Mucosal IL13RA2 expression predicts nonresponse to anti-TNF therapy in Crohn's disease.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Ileocolonic expression of IL13RA2 has been identified as a predictive marker for nonresponsiveness to infliximab (IFX) in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). AIM:To validate the IL13RA2 biomarker, study its anti-TNF specificity and get a better understanding of the underlying biology driving its expression. METHODS:IL13RA2 mucosal expression was studied in a cohort of adalimumab and vedolizumab treated patients. To identify the upstream regulators of anti-TNF nonresponsiveness, weighted gene co-expression network analysis was applied on publicly available microarray data of IFX-treated patients. Selected serum proteins, including TNF, were measured prior to first IFX exposure and compared between healers and nonhealers. RESULTS:Increased mucosal IL13RA2 expression prior to start of biological therapy was predictive for anti-TNF nonresponsiveness specifically (AUROC, area under the curve = 0.90, P < 0.001 in anti-TNF vs AUROC = 0.63, P = 0.30 in vedolizumab treated patients). In baseline biopsies, TNF-driven pathways were significantly enriched in future anti-TNF nonhealers (P = 5.0 × 10-34 ). We found an increased baseline mucosal TNF burden in nonhealers (P = 0.02), and TNF mRNA correlated significantly with IL13RA2 expression (? = 0.55, P = 0.02). Baseline serum TNF levels were significantly lower in nonhealers (P = 0.04), and correlated inversely with IFX serum induction levels (r = -0.45, P = 0.002 at week 6). CONCLUSIONS:Increased mucosal IL13RA2 expression is associated with an increased mucosal TNF burden in CD patients. In view of its specificity for prediction of anti-TNF therapy resistance, mucosal IL13RA2 expression is a potential biomarker for therapy selection and/or for the need of increased anti-TNF drug dosing.
Project description:Background: Mucosal IL-13 Receptor alpha 2 (IL13RA2) mRNA expression is one of the best predictive markers for primary non-responsiveness to infliximab therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The objective of this study was to understand how IL-13R?2, a negative regulator of IL-13 signaling, can contribute to IBD pathology. Methods: IL13RA2 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice were exposed to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water to induce colitis. Furthermore, mucosal biopsies and resection specimen of healthy individuals and IBD patients before the start of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy were obtained for immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis. Results: After induction of DSS colitis, IL13RA2 KO mice had similar disease severity, but recovered more rapidly than WT animals. Goblet cell numbers and mucosal architecture were also more rapidly restored in IL13RA2 KO mice. In mucosal biopsies of active IBD patients, immunohistochemistry revealed that IL-13R?2 protein was highly expressed in epithelial cells, while expression was restricted to goblet cells in healthy controls. Mucosal IL13RA2 mRNA negatively correlated with mRNA of several goblet cell-specific and barrier genes, and with goblet cell numbers. Conclusions: The data suggest that IL-13R?2 on epithelial cells contributes to IBD pathology by negatively influencing goblet cell recovery, goblet cell function and epithelial restoration after injury. Therefore, blocking IL-13R?2 could be a promising target for restoration of the epithelial barrier in IBD.
Project description:Even though anti-TNF therapy significantly improves the rates of remission in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, there is a noticeable subgroup of patients who do not respond to treatment. Dysbiosis emerges as a key factor in IBD pathogenesis. The aim of the present study is to profile changes in the gut microbiome and transcriptome before and after administration of the anti-TNF agent Infliximab (IFX) and investigate their potential to predict patient response to IFX at baseline. Mucosal biopsy samples from 20 IBD patients and nine healthy controls (HC) were examined for differences in microbiota composition (16S rRNA gene sequencing) and mucosal gene expression (RT-qPCR) at baseline and upon completion of IFX treatment, accordingly, via an in silico pipeline. Significant differences in microbiota composition were found between the IBD and HC groups. Several bacterial genera, which were found only in IBD patients and not HC, had their populations dramatically reduced after anti-TNF treatment regardless of response. Alpha and beta diversity metrics showed significant differences between our study groups. Correlation analysis revealed six microbial genera associated with differential expression of inflammation-associated genes in IFX treatment responders at baseline. This study shows that IFX treatment has a notable impact on both the gut microbial composition and the inflamed tissue transcriptome in IBD patients. Importantly, our results identify enterotypes that correlate with transcriptome changes and help differentiate IFX responders versus non-responders at baseline, suggesting that, in combination, these signatures can be an effective tool to predict anti-TNF response.
