Discovery of powdery mildew resistance gene candidates from Aegilops biuncialis chromosome 2Mb based on transcriptome sequencing.
ABSTRACT: Powdery mildew is one of the most widespread diseases of wheat. The development and deployment of resistant varieties are one of the most economical and effective methods to manage this disease. Our previous study showed that the gene(s) at 2Mb in Chinese Spring (CS)-Aegilops biuncialis 2Mb disomic addition line TA7733 conferred a high level of resistance to powdery mildew of wheat. In this study, resistance spectrum of TA7733 was assayed by using 15 Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) isolates prevalent in different regions of China. The result indicated that TA7733 was highly resistant to all tested Bgt isolates and the gene(s) on chromosome 2Mb conferred broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew. In order to characterize mechanism of powdery mildew resistance by identifying candidates R-genes derived from Ae. biuncialis chromosome 2Mb and develop 2Mb-specific molecular markers, we performed RNA-seq analysis on TA7733 and CS. In total we identified 7,278 unigenes that showed specific expression in TA7733 pre and post Bgt-infection when compared to CS. Of these 7,278 unigenes, 295 were annotated as putative resistance (R) genes. Comparatively analysis of R-gene sequences from TA7733 and CS and integration CS Ref Seq v1.0 were used to develop R-gene specific primers. Of 295 R-genes we identified 53 R-genes were specific to 2Mb and could be involved in powdery mildew resistance. Functional annotation of majority of the 53 R-genes encoded nucleotide binding leucine rich repeat (NLR) protein. The broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew in TA7733 and availability of 2Mb-derived putative candidate R-gene specific molecular markers identified in this study will lay foundations for transferring powdery mildew resistance from 2Mb to common wheat by inducing CS-Ae. biuncialis homoeologous recombination. Our study also provides useful candidates for further isolation and cloning of powdery mildew resistance gene(s) from Ae. biuncialis chromosome 2Mb.
Project description:Powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) is one of many severe diseases that threaten bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield and quality worldwide. The discovery and deployment of powdery mildew resistance genes (Pm) can prevent this disease epidemic in wheat. In a previous study, we transferred the powdery mildew resistance gene Pm57 from Aegilops searsii into common wheat and cytogenetically mapped the gene in a chromosome region with the fraction length (FL) 0.75-0.87, which represents 12% segment of the long arm of chromosome 2Ss#1. In this study, we performed RNA-seq using RNA extracted from leaf samples of three infected and mock-infected wheat-Ae. searsii 2Ss#1 introgression lines at 0, 12, 24, and 48 h after inoculation with Bgt isolates. Then we designed 79 molecular markers based on transcriptome sequences and physically mapped them to Ae. searsii chromosome 2Ss#1- in seven intervals. We used these markers to identify 46 wheat-Ae. searsii 2Ss#1 recombinants induced by ph1b, a deletion mutant of pairing homologous (Ph) genes. After analyzing the 46 ph1b-induced 2Ss#1L recombinants in the region where Pm57 is located with different Bgt-responses, we physically mapped Pm57 gene on the long arm of 2Ss#1 in a 5.13 Mb genomic region, which was flanked by markers X67593 (773.72 Mb) and X62492 (778.85 Mb). By comparative synteny analysis of the corresponding region on chromosome 2B in Chinese Spring (T. aestivum L.) with other model species, we identified ten genes that are putative plant defense-related (R) genes which includes six coiled-coil nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (CNL), three nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NL) and a leucine-rich receptor-like repeat (RLP) encoding proteins. This study will lay a foundation for cloning of Pm57, and benefit the understanding of interactions between resistance genes of wheat and powdery mildew pathogens.
