The roles of circRFWD2 and circINO80 during NELL-1-induced osteogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Bone defects caused heavy social and economic burdens worldwide. Nel-like molecule, type 1 (NELL-1) could enhance the osteogenesis and the repairment of bone defects, while the specific mechanism remains to be elucidated. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) have been found to play critical roles in the tissue development and serve as biomarkers for various diseases. However, it remains unclear that the expression patterns of circRNAs and the roles of them played in recombinant NELL-1-induced osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). In this study, we performed RNA-sequencing to investigate the expression profiles of circRNAs in recombinant NELL-1-induced osteogenic differentiation and identified two key circRNAs, namely circRFWD2 and circINO80. These two circRNAs were confirmed to be up-regulated during recombinant NELL-1-induced osteogenesis, and knockdown of them affected the positive effect of NELL-1 on osteogenesis. CircRFWD2 and circINO80 could interact with hsa-miR-6817-5p, which could inhibit the osteogenesis. Silencing hsa-miR-6817-5p could partially reverse the negative effect of si-circRFWD2 and si-circINO80 on the osteogenesis. Therefore, circRFWD2 and circINO80 could regulate the expression of hsa-miR-6817-5p and influence the recombinant NELL-1-induced osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. It opens a new window to better understanding the effects of NELL-1 on the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs and provides potential molecular targets and novel methods for bone regeneration efficiently and safely.
Project description:Circular RNAs (circRNAs), novel endogenous non-coding RNAs with the special circular structure, have been found to play critical roles in various development of tissues and diseases. However, few studies have focused on the functions and mechanisms of circRNAs in the osteogenesis of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Here, we performed the circRNAs sequencing and bioinformatic analysis to investigate the expression profiles of hASCs during osteogenic differentiation. There were 150 upregulated circRNAs and 60 downregulated circRNAs expressed differentially. Among them, the expression of circPOMT1 and circMCM3AP were downregulated during the osteogenesis of hASCs. hsa-miR-6881-3p could promote the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs, while the expression of circPOMT1 and circMCM3AP were negatively correlated with it. Smad6 and Chordin, critical inhibitors of the BMPs signaling pathway, were predicted to be the targets of hsa-miR-6881-3p. Therefore, circPOMT1 and circMCM3AP might influence the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs by targeting hsa-miR-6881-3p via BMPs signaling pathway. CircPOMT1 and circMCM3AP are potential novel targets for the repairment of bone defects.
Project description:A theoretical inverse relationship exists between osteogenic (bone forming) and adipogenic (fat forming) mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation. This inverse relationship in theory partially underlies the clinical entity of osteoporosis, in which marrow MSCs have a preference for adipose differentiation that increases with age. Two pro-osteogenic cytokines have been recently studied that each also possesses antiadipogenic properties: Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) and NELL-1 proteins. In the present study, we assayed the potential additive effects of the biologically active N-terminus of SHH (SHH-N) and NELL-1 protein on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of human primary adipose-derived stromal cell (hASCs). We observed that both recombinant SHH-N and NELL-1 protein significantly enhanced osteogenic differentiation and reduced adipose differentiation across all markers examined (alkaline phosphatase, Alizarin red and Oil red O staining, and osteogenic gene expression). Moreover, SHH-N and NELL-1 directed signaling produced additive effects on the pro-osteogenic and antiadipogenic differentiation of hASCs. NELL-1 treatment increased Hedgehog signaling pathway expression; coapplication of the Smoothened antagonist Cyclopamine reversed the pro-osteogenic effect of NELL-1. In summary, Hedgehog and Nell-1 signaling exert additive effects on the pro-osteogenic and antiadipogenic differentiation of ASCs. These studies suggest that the combination cytokines SHH-N+NELL-1 may represent a viable future technique for inducing the osteogenic differentiation of MSCs.
Project description:MicroRNA plays an important role in bone tissue engineering; however, its role and function in osteogenic differentiation warrant further investigation. In this study, we demonstrated that miR-375 was upregulated during the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs). Overexpression of miR-375 significantly enhanced hASCs osteogenesis both in vitro and in vivo, while knockdown of miR-375 inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Mechanistically, microarray analysis revealed DEPTOR as a target of miR-375 in hASCs. Knockdown of DEPTOR accelerated the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs by inhibiting AKT signaling, which mimics miR-375 overexpression. Furthermore, we confirmed that miR-375 regulated osteogenesis by targeting YAP1, and that YAP1 reversely bound to miR-375 promoter to inhibit miR-375 expression. Taken together, our results suggested that miR-375 promoted the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs via the YAP1/DEPTOR/AKT regulatory network, indicating that miR-375-targeted therapy might be a valuable approach to promote bone regeneration.