Project description:Microarrays were used to investigate the the effect of vedolizumab (VDZ) therapy on colonic mucosal gene expression in UC patients and compared the changes to those observed with infliximab (IFX) therapy. Overall design: 120 colonic biopsies from 44 UC patients were collected at protocol-specified time points [week (W) 0, W6, W12 and W52] during two phase 3 trials of VDZ (GEMINI I and LTS). Biopsies were compared with 12 non-IBD colonic biopsies and colonic biopsies from 23 UC patients before and W4-6 after first IFX. Response was defined as endoscopic mucosal healing (Mayo endoscoipc subscore 0 or 1) and was assessed for VDZ at W6/12/52, and for IFX at W4-6. Total RNA extracted from mucosal biopsies was used to analyze mRNA expression via Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST arrays
Project description:BACKGROUND:With the changed therapeutic armamentarium for Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), biomarkers predicting treatment response are urgently needed. We studied whole blood and mucosal expression of genes previously reported to predict outcome to anti-TNF therapy, and investigated if the signature was specific for anti-TNF agents. METHODS:We prospectively included 54 active IBD patients (24CD, 30UC) initiating anti-TNF therapy, as well as 22 CD patients initiating ustekinumab and 51 patients initiating vedolizumab (25CD, 26UC). Whole blood expression of OSM, TREM1, TNF and TNFR2 was measured prior to start of therapy using qPCR, and mucosal gene expression in inflamed biopsies using RNA-sequencing. Response was defined as endoscopic remission (SES-CD???2 at week 24 for CD and Mayo endoscopic sub-score???1 at week 10 for UC). FINDINGS:Baseline whole blood TREM1 was downregulated in future anti-TNF responders, both in UC (FC?=?0.53, p?=?.001) and CD (FC?=?0.66, p?=?.007), as well as in the complete cohort (FC?=?0.67, p?<?.001). Receiver operator characteristic statistics showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.78 (p?=?.001). A similar accuracy could be achieved with mucosal TREM1 (AUC 0.77, p?=?.003), which outperformed the accuracy of serum TREM1 (AUC 0.58, p?=?.31). Although differentially expressed in tissue, OSM, TNF and TNFR2 were not differentially expressed in whole blood. The TREM1 predictive signal was anti-TNF specific, as no changes were seen in ustekinumab and vedolizumab treated patients. INTERPRETATION:We identified low TREM-1 as a specific biomarker for anti-TNF induced endoscopic remission. These results can aid in the selection of therapy in biologic-naïve patients.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:TNF-?-neutralizing antibodies, such as infliximab (IFX) and adalimumab (ADA), are effective in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), but they are expensive and become ineffective when patients develop anti-IFX or anti-ADA antibodies (ATI and ATA, respectively). Second-generation anti-TNF-? antibodies, such as Golimumab, Etanercept, Certolizumab-pegol and IFX biosimilars, may solve these issues. AIM:To determine the neutralizing capacity of first- and second generation anti-TNF-? antibodies and to determine whether ATI show cross-reactivity with the IFX biosimilar CT-P13 (Inflectra). METHODS:TNF-? neutralization was measured using a quantitative TNF-? sensor assay consisting of HeLa 8D8 cells that express the Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) under control of a NF-?B response element. All available anti-TNF-? drugs and the IFX biosimilar CT-P13 (Inflectra) were tested for their TNF-?-neutralizing capacity. In addition, patient sera with ATI were tested for their potential to block the activity of IFX, IFX (F)ab2-fragment, biosimilar CT-P13 (Inflectra) and ADA. RESULTS:TNF-? strongly induced GFP expression in Hela 8D8 cells. Higher concentrations of first-generation anti-TNF-? drugs were required to neutralize TNF-? compared to the second-generation anti-TNF-? drugs. Serum of IBD patients with proven ATI blocked TNF-?-neutralizing properties of IFX biosimilar CT-P13 (Inflectra), whereas such sera did not block the effect of ADA. CONCLUSION:The second-generation anti-TNF-? drugs show increased TNF-?-neutralizing potential compared to first-generation variants. ATI show cross-reactivity toward IFX biosimilar CT-P13 (Inflectra), consequently patients with ATI are unlikely to benefit from treatment with this IFX biosimilar.