Project description:Plant sense potential microbial pathogen using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The Lectin receptor-like kinase genes (LecRKs) are involved in various cellular processes mediated by signal transduction pathways. In the present study, an L-type lectin receptor kinase gene LecRK-V was cloned from Haynaldia villosa, a diploid wheat relative which is highly resistant to powdery mildew. The expression of LecRK-V was rapidly up-regulated by Bgt inoculation and chitin treatment. Its transcript level was higher in the leaves than in roots, culms, spikes and callus. Single-cell transient overexpression of LecRK-V led to decreased haustorium index in wheat variety Yangmai158, which is powdery mildew susceptible. Stable transformation LecRK-V into Yangmai158 significantly enhanced the powdery mildew resistance at both seedling and adult stages. At seedling stage, the transgenic line was highly resistance to 18 of the tested 23 Bgt isolates, hypersensitive responses (HR) were observed for 22 Bgt isolates, and more ROS at the Bgt infection sites was accumulated. These indicated that LecRK-V confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew, and ROS and SA pathways contribute to the enhanced powdery mildew resistance in wheat.
Project description:Powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) leads to severe economic losses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). To date, only a few epigenetic modulators have been revealed to regulate wheat powdery mildew resistance. In this study, the histone deacetylase 2 (HD2) type histone deacetylase TaHDT701 was identified as a negative regulator of wheat defense responses to Bgt. Using multiple approaches, we demonstrated that TaHDT701 associates with the RPD3 type histone deacetylase TaHDA6 and the WD40-repeat protein TaHOS15 to constitute a histone deacetylase complex, in which TaHDT701 could stabilize the TaHDA6-TaHOS15 association. Furthermore, knockdown of TaHDT701, TaHDA6, and TaHOS15 resulted in enhanced wheat powdery mildew resistance, suggesting that the TaHDT701-TaHDA6-TaHOS15 histone deacetylase complex negatively regulates wheat defense responses to Bgt. Moreover, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed that TaHDT701 could function in concert with TaHOS15 to recruit TaHDA6 to the promoters of defense-related genes such as TaPR1, TaPR2, TaPR5, and TaWRKY45. In addition, silencing of TaHDT701, TaHDA6, and TaHOS15 resulted in the up-regulation of TaPR1, TaPR2, TaPR5, and TaWRKY45 accompanied with increased histone acetylation and methylation, as well as reduced nucleosome occupancy, at their promoters, suggesting that the TaHDT701-TaHDA6-TaHOS15 histone deacetylase complex suppresses wheat powdery mildew resistance by modulating chromatin state at defense-related genes.
Project description:Powdery mildew (Pm) caused by the infection of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) is a worldwide crop disease resulting in significant loss of wheat yield. To profile the genes and pathways responding to the Bgt infection, here, using Affymetrix wheat microarrays, we compared the leaf transcriptomes before and after Bgt inoculation in two wheat genotypes, a Pm-susceptible cultivar Jingdong 8 (S) and its near-isogenic line (R) carrying a single Pm resistant gene Pm30. Our analysis showed that the original gene expression status in the S and R genotypes of wheat was almost identical before Bgt inoculation, since only 60 genes exhibited differential expression by P = 0.01 cutoff. However, 12 h after Bgt inoculation, 3014 and 2800 genes in the S and R genotype, respectively, responded to infection. A wide range of pathways were involved, including cell wall fortification, flavonoid biosynthesis and metabolic processes. Furthermore, for the first time, we show that sense-antisense pair genes might be participants in wheat-powdery mildew interaction. In addition, the results of qRT-PCR analysis on several candidate genes were consistent with the microarray data in their expression patterns. In summary, this study reveals leaf transcriptome changes before and after powdery mildew infection in wheat near-isogenic lines, suggesting that powdery mildew resistance is a highly complex systematic response involving a large amount of gene regulation.
