High-frequency oscillations in scalp EEG mirror seizure frequency in pediatric focal epilepsy.
ABSTRACT: High-frequency oscillations (HFO) are promising EEG biomarkers of epileptogenicity. While the evidence supporting their significance derives mainly from invasive recordings, recent studies have extended these observations to HFO recorded in the widely accessible scalp EEG. Here, we investigated whether scalp HFO in drug-resistant focal epilepsy correspond to epilepsy severity and how they are affected by surgical therapy. In eleven children with drug-resistant focal epilepsy that underwent epilepsy surgery, we prospectively recorded pre- and postsurgical scalp EEG with a custom-made low-noise amplifier (LNA). In four of these children, we also recorded intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG). To detect clinically relevant HFO, we applied a previously validated automated detector. Scalp HFO rates showed a significant positive correlation with seizure frequency (R2?=?0.80, p?
Project description:SummaryHigh?frequency oscillations (HFOs), including ripples (Rs) and fast ripples (FRs), are promising biomarkers of epileptogenesis, but their clinical utility is limited by the lack of a standardized approach to identification. We set out to determine whether electroencephalographers experienced in HFO analysis can reliably identify and quantify interictal HFOs. Two blinded raters independently reviewed 10 intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) samples from epilepsy surgery cases, and 10 scalp EEG samples from epilepsy monitoring unit evaluations. HFOs were visually marked using bandpass filters (R, 80–250 Hz; FR, 250–500 Hz) with a sampling frequency of 2,000 Hz. There was agreement as to the presence or absence of epileptiform discharges (EDs), Rs, and FRs, in 17, 18, and 18 cases, respectively. Interrater reliability (IRR) was favorable with ? = 0.70, 0.80, and 0.80, respectively, and similar for ECoG and scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Furthermore, interclass correlation for rates of Rs (0.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.96–0.99) and FRs (0.77, 95% CI 0.41–0.91) were superior in comparison to EDs (0.37, 95% CI ?0.60 to 0.75). Our data suggest that HFO identification and quantification are reliable among experienced electroencephalographers. Our findings support the reliability of utilizing HFO data in both research and clinical arenas.
Project description:High frequency oscillations (HFOs) called ripples (80-250 Hz) and fast ripples (FR, 250-500 Hz) can be recorded from intracerebral EEG macroelectrodes in patients with intractable epilepsy. HFOs occur predominantly in the seizure onset zone (SOZ) but their relationship to the underlying pathology is unknown. It was the aim of this study to investigate whether HFOs are specific to the SOZ or result from pathologically changed tissue, whether or not it is epileptogenic. Patients with different lesion types, namely mesial temporal atrophy (MTA), focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) and nodular heterotopias (NH) were investigated. Intracranial EEG was recorded from depth macroelectrodes with a sampling rate of 2000 Hz. Ripples (80-250 Hz) and Fast Ripples (250-500 Hz) were visually marked in 12 patients: five with MTA, four with FCD and three with NH. Rates of events were statistically compared in channels in four areas: lesional SOZ, non-lesional SOZ, lesional non-SOZ and non-lesional non-SOZ. HFO rates were clearly more linked to the SOZ than to the lesion. They were highest in areas in which lesion and SOZ overlap, but in patients with a SOZ outside the lesion, such as in NHs, HFO rates were clearly higher in the non-lesional SOZ than in the inactive lesions. No specific HFO pattern could be identified for the different lesion types. The findings suggest that HFOs represent a marker for SOZ areas independent of the underlying pathology and that pathologic tissue changes alone do not lead to high rates of HFOs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The inability to reliably assess seizure risk is a major burden for epilepsy patients and prevents developing better treatments. Recent advances have paved the way for increasingly accurate seizure preictal state detection algorithms, primarily using electrocorticography (ECoG). To develop seizure forecasting for broad clinical and ambulatory use, however, less complex and invasive modalities are needed. Algorithms using scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and electrocardiography (EKG) have also achieved better than chance performance. But it remains unknown how much preictal information is in ECoG versus modalities amenable to everyday use - such as EKG and single channel EEG - and how to optimally extract that preictal information for seizure prediction. METHODS:We apply deep learning - a powerful method to extract information from complex data - on a large epilepsy data set containing multi-day, simultaneous recordings of EKG, ECoG, and EEG, using a variety of feature sets. We use the relative performance of our algorithms to compare the preictal information contained in each modality. RESULTS:We find that single-channel EKG contains a comparable amount of preictal information as scalp EEG with up to 21 channels and that preictal information is best extracted not with standard heart rate measures, but from the power spectral density. We report that preictal information is not preferentially contained in EEG or ECoG channels within the seizure onset zone. CONCLUSION:Collectively, these insights may help to devise future prospective, minimally invasive long-term epilepsy monitoring trials with single-channel EKG as a particularly promising modality.