Project description:Biological therapies are increasingly used to treat ulcerative colitis (UC).To compare the efficacy of biologics in adults with moderately-to-severely active UC, stratified by prior exposure to anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy.A systematic literature review was undertaken to identify studies of biologics approved for UC. Network meta-analysis was conducted for endpoints at induction and maintenance.Seven studies were included in the meta-analysis of induction treatment for anti-TNF therapy-naïve patients. All biologics were more effective than placebo in inducing clinical response, clinical remission, and mucosal healing. Infliximab demonstrated a statistically significant improvement over adalimumab in clinical response (odds ratio [OR] [95% credible interval (CrI)]: 2.19 [1.35-3.55]), clinical remission (OR [95% CrI]: 2.81 [1.49-5.49]), and mucosal healing (OR [95% CrI]: 2.23 [1.21-4.14]); there were no other significant differences between biologics for induction efficacy. Five studies were included in the meta-analysis of maintenance treatment, two studies rerandomised responder patients at end of induction, and three followed the same patients 'straight through'. To account for design differences, the number of responders at end of induction was assumed to be equivalent to the number rerandomised. Vedolizumab showed significantly different durable clinical response from comparators (OR [95% CrI] infliximab 3.18 [1.14-9.20], golimumab 2.33 [1.04-5.41], and adalimumab 3.96 [1.67-9.84]). In anti-TNF therapy-experienced patients, only vedolizumab and adalimumab could be compared. At induction, no significant differences in efficacy were seen. During maintenance, vedolizumab showed significantly improved rates of mucosal healing versus adalimumab (OR [95% CrI]: 6.72 [1.36-41.0]).This study expands the understanding of comparative efficacies of biologic treatments for UC, encompassing outcomes and populations not previously studied. All biologic treatments were effective for UC during induction. Vedolizumab demonstrated possible clinical benefits in the maintenance setting versus all comparators, irrespective of prior anti-TNF exposure and after adjusting for differences in study design.
Project description:Real-world comparative benefits and risks of infliximab (IFX) and adalimumab (ADA) in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are unclear.To evaluate the comparative effectiveness and safety of IFX and ADA in patients with UC who were new users of anti-TNF agents.Using an administrative claims database (Optum Labs Data Warehouse), we identified patients who received first anti-TNF (IFX, ADA) prescription after a 12-month period without any anti-TNF treatment (baseline), and with a minimum 6-month follow-up after anti-TNF initiation. Primary outcome measures were: all-cause and UC-related hospitalisation, abdominal surgery, corticosteroid use >60 days after starting anti-TNF, and serious infections. We performed 2:1 propensity-score matched Cox proportional hazard analysis, and inverse probability-of-treatment weight (IPTW) analysis, accounting for healthcare utilisation, comorbidities and use of UC-related medication.We included 1400 new users of anti-TNF agents (age, 43 ± 15 years; 52% males), from 2006 to 2014. On propensity-score matched analysis, there was no significant difference in the risk of UC-related hospitalisation [IFX vs. ADA; adjusted hazard ratio (aHR), 1.04; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-1.51], corticosteroid use (aHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.68-1.06) and serious infections (aHR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.29-1.34) between IFX- and ADA-treated patients; the number of surgical events was very small. On IPTW analysis, risk of corticosteroid use was significantly lower in IFX - as compared to ADA - treated patients (aHR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.99). Results were stable on multiple sensitivity analyses.In a large retrospective cohort of patients with UC who were new users of anti-TNF agents, IFX-treated patients may have lower corticosteroid use than ADA-treated patients, but risk of hospitalisation and serious infections were comparable.