynamic agents in the induction of necrosis or apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. The present report demonstrates that TPPF20 can be used as a core platform to efficiently generate a variety of solution-phase combinatorial libraries. The focused combinatorial libraries have substituents that are chosen from a set of motifs known to bind biopolymers such as DNA, be taken up by cancer cells, or to render the compounds amphipathic. Incubation of a breast cancer cell line with these solution-phase libraries, followed by cell lyses and extraction, affords a selection assay. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry of the extracts allows identification of the molecules taken up by the cells. Cell binding assays of the winning compounds synthesized directly indicate that both glycosylation and amphipathicity are key properties since neither tetraglycosylated porphyrins nor those with four polar groups are selected to the same extent. In addition, photodynamic efficacy was evaluated.
Project description:Strategies to create thin films using layer-by-layer methods use oppositely charged polymeric polyelectrolytes for both or at least one component to beneficially exploit multitopic electrostatic interactions between the deposited layers with opposite charges. In contrast, the electrostatic deposition of tetracationic 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(1'-methyl-4'-pyridinio)porphyrin tetra(p-toluenesulfonate) (TMPyP(4+)) with tetraanionic polyoxometalates such as EuPW(11)O(39)(4-) or SiW(12)O(40)(4-) onto charged substrates, such as mica, or polar substrates, such as glass and indium-tin oxide (ITO), demonstrates that the use of polymeric components is not a priori necessary. The use of molecules in sequential dipping approaches requires a careful balance in the interaction energies between the oppositely charged molecules, as demonstrated by the observation that a tetraanionic porphyrin such as 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin does not form layers with TMPyP(4+). In the present case, these systems require several rounds of dipping to obtain films of uniform coverage and durability. The thin films deposited onto glass, quartz, ITO, and mica are surprisingly robust, since they are not removed by sonication in either organic solvents or 100 mM NaCl.
Project description:Catalytic, low temperature preferential oxidation (PROX) of carbon monoxide by aqueous [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octafluoroporphyrinato]rhodium(III) tetrasodium salt, (1[Rh(III)]) and [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3-sulfonato-2,6-difluorophenyl)-2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-octafluoroporphyrinato]rhodium(III) tetrasodium salt, (2[Rh(III)]) is reported. The PROX reaction occurs at ambient temperature in buffered (4 ? pH ? 13) aqueous solutions. Fluorination on the porphyrin periphery is shown to increase the CO PROX reaction rate, shift the metal centered redox potentials, and acidify ligated water molecules. Most importantly, ?-fluorination increases the acidity of the rhodium hydride complex (pK(a) = 2.2 ± 0.2 for 2[Rh-D]); the dramatically increased acidity of the Rh(III) hydride complex precludes proton reduction and hydrogen activation near neutral pH, thereby permitting oxidation of CO to be unaffected by the presence of H(2). This new fluorinated water-soluble rhodium porphyrin-based homogenous catalyst system permits preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen gas streams at 308 °K using dioxygen or a sacrificial electron acceptor (indigo carmine) as the terminal oxidant.
Project description:We report of the interactions between four amino acids lysine (Lys), arginine (Arg), histidine (His), and phenylalanine (Phe) with the J-aggregates of the protonated 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)-porphyrin H?TPPS. Several aspects of these self-assembled systems have been analyzed: (i) the chiral transfer process; (ii) the hierarchical effects leading to the aggregates formation; and, (iii) the influence of the amino acid concentrations on both transferring and storing chiral information. We have demonstrated that the efficient control on the J-aggregates chirality is obtained when all amino acids are tested and that the chirality transfer process is under hierarchical control. Finally, the chiral porphyrin aggregates obtained exhibit strong chiral inertia.
Project description:In this work, we prepared color-changing colloids by using the electrostatic self-assembly approach. The supramolecular structures are composed of a pH-responsive polymeric surfactant and the water-soluble porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetrakis-(sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS). The pH-responsive surfactant polymer was achieved by the chemical modification of an alternating aliphatic polyketone (PK) via the Paal-Knorr reaction with N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediamine (HEDA). The resulting polymer/dye supramolecular systems form colloids at the submicron level displaying negative zeta potential at neutral and basic pH, and, at acidic pH, flocculation is observed. Remarkably, the colloids showed a gradual color change from green to pinky-red due to the protonation/deprotonation process of TPPS from pH 2 to pH 12, revealing different aggregation behavior.