Explain This, Explore That: A Study of Parent-Child Interaction in a Children's Museum.
ABSTRACT: Parents visiting a gear exhibit at a children's museum were instructed to encourage their children (N = 65; ages 4-6) to explain, explore, or engage as usual. Instructions led to different patterns of play at the exhibit: Encouragement to explain led to greater discussion of gear mechanisms, whereas encouragement to explore led to more time connecting gears. In the explain condition, parents' questions predicted their children's discussion and further testing of gears. Questions also predicted the amount of time children spent on a follow-up task. Parents' exploration predicted an increase in exploration by their children. These data indicate that minimal interventions impact parent-child interaction at a museum exhibit and that prompts to explore or explain uniquely influence parent and child behavior.
Project description:Locally sustainable resource extraction activities, at times, transform into ecologically detrimental enterprises. Understanding such transitions is a primary challenge for conservation and management of many ecosystems. In marine systems, over-exploitation of small-scale fisheries creates problems such as reduced biodiversity and lower catches. However, long-term documentation of how governance and associated changes in fishing gears may have contributed to such declines is often lacking. Using fisher interviews, we characterized fishing gear dynamics over 60 years (1950-2010) in a coral reef ecosystem in the Philippines subject to changing fishing regulations. In aggregate fishers greatly diversified their use of fishing gears. However, most individual fishers used one or two gears at a time (mean number of fishing gears < 2 in all years). Individual fishing effort (days per year) was fairly steady over the study period, but cumulative fishing effort by all fishers increased 240%. In particular, we document large increases in total effort by fishers using nets and diving. Other fishing gears experienced less pronounced changes in total effort over time. Fishing intensified through escalating use of non-selective, active, and destructive fishing gears. We also found that policies promoting higher production over sustainability influenced the use of fishing gears, with changes in gear use persisting decades after those same policies were stopped. Our quantitative evidence shows dynamic changes in fishing gear use over time and indicates that gears used in contemporary small-scale fisheries impact oceans more than those used in earlier decades.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>To document biogeographic patterns in the deepwater benthic epifauna and demersal fishes of southern Australia, and determine whether museum records and systematic survey data provide matching results.<h4>Location</h4>Southern Australian (32-44<sup>o</sup>S) continental slope (200-3,000 m deep).<h4>Taxon</h4>Marine benthic fauna (Arthropoda, Bryozoa, Cnidaria, Echinodermata, Mollusca, Porifera, Sipuncula, and fishes).<h4>Methods</h4>All available electronic records of fauna from the above taxa and ?200 m depth off the southern Australian coastline, regardless of organism size, were collated from Australian museums and checked for geographic and taxonomic consistency. These records were then split into 40 geographic segments of roughly equal numbers, with each segment then treated as a sample in multivariate analyses of assemblage composition. Data from a recent (2015) systematic beam trawl survey along five north-south transects in the central Great Australian Bight were also included for comparison.<h4>Main conclusions</h4>The systematic survey data grouped with the associated geographic segments despite differences in sampling technique (single gear compared to multiple gears), with subsequent differences in taxonomic biases, and the use of a 25 mm mesh, which would undersample some smaller organisms present in the museum data. Thus, the museum data and the survey data provided the same results for the central Great Australian Bight at the level of the whole assemblage. The main biogeographic break occurred off southeastern Tasmania, with a second substantial break occurring at around the border between New South Wales and Victoria. This indicates the potential for unused museum data to describe biogeographic patterns over regional spatial scales, especially in the deep sea where the expense of collecting new data is relatively high.
Project description:Fishing gears are designed to exploit the natural behaviors of fish, and the concern that fishing may cause evolution of behavioral traits has been receiving increasing attention. The first intuitive expectation is that fishing causes evolution toward reduced boldness because it selectively removes actively foraging individuals due to their higher encounter rate and vulnerability to typical gear. However, life-history theory predicts that fishing, through shortened life span, favors accelerated life histories, potentially leading to increased foraging and its frequent correlate, boldness. Additionally, individuals with accelerated life histories mature younger and at a smaller size and therefore spend more of their life at a smaller size where mortality is higher. This life-history evolution may prohibit increases in risk-taking behavior and boldness, thus selecting for reduced risk-taking and boldness. Here, we aim to clarify which of these three selective patterns ends up being dominant. We study how behavior-selective fishing affects the optimal behavioral and life-history traits using a state-dependent dynamic programming model. Different gear types were modeled as being selective for foraging or hiding/resting individuals along a continuous axis, including unselective fishing. Compared with unselective harvesting, gears targeting hiding/resting individuals led toward evolution of increased foraging rates and elevated natural mortality rate, while targeting foraging individuals led to evolution of decreased foraging rates and lower natural mortality rate. Interestingly, changes were predicted for traits difficult to observe in the wild (natural mortality and behavior) whereas the more regularly observed traits (length-at-age, age at maturity, and reproductive investment) showed only little sensitivity to the behavioral selectivity.