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists reduce the signs and symptoms of spondyloarthritides, including ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of adalimumab, 40 mg every other week, for patients with AS or PsA and prior treatment with infliximab (IFX) and/or etanercept (ETN).Both trials were 12-week, open-label studies with an optional extension period up to week 20. Patients were stratified by history of anti-TNF treatment, prior anti-TNF therapy received (IFX, ETN, or both), and reason for discontinuation of prior TNF antagonist. ETN was discontinued>or=3 weeks, and IFX was discontinued>or=2 months before the first adalimumab administration. Effectiveness at week 12 was evaluated by using observed standard-outcome measurements for AS and PsA.At week 12 of adalimumab treatment, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index 50 responses were achieved by 40.8% of 326 patients with AS who had received prior anti-TNF therapy and by 63.0% of 924 patients with AS who were naive to TNF antagonist. Observed response rates were generally greater for patients who discontinued the prior anti-TNF therapy because of loss of response or intolerance than for patients who discontinued because of lack of response. Median changes in swollen-joint count and in enthesitis score were similar in patients with and without prior TNF-antagonist treatment. Modified PsA response criteria were fulfilled by 71.2% of 66 patients with PsA, with prior exposure to TNF antagonists, and by 78.8% of 376 patients with no history of anti-TNF therapy. The percentages of patients with PsA attaining a Physician's Global Assessment of psoriasis of "Clear/Almost clear" increased from 33.3% to 61.0% for patients with prior IFX and/or ETN treatment and from 34.6% to 69.7% for patients without anti-TNF therapy. The median change in the Nail Psoriasis Severity Index was -6 for both groups. In both studies, patterns of adverse events were similar for patients with and without prior anti-TNF therapy and were consistent with the known safety profile of adalimumab.Patients with AS or PsA previously treated with IFX and/or ETN experienced clinically relevant improvements of their diseases after 12 weeks of adalimumab.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00478660 and NCT00235885.
Project description:Poor sleep, depression, and anxiety are common in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and associated with increased risk of relapse and poor outcomes. The effectiveness of therapies in improving such psychosocial outcomes is unclear but is an important question to examine with increasing selectivity of therapeutic agents.This prospective cohort enrolled patients with moderate-to-severe CD or UC starting biologic therapy with vedolizumab or anti-tumor necrosis factor ? agents (anti-TNF). Sleep quality, depression, and anxiety were measured using validated short-form NIH PROMIS questionnaires assessing sleep and mood quality over the past 7 days. Disease activity was assessed using validated indices. Improvement in sleep and mood scores from baseline was assessed, and regression models were used to identify determinants of sleep quality.Our study included 160 patients with IBD (49 anti-TNF, 111 Vedolizumab) among whom half were women and the mean age was 40.2 years. In the combined cohort, we observed a statistically significant and meaningful decrease in mean scores from baseline (52.8) by week 6 (49.8, p = 0.002). Among vedolizumab users, sleep T-score improved from baseline (53.6) by week 6 (50.7) and persisted through week 54 (46.5, p = 0.009). Parallel reductions in depression and anxiety were also noted (p < 0.05 by week 6). We observed no difference in improvement in sleep, depression, and anxiety between vedolizumab and anti-TNF use at week 6.Both vedolizumab and anti-TNF biologic therapies were associated with improvement in sleep and mood quality in IBD.
Project description:Infants exposed to combination therapy with anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) agents and thiopurines may exhibit increased infections at 1 year of age compared to unexposed infants. We hypothesized that this increased risk of infection is due to abnormal development of the newborn immune system.We immunophenotyped B-cell and T-cell subsets using multiparameter flow cytometry in 1-year-old infants whose mothers were exposed to therapeutic agents for IBD. We analyzed samples from infants exposed to infliximab (IFX) or adalimumab (ADA) monotherapy (IFX/ADA, n?=?11), certolizumab pegol (CZP) monotherapy (CZP, n?=?4), IFX or ADA plus thiopurine combination therapy (IFX/ADA?+?IM, n?=?4), and CZP plus thiopurine combination therapy (CZP?+?IM, n?=?2).Percentages of B cells, CD4+ T helper cells, T regulatory cells (Tregs), and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, were similar among the groups. Infants exposed to combination therapy (IFX/ADA?+?IM) exhibited trends toward fewer CD27+ B cells, switched memory B cells, plasmablasts, interferon gamma (IFN?)-producing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and CCR5+CD4+ T cells, but these did not reach statistical significance.Multiparameter immunophenotyping of major B-cell and T-cell subsets suggests that the adaptive newborn immune system develops largely unaltered after exposure to combination therapy as compared to anti-TNF monotherapy.