Project description:Powdery mildew disease caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) inflicts severe economic losses in wheat crops. A systematic understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in wheat resistance to Bgt is essential for effectively controlling the disease. Here, using the diploid wheat Triticum urartu as a host, the genes regulated by immune (IM) and hypersensitive reaction (HR) resistance responses to Bgt were investigated through transcriptome sequencing. Four gene coexpression networks (GCNs) were developed using transcriptomic data generated for 20 T. urartu accessions showing IM, HR or susceptible responses. The powdery mildew resistance regulated (PMRR) genes whose expression was significantly correlated with Bgt resistance were identified, and they tended to be hubs and enriched in six major modules. A wide occurrence of negative regulation of PMRR genes was observed. Three new candidate immune receptor genes (TRIUR3_13045, TRIUR3_01037 and TRIUR3_06195) positively associated with Bgt resistance were discovered. Finally, the involvement of TRIUR3_01037 in Bgt resistance was tentatively verified through cosegregation analysis in a F2 population and functional expression assay in Bgt susceptible leaf cells. This research provides insights into the global network properties of PMRR genes. Potential molecular differences between IM and HR resistance responses to Bgt are discussed.
Project description:Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) can trigger plant immunity through the recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. In this study, we report that a malectin-like/leucine-rich repeat receptor protein kinase gene, RLK-V, from Haynaldia villosa putatively acts as a PRR to positively regulate powdery mildew resistance caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) in wheat. RLK-V has two alternatively spliced transcripts corresponding to an intact RLK-V1.1 and a truncated RLK-V1.2 caused by intron retention. Expression analysis showed that both transcripts could be up-regulated by Bgt in resistant materials, whereas the functional RLK-V1.1 was expressed only after Bgt inoculation. Promoter activity assays indicated that RLK-V could respond to Bgt even in susceptible wheat. Silencing of RLK-V in Pm21-carrying resistant materials resulted in compromised resistance to Bgt. In addition, over-expression of RLK-V1.1 in Pm21-lacking susceptible Yangmai158 and SM-1 by single-cell transient expression and stable transformation in Yangmai158 could improve powdery mildew resistance. We propose that RLK-V regulates basal resistance to powdery mildew, which is also required for broad-spectrum resistance mediated by the Pm21 gene. Over-expression of RLK-V1.1 could trigger cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana, and RLK-V1.1 transgenic wheat accumulated more reactive oxygen species and displayed a stronger hypersensitive response than did the recipient, which led to enhanced Bgt resistance. However, constitutive activation of RLK-V1.1 resulted in the abnormal growth of transgenic plants.
Project description:Wheat powdery mildew, caused by the biotrophic fungus <i>Blumeria graminis</i> f. sp. <i>tritici</i> (<i>Bgt</i>), is a serious disease of wheat worldwide that can cause significant yield losses. Growing resistant cultivars is the most cost-effective and eco-soundly strategy to manage the disease. Therefore, a high breeding priority is to identify genes that can be readily used either singly or in combination for effective resistance to powdery mildew and also in combination with genes for resistance to other diseases. Yunnan Province, with complex and diverse ecological environments and climates, is one of the main wheat growing regions in China. This region provides initial inoculum for starting epidemics of wheat powdery mildew in the region and other regions and thus, plays a key role in the regional and large-scale epidemics of the disease throughout China. The objectives of this study were to evaluate seedling resistance of 69 main wheat cultivars to powdery mildew and to determine the presence of resistance genes <i>Pm3</i>, <i>Pm8</i>, <i>Pm13</i>, <i>Pm16</i>, and <i>Pm21</i>in these cultivars using gene specific DNA markers. Evaluation of 69 wheat cultivars with six <i>Bgt</i> isolates showed that only four cultivars were resistant to all tested isolates, indicating that the overall level of powdery mildew resistance of Yunnan wheat cultivars is inadequate. The molecular marker results showed that 27 cultivars likely have at least one of these genes. Six cultivars were found likely to have <i>Pm3</i>,18 likely to have <i>Pm8</i>,5 likely to have <i>Pm16</i>,and 3 likely to have <i>Pm21</i>. No cultivar was found to carry <i>Pm13</i>. The information on the presence of the <i>Pm</i>resistance genes in Yunnan wheat cultivars can be used in future wheat disease breeding programs. In particular, cultivars carrying <i>Pm21</i>, which is effective against all <i>Bgt</i>races in China, should be pyramided with other effective genes to developing new cultivars with durable resistance to powdery mildew.