Project description:Abstract Implantation of stem cells for tissue regeneration faces significant challenges such as immune rejection and teratoma formation. Cell?free tissue regeneration thus has a potential to avoid these problems. Stem cell derived exosomes do not cause immune rejection or generate malignant tumors. Here, exosomes that can induce osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are identified and used to decorate 3D?printed titanium alloy scaffolds to achieve cell?free bone regeneration. Specifically, the exosomes secreted by hMSCs osteogenically pre?differentiated for different times are used to induce the osteogenesis of hMSCs. It is discovered that pre?differentiation for 10 and 15 days leads to the production of osteogenic exosomes. The purified exosomes are then loaded into the scaffolds. It is found that the cell?free exosome?coated scaffolds regenerate bone tissue as efficiently as hMSC?seeded exosome?free scaffolds within 12 weeks. RNA?sequencing suggests that the osteogenic exosomes induce the osteogenic differentiation by using their cargos, including upregulated osteogenic miRNAs (Hsa?miR?146a?5p, Hsa?miR?503?5p, Hsa?miR?483?3p, and Hsa?miR?129?5p) or downregulated anti?osteogenic miRNAs (Hsa?miR?32?5p, Hsa?miR?133a?3p, and Hsa?miR?204?5p), to activate the PI3K/Akt and MAPK signaling pathways. Consequently, identification of osteogenic exosomes secreted by pre?differentiated stem cells and the use of them to replace stem cells represent a novel cell?free bone regeneration strategy. Exosomes secreted from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) pre?differentiated for a certain period of time can serve as inducers to induce osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs in vitro. They can decorate 3D printed titanium alloy scaffolds, which are further implanted into radial bone defect. They are found to enable the scaffolds to achieve efficient cell?free bone regeneration in vivo.
Project description:Human adipose tissue?derived stromal stem cells (HASCs) represent a promising regenerative resource for breast reconstruction and augmentation. However, the mechanisms involved in inducing its adipogenic differentiation remain to be fully elucidated. The present study aimed to comprehensively investigate the expression changes in mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non?coding (lnc)RNAs during the adipogenic differentiation of HASCs, and screen crucial lncRNA?miRNA?mRNA interaction axes using microarray datasets GSE57593, GSE25715 and GSE61302 collected from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Following pretreatment, differentially expressed genes (DEGs), miRNAs (DE?miRNAs) or lncRNAs (DE?lncRNAs) between undifferentiated and differentiated HASCs were identified using the Linear Models for Microarray data method. A protein?protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed for the DEGs based on protein databases, followed by module analysis. The 'lncRNA?miRNA?mRNA' competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) network was constructed based on the interactions between miRNAs and mRNAs, lncRNAs and miRNAs predicted by the miRWalk and lnCeDB databases. The underlying functions of mRNAs were predicted using the clusterProfiler package. In the present study, 905 DEGs, 36 DE?miRNAs and 577 DE?lncRNAs were screened between undifferentiated HASCs and differentiated adipocyte cells. PPI network analysis demonstrated that LEP may be a hub gene, which was also enriched in significant module 5. LEP was predicted to be involved in the Janus kinase?signal transducer and activator of transcription signaling pathway, and the regulation of inflammatory response. The upregulation of LEP was regulated by downregulated hsa?miRNA (miR)?130b?5p and hsa?miR?23a?5p (or hsa?miR?302d?3p). These miRNAs also respectively interacted with RP11?552F3.9 (or RP11?15A1.7), ultimately forming the ceRNA axes. In conclusion, the present study revealed that the RP11?552F3.9 (RP11?15A1.7)?hsa?miR?130b?5p/hsa?miR?23a?5p (hsa?miR?302d?3p)?LEP interaction axes may be crucial for inducing the adipogenic differentiation of HASCs via involvement in inflammation.
Project description:The aim of this study was to evaluate, the existence of a signature of differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) during osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow MSCs from OA and healthy donors and to describe their possible implication in joint regeneration through modulation of molecular mechanisms involved in homeostatic control in OA pathophysiology.Following phenotypic assessment of BM-MSCs obtained from OA diagnosed patients (n?=?10) and non-OA (n?=?10), total small RNA was isolated after osteogenic induction for 1, 10 and 21 days, miRNA profiles were generated using a commercial expression array of 754 well-characterized miRNAs. MiRNAs, with consistent differential expression were selected for further validation by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis.A total of 246 miRNAs were differentially expressed (fold change???± 2, P ?0.05) between OA and non-OA BM-MSC samples; these miRNAs showed variable interactions depending on the cell and differentiation status. Two miRNAs, hsa-miR-210 and hsa-miR-335-5p out of 21 used for validation showed a significant downregulated expression during induced osteogenesis. In particular hsa-miR-335-5p, a critical regulator in bone homeostasis, was further studied. hsa-miR-335-5p downregulation in OA-MSCs, as well as their host coding gene, MEST, were also assessed.To our knowledge, this study represents the most comprehensive assessment to date of miRNA expression profiling in BM-MSCs from OA patients and their role during osteogenic differentiation. We describe the existence of a correlation between miR-335-5p expression and OA indicating the putative role of this miRNA in OA features. These findings, may contribute to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in MSCs mediated homeostatic control in OA pathophysiology that could be applicable in future therapeutic approaches.