Project description:High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) can be recorded in epileptic patients with clinical intracranial EEG. HFOs have been associated with seizure genesis because they occur in the seizure focus and during seizure onset. HFOs are also found interictally, partly co-occurring with epileptic spikes. We studied how HFOs are influenced by antiepileptic medication and seizure occurrence, to improve understanding of the pathophysiology and clinical meaning of HFOs.Intracerebral depth EEG was partly sampled at 2,000 Hz in 42 patients with intractable focal epilepsy. Patients with five or more usable nights of recording were selected. A sample of slow-wave sleep from each night was analyzed, and HFOs (ripples: 80-250 Hz, fast ripples: 250-500 Hz) and spikes were identified on all artifact-free channels. The HFOs and spikes were compared before and after seizures with stable medication dose and during medication reduction with no intervening seizures.Twelve patients with five to eight nights were included. After seizures, there was an increase in spikes, whereas HFO rates remained the same. Medication reduction was followed by an increase in HFO rates and mean duration.Contrary to spikes, high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) do not increase after seizures, but do so after medication reduction, similarly to seizures. This implies that spikes and HFOs have different pathophysiologic mechanisms and that HFOs are more tightly linked to seizures than spikes. HFOs seem to play an important role in seizure genesis and can be a useful clinical marker for disease activity.
Project description:We present an electrophysiological dataset recorded from nine subjects during a verbal working memory task. Subjects were epilepsy patients undergoing intracranial monitoring for the localization of epileptic seizures. Subjects performed a modified Sternberg task in which the encoding of memory items, maintenance, and recall were temporally separated. The dataset includes simultaneously recorded scalp EEG with the 10-20 system, intracranial EEG (iEEG) recorded with depth electrodes, waveforms and spike times of neurons recorded in the medial temporal lobe, and localization information on the depth electrodes. Subject characteristics and information on each trial (set size, match/mismatch, correct/incorrect, response, and response time) are given. For technical validation of data, we provide spike sorting quality metrics and the spectra of iEEG and scalp EEG signals. This dataset enables the investigation of working memory by providing simultaneous scalp EEG and iEEG recordings, which can be used for connectivity analysis, along with hard-to-obtain neuronal recordings from humans.
Project description:High frequency oscillations (HFOs) have been associated with epileptogenicity. In rats, the extent of HFOs (>200 Hz) is correlated with seizure frequency. We studied whether the same applies to patients with focal epilepsy. Thirty-nine patients with intracerebral EEG sampled at 2000 Hz were studied for interictal ripples (80-250 Hz), fast ripples (FR, 250-500 Hz) and spikes. Seizure frequency before implantation was compared to numbers of channels with HFOs (>1/min). Analyses were repeated for HFO rates of >5, >10 and >20. Separate analyses were done for 25 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy only and for a selection of similar unilateral temporal channels in 12 patients. No linear correlation or trend was found relating the number of channels with HFOs and seizure frequency. There was a linear positive correlation between the number of channels with more than 20 FRs/min and seizure frequency. The hypothesis that the more tissue generating HFOs, the higher the seizure frequency, was not confirmed, though there might be a correlation for high FR rates.
Project description:Scalp electroencephalography (EEG) and intraoperative electrocorticography (ECoG) are routinely used in the evaluation of magnetic resonance imaging-negative temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) undergoing standard anterior temporal lobectomy with amygdalohippocampectomy (ATL), but the utility of interictal epileptiform discharge (IED) identification and its role in outcome are poorly defined.To determine whether the following are associated with surgical outcomes in patients with magnetic resonance imaging-negative TLE who underwent standard ATL: (1) unilateral-only IEDs on preoperative scalp EEG; (2) complete resection of tissue generating IEDs on ECoG; (3) complete resection of opioid-induced IEDs recorded on ECoG; and (4) location of IEDs recorded on ECoG.Data were gathered through retrospective medical record review at a tertiary referral center. Adult and pediatric patients with TLE who underwent standard ATL between January 1, 1990, and October 15, 2010, were considered for inclusion. Inclusion criteria were magnetic resonance imaging-negative TLE, standard ECoG performed at the time of surgery, and a minimum follow-up of 12 months. Univariate analysis was performed using log-rank time-to-event analysis. Variables reaching significance with log-rank testing were further analyzed using Cox proportional hazards.Excellent or nonexcellent outcome at time of last follow-up. An excellent outcome was defined as Engel class I and a nonexcellent outcome as Engel classes II through IV.Eighty-seven patients met inclusion criteria, with 48 (55%) achieving an excellent outcome following ATL. Unilateral IEDs on scalp EEG (P?=?.001) and complete resection of brain regions generating IEDs on baseline intraoperative ECoG (P?=?.02) were associated with excellent outcomes in univariate analysis. Both were associated with excellent outcomes when analyzed with Cox proportional hazards (unilateral-only IEDs, relative risk?=?0.31 [95% CI, 0.16-0.64]; complete resection of IEDs on baseline ECoG, relative risk?=?0.39 [95% CI, 0.20-0.76]). Overall, 25 of 35 patients (71%) with both unilateral-only IEDs and complete resection of baseline ECoG IEDs had an excellent outcome.Unilateral-only IEDs on preoperative scalp EEG and complete resection of IEDs on baseline ECoG are associated with better outcomes following standard ATL in magnetic resonance imaging-negative TLE. Prospective evaluation is needed to clarify the use of ECoG in tailoring temporal lobectomy.
