Effects of combined D-fagomine and omega-3 PUFAs on gut microbiota subpopulations and diabetes risk factors in rats fed a high-fat diet.
ABSTRACT: Food contains bioactive compounds that may prevent changes in gut microbiota associated with Westernized diets. The aim of this study is to explore the possible additive effects of D-fagomine and ?-3 PUFAs (EPA/DHA 1:1) on gut microbiota and related risk factors during early stages in the development of fat-induced pre-diabetes. Male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were fed a standard diet, or a high-fat (HF) diet supplemented with D-fagomine, EPA/DHA 1:1, a combination of both, or neither, for 24 weeks. The variables measured were fasting glucose and glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, liver inflammation, fecal/cecal gut bacterial subgroups and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). The animals supplemented with D-fagomine alone and in combination with ?-3 PUFAs accumulated less fat than those in the non-supplemented HF group and those given only ?-3 PUFAs. The combined supplements attenuated the high-fat-induced incipient insulin resistance (IR), and liver inflammation, while increasing the cecal content, the Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratio and the populations of Bifidobacteriales. The functional effects of the combination of D-fagomine and EPA/DHA 1:1 against gut dysbiosis and the very early metabolic alterations induced by a high-fat diet are mainly those of D-fagomine complemented by the anti-inflammatory action of ?-3 PUFAs.
Project description:The impact of alpha linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, and DHA on obesity and metabolic complications was studied in mice fed a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF) diet. HF diets were supplemented with ALA, EPA, or DHA (1% w/w) and given to C57BL/6J mice for 16 weeks and to Ob/Ob mice for 6 weeks. In C57BL/6J mice, EPA reduced plasma cholesterol (-20%), limited fat mass accumulation (-23%) and adipose cell hypertrophy (-50%), and reduced plasma leptin concentration (-60%) compared with HF-fed mice. Furthermore, mice supplemented with EPA exhibited a higher insulin sensitivity (+24%) and glucose tolerance (+20%) compared with HF-fed mice. Similar effects were observed in EPA-supplemented Ob/Ob mice, although fat mass accumulation was not prevented. By contrast, in comparison with HF-fed mice, DHA did not prevent fat mass accumulation, increased plasma leptin concentration (+128%) in C57BL/6J mice, and did not improve glucose homeostasis in C57BL/6J and Ob/Ob mice. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, DHA stimulated leptin expression whereas EPA induced adiponectin expression, suggesting that improved leptin/adiponectin balance may contribute to the protective effect of EPA. In conclusion, supplementation with EPA, but not ALA and DHA, could preserve glucose homeostasis in an obesogenic environment and limit fat mass accumulation in the early stage of weight gain.
Project description:Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome, can progress to