Project description:MiR-34a was demonstrated to be upregulated during the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). Overexpression of miR-34a significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization capacity, and the expression of osteogenesis-associated genes in hASCs in vitro. Enhanced heterotopic bone formation in vivo was also observed upon overexpression of miR-34a in hASCs. Mechanistic investigations revealed that miR-34a inhibited the expression of retinoblastoma binding protein 2 (RBP2) and reduced the luciferase activity of reporter gene construct comprising putative miR-34a binding sites in the 3' UTR of RBP2. Moreover, miR-34a downregulated the expression of NOTCH1 and CYCLIN D1 and upregulated the expression of RUNX2 by targeting RBP2, NOTCH1, and CYCLIN D1. Taken together, our results suggested that miR-34a promotes the osteogenic differentiation of hASCs via the RBP2/NOTCH1/CYCLIN D1 coregulatory network, indicating that miR-34a-targeted therapy could be a valuable approach to promote bone regeneration.
Project description:Background Circular RNA (circRNA) is a noncoding RNA that forms a closed-loop structure, and its abnormal expression may cause disease. We aimed to find potential network for circRNA-related competitive endogenous RNA (ceRNA) in atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods The circRNA, miRNA, and mRNA expression profiles in the heart tissue from AF patients were retrieved from the Gene Expression Omnibus database and analyzed comprehensively. Differentially expressed circRNAs (DEcircRNAs), differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs), and differentially expressed mRNAs (DEmRNAs) were identified, followed by the establishment of DEcircRNA-DEmiRNA-DEmRNA regulatory network. Functional annotation analysis of host gene of DEcircRNAs and DEmRNAs in ceRNA regulatory network was performed. In vitro experiment and electronic validation were used to validate the expression of DEcircRNAs, DEmiRNAs, and DEmRNAs. Results A total of 1611 DEcircRNAs, 51 DEmiRNAs, and 1250 DEmRNAs were identified in AF. The DEcircRNA-DEmiRNA-DEmRNA network contained 62 circRNAs, 14 miRNAs, and 728 mRNAs. Among which, two ceRNA regulatory pairs of hsa-circRNA-100053-hsa-miR-455-5p-TRPV1 and hsa-circRNA-005843-hsa-miR-188-5p-SPON1 were identified. In addition, six miRNA-mRNA regulatory pairs including hsa-miR-34c-5p-INMT, hsa-miR-1253-DDIT4L, hsa-miR-508-5p-SMOC2, hsa-miR-943-ACTA1, hsa-miR-338-3p-WIPI1, and hsa-miR-199a-3p-RAP1GAP2 were also obtained. MTOR was a significantly enriched signaling pathway of host gene of DEcircRNAs. In addition, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, dilated cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were remarkably enriched signaling pathways of DEmRNAs in DEcircRNA-DEmiRNA-DEmRNA regulatory network. The expression validation of hsa-circRNA-402565, hsa-miR-34c-5p, hsa-miR-188-5p, SPON1, DDIT4L, SMOC2, and WIPI1 was consistent with the integrated analysis. Conclusion We speculated that hsa-circRNA-100053-hsa-miR-455-5p-TRPV1 and hsa-circRNA-005843-hsa-miR-188-5p-SPON1 interaction pairs may be involved in AF.
Project description:Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a new category of noncoding RNA, have emerged in recent years as novel biomolecules with important biological functions. Increasing evidence and reports have revealed that circRNAs play an important role in human carcinogenesis and tumor progression. Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most prevalent life-threatening malignancies worldwide, and in the present study, a novel circRNA molecule (circRIMS) was shown to be associated GC metastasis using next-generation sequencing. CircRIMS remarkably promoted GC cell metastasis in vitro, functioning as a sponge for hsa-miR-148a-5p and hsa-miR-218-5p. In addition, the results of rescue experiments showed that hsa-miR-148a-5p and hsa-miR-218-5p mimics could reverse the tumor-promoting roles of circRIMS in GC. Thus, circRIMS has potential as an early biomarker for use in predicting invasive metastasis in GC and to guide clinical diagnosis and treatment for precision medicine.