Project description:This study aims to identify if oscillations at frequencies higher than the traditional EEG can be recorded on the scalp EEG of patients with focal epilepsy and to analyze the association of these oscillations with interictal discharges and the seizure onset zone (SOZ).The scalp EEG of 15 patients with focal epilepsy was studied. We analyzed the rates of gamma (40-80 Hz) and ripple (>80 Hz) oscillations, their co-occurrence with spikes, the number of channels with fast oscillations inside and outside the SOZ, and the specificity, sensitivity, and accuracy of gamma, ripples, and spikes to determine the SOZ.Gamma and ripples frequently co-occurred with spikes (77.5% and 63% of cases). For all events, the proportion of channels with events was consistently higher inside than outside the SOZ: spikes (100% vs 70%), gamma (82% vs 33%), and ripples (48% vs 11%); p < 0.0001. The mean rates (events/min) were higher inside than outside the SOZ: spikes (2.64 ± 1.70 vs 0.69 ± 0.26, p = 0.02), gamma (0.77 ± 0.71 vs 0.20 ± 0.25, p = 0.02), and ripples (0.08 ± 0.12 vs 0.04 ± 0.09, p = 0.04). The sensitivity to identify the SOZ was spikes 100%, gamma 82%, and ripples 48%; the specificity was spikes 30%, gamma 68%, and ripples 89%; and the accuracy was spikes 43%, gamma 70%, and ripples 81%.The rates and the proportion of channels with gamma and ripple fast oscillations are higher inside the SOZ, indicating that they can be used as interictal scalp EEG markers for the SOZ. These fast oscillations are less sensitive but much more specific and accurate than spikes to delineate the SOZ.
Project description:Patients with suspected mesial temporal lobe (MTL) epilepsy typically undergo inpatient video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring with scalp and/or intracranial electrodes for 1 to 2 weeks to localize and lateralize the seizure focus or foci. Chronic ambulatory electrocorticography (ECoG) in patients with MTL epilepsy may provide additional information about seizure lateralization. This analysis describes data obtained from chronic ambulatory ECoG in patients with suspected bilateral MTL epilepsy in order to assess the time required to determine the seizure lateralization and whether this information could influence treatment decisions.Ambulatory ECoG was reviewed in patients with suspected bilateral MTL epilepsy who were among a larger cohort with intractable epilepsy participating in a randomized controlled trial of responsive neurostimulation. Subjects were implanted with bilateral MTL leads and a cranially implanted neurostimulator programmed to detect abnormal interictal and ictal ECoG activity. ECoG data stored by the neurostimulator were reviewed to determine the lateralization of electrographic seizures and the interval of time until independent bilateral MTL electrographic seizures were recorded.Eighty-two subjects were implanted with bilateral MTL leads and followed for 4.7 years on average (median 4.9 years). Independent bilateral MTL electrographic seizures were recorded in 84%. The average time to record bilateral electrographic seizures in the ambulatory setting was 41.6 days (median 13 days, range 0-376 days). Sixteen percent had only unilateral electrographic seizures after an average of 4.6 years of recording.About one third of the subjects implanted with bilateral MTL electrodes required >1 month of chronic ambulatory ECoG before the first contralateral MTL electrographic seizure was recorded. Some patients with suspected bilateral MTL seizures had only unilateral electrographic seizures. Chronic ambulatory ECoG in patients with suspected bilateral MTL seizures provides data in a naturalistic setting, may complement data from inpatient video-EEG monitoring, and can contribute to treatment decisions.
Project description:The stage of sleep is a known modulator of high-frequency oscillations (HFOs). For instance, high amplitude slow waves during NREM sleep and the subtypes of REM sleep were shown to contribute to a better separation between physiological and pathological HFOs. This study investigated rates and spatial spread of the different HFO types (physiological and pathological ripples in the 80-250 Hz frequency band, and fast ripples above 250 Hz) depending on time spent in sleep across the different sleep cycles.Fifteen patients with focal pharmaco-resistant epilepsy underwent one night of video-polysomnography during chronic intracranial EEG recording for presurgical epilepsy evaluation. The HFO rate and spread across the different sleep cycles were determined with an automatic HFO detector. We built models to explain the observed rate and spread based on time in sleep and other variables i.e. sleep stage, delta band and sigma band activity, and slow wave amplitude. Statistical significance of the different variables was determined by a model comparison using the Akaike information criterion.The rate of HFOs depends significantly on the accumulated time of sleep. As the night advanced, the rate of pathological ripples and fast ripples decreased during NREM sleep (up to 15% per hour spent in the respective sleep stages), while the rate of physiological ripples increased during REM sleep (8% per hour spent in REM sleep). Interestingly, the stage of sleep but not the sleep cycle determined the extent of spread of HFOs, showing a larger field during NREM sleep and a more restricted field during REM sleep.The different dependence with sleep time for physiological and pathological ripples is in keeping with their distinct underlying generating mechanisms. From a practical point of view, the first sleep cycle seems to be best suitable for studying HFOs in epilepsy, given that the contrast between physiological and pathological ripple rates is largest during this time.