Project description:Human beings are the dominant top predator in the marine ecosystem. Throughout most of the global ocean this predation is carried out by industrial fishing vessels, that can now be observed in unprecedented detail via satellite monitoring of Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages. The spatial and temporal distribution of this fishing effort emerges from the coupled interaction of ecological and socio-economic drivers and can therefore yield insights on the dynamics of both the ecosystem and fishers. Here we analyze temporal variability of industrial fishing effort from 2015-2017 as recorded by global AIS coverage, and differentiated by fishing gear type. The strongest seasonal signal is a reduction of total deployed effort during the annual fishing moratorium on the numerically-dominant Chinese fleet, which occurs during boreal summer. An additional societally-controlled reduction of effort occurs during boreal winter holidays. After accounting for these societal controls, the total deployed effort is relatively invariant throughout the year for all gear types except squid jiggers and coastal purse seiners. Despite constant deployment levels, strong seasonal variability occurs in the spatial pattern of fishing effort for gears targeting motile pelagic species, including purse seiners, squid jiggers and longliners. Trawlers and fixed gears target bottom-associated coastal prey and show very little overall seasonality, although they exhibit more seasonal variation at locations that are further from port. Our results suggest that societal controls dominate the total deployment of fishing effort, while the behavior of pelagic fish, including seasonal migration and aggregation, is likely the most prominent driver of the spatial seasonal variations in global fishing effort.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Ghana has achieved significant progress in breastfeeding practices in the past two decades. Further progress is, however, limited by insufficient government funding and declining donor support for breastfeeding programs. The current study pretested feasibility of the <i>Becoming Breastfeeding Friendly (BBF) toolbox</i> in Ghana, to assess the existing enabling environment and gaps for scaling-up effective actions.<h4>Methods</h4>Between June 2016 and April 2017, a 15-person expert country committee drawn from government and non-government agencies was established to implement the BBF toolbox. The committee used the BBF index (BBFI), comprising of 54 benchmarks and eight gears of the Breastfeeding Gear Model (advocacy; political will; legislation and policy; funding and resources; training and program delivery; promotion; research and evaluation; and coordination, goals and monitoring). Available evidence (document reviews, and key informant interviews) was used to arrive at consensus-scoring of benchmarks. Benchmark scores ranged between 0 (no progress) and 3 (major progress). Scores for each gear were averaged to estimate the Gear Total Score (GTS), ranging from 0 (least) to 3.0 (strong). GTS's were aggregated as a weighted average to estimate the BBFI which ranged from 0 (weak) to 3.0 (outstanding). Gaps in policy and program implementation and recommendations were proposed for decision-making.<h4>Results</h4>The BBFI score was 2.0, indicating a moderate scaling-up environment for breastfeeding in Ghana. Four gears recorded strong gear strength: advocacy (2.3); political will (2.3); legislation and policy (2.3); and coordination, goals and monitoring (2.7). The remaining four gears had moderate gear strength: funding and resources (1.3); training and program delivery (1.9); promotion (2.0); and research and evaluation (1.3). Key policy and program gaps identified by the committee included sub-optimal coordination across partners, inadequate coverage and quality of services, insufficient government funding, sub-optimal enforcement of policies, and inadequate monitoring of existing initiatives. Prioritized recommendations from the process were: 1) strengthen advocacy and empower breastfeeding champions, 2) strengthen breastfeeding regulations, including maternity protection, 3) strengthen capacity for providing breastfeeding services, and 4) expand and sustain breastfeeding awareness initiatives.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The moderate environment for scaling-up breastfeeding in Ghana can be further strengthened by addressing identified gaps in policy and programs.
Project description:This data article gives the validation files to the article "CNC milling of face gears with a novel geometric analysis" . The data is about the simulation and machining error analysis of the CNC milling of a face gear tooth with given tool paths. It includes four files. Three of them are simulation videos of the CNC milling process in VERICUT with a general view, partial view and enlarged view, respectively. The other one is the source file of the machining error analysis, and it has the design model of the face gear, the simulated machined model of the face gear, and machining error analysis according to the comparison of the design model and simulated machined model.