Project description:Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is one of the most destructive diseases that pose a great threat to wheat production. Wheat landraces represent a rich source of powdery mildew resistance. Here, we report the map-based cloning of powdery mildew resistance gene Pm24 from Chinese wheat landrace Hulutou. It encodes a tandem kinase protein (TKP) with putative kinase-pseudokinase domains, designated WHEAT TANDEM KINASE 3 (WTK3). The resistance function of Pm24 was validated by transgenic assay, independent mutants, and allelic association analyses. Haplotype analysis revealed that a rare 6-bp natural deletion of lysine-glycine codons, endemic to wheat landraces of Shaanxi Province, China, in the kinase I domain (Kin I) of WTK3 is critical for the resistance function. Transgenic assay of WTK3 chimeric variants revealed that only the specific two amino acid deletion, rather than any of the single or more amino acid deletions, in the Kin I of WTK3 is responsible for gaining the resistance function of WTK3 against the Bgt fungus.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), the causal agent of wheat powdery mildew severely affects yield security wheat production in China. Understanding the virulence structure and genetic variations of this pathogen is important for breeding wheat lines resistant to wheat powdery mildew. However, information related to genes controlling resistance remains elusive. This study analyzes the virulence structure and the genetic diversity of pathogenic Bgt populations isolated from northeastern (Liaoning, Heilongjiang) and northwestern (Gansu) China, two representative wheat producing areas, on 37 wheat cultivars each carrying a known powdery mildew resistance (Pm) gene. RESULTS:Bgt isolates from northeastern China show higher frequencies of virulence genes than populations from Gansu Province. Many of the known Pm genes failed to provide resistance in this study. However, Pm21 provided 100% resistance to all isolates from all three provinces, obtained during two consecutive years, while Pm13 provided 100% resistance in Gansu. Pm13, Pm16, Pm18, and Pm22 also showed partial resistance in northeastern China, while Pm16, Pm18, Pm22, Pm5?+?6 and Pm2?+?6?+? maintained some resistance in Gansu. Genetic diversity among populations in different regions was detected by cluster analyses using expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR). When the genetic similarity coefficient is relatively high, populations from the same regional origin are mostly clustered into one group while populations from different regions exhibit large genetic differences. CONCLUSION:Pm21 remains the best choice for breeding programs to maintain resistance to Bgt. Only 58% of the isolates tested show a clear correlation between EST-SSR genetic polymorphisms and frequency of virulence gene data.
Project description:Powdery mildew, caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt), is a major threat to the production of wheat (Triticum aestivum). It is of great importance to identify new resistance genes for the generation of Bgt-resistant or Bgt-tolerant wheat varieties. Here, we show that the wheat copine genes TaBON1 and TaBON3 negatively regulate wheat disease resistance to Bgt. Two copies of TaBON1 and three copies of TaBON3, located on chromosomes 6AS, 6BL, 1AL, 1BL and 1DL, respectively, were identified from the current common wheat genome sequences. The expression of TaBON1 and TaBON3 is responsive to both pathogen infection and temperature changes. Knocking down of TaBON1 or TaBON3 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) induces the up-regulation of defence responses in wheat. These TaBON1- or TaBON3-silenced plants exhibit enhanced wheat disease resistance to Bgt, accompanied by greater accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and heightened cell death. In addition, high temperature has little effect on the up-regulation of defence response genes conferred by the silencing of TaBON1 or TaBON3. Our study shows a conserved function of plant copine genes in plant immunity and provides new genetic resources for the improvement of resistance to powdery mildew in wheat.