Project description:Background. Physical activity is important for children's physical, mental, and social well-being. Outdoor active play is an important yet unstudied domain of children's physical activity. The objective of this study was to determine if parental encouragement is associated with the frequency that children engage in outdoor active play outside of school hours. Methods. Participants consisted of 514 children aged 7-12 years and one of their parents. Parents completed a survey that included four questions that assessed how frequently they used verbal cues to encourage their child to play outdoors. Points were assigned to each response and averaged across the 4 questions, and based on this average participants were assigned to quintiles. The survey included seven questions that asked parents to assess how frequently their child played outdoors outside of school hours. Points were assigned to each response and summed to create an active outdoor play frequency score. General linear models assessed associations between parental encouragement and outdoor play while controlling for individual, family, and neighborhood covariates. Results. The mean outdoor active play frequency score increased significantly across quintiles of the parental encouragement score as follows: 6.0 (standard error = 0.7) in quintile 1, 9.8 (0.6) in quintile 2, 11.4 (0.6) in quintile 3, 16.2 (0.9) in quintile 4, and 23.3 (1.3) in quintile 5. After adjusting for covariates, the mean outdoor active play frequency score was almost three times higher in the highest parental encouragement quintile than in the lowest quintile (20.4 vs. 7.8). Conclusions. Parents use of verbal cues to encourage their children to play outdoors was independently associated with outdoor active play among 7-12 year olds.
Project description:Recent research on ocean health has found large predator abundance to be a key element of ocean condition. Fisheries can impact large predator abundance directly through targeted capture and indirectly through incidental capture of nontarget species or bycatch. However, measures of the global nature of bycatch are lacking for air-breathing megafauna. We fill this knowledge gap and present a synoptic global assessment of the distribution and intensity of bycatch of seabirds, marine mammals, and sea turtles based on empirical data from the three most commonly used types of fishing gears worldwide. We identify taxa-specific hotspots of bycatch intensity and find evidence of cumulative impacts across fishing fleets and gears. This global map of bycatch illustrates where data are particularly scarce--in coastal and small-scale fisheries and ocean regions that support developed industrial fisheries and millions of small-scale fishers--and identifies fishing areas where, given the evidence of cumulative hotspots across gear and taxa, traditional species or gear-specific bycatch management and mitigation efforts may be necessary but not sufficient. Given the global distribution of bycatch and the mitigation success achieved by some fleets, the reduction of air-breathing megafauna bycatch is both an urgent and achievable conservation priority.
Project description:Besides understanding the effects of fishing on harvested fish stocks, effects on non-target species, habitats and seafloor integrity also need to be considered. Static fishing gears have often been mentioned as a lower impact fishing alternative to towed gears, although studies examining their actual impact on the seafloor are scarce. In this study, we aimed to describe fish trap movements on the seafloor related to soaking time and trap retrieval. Impacts on the seafloor of lightweight rectangular traps and heavier circular traps were compared. We used 3D video cameras to estimate sweeping motion on the seabed and penetration into the sediment during soaking time. The area and distance swept by each type of trap during retrieval was determined by a camera set up facing the sea bottom. The potential rotation of the traps around the mainline was assessed using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Results showed that no penetration and almost no movements could be detected during soaking time for either lightweight or heavy commercial traps, even for high tidal coefficient (maximum 6 cm). No rotation could be observed when the tide turned. The swept area covered by a trap during retrieval was low (maximum 2.04 m2) compared to towed fishing gear and other static gear.
Project description:Transient, chemically powered micromotors are promising biocompatible engines for microrobots. We propose a framework to investigate in detail the dynamics and the underlying mechanisms of bubble propulsion for transient chemically powered micromotors. Our observations on the variations of the micromotor active material and geometry over its lifetime, from initial activation to the final inactive state, indicate different bubble growth and ejection mechanisms that occur stochastically, resulting in time-varying micromotor velocity. We identify three processes of bubble growth and ejection, and in analogy with macroscopic multigear machines, we call each process a gear. Gear 1 refers to bubbles that grow on the micromotor surface before detachment while in Gear 2 bubbles hop out of the micromotor. Gear 3 is similar in nature to Gear 2, but the bubbles are too small to contribute to micromotor motion. We study the characteristics of these gears in terms of bubble size and ejection time, and how they contribute to micromotor displacement. The ability to tailor the shell polarity and hence the bubble growth and ejection and the surrounding fluid flow is demonstrated. Such understanding of the complex multigear bubble propulsion of transient chemical micromotors should guide their future design principles and serve for fine tuning the performance of these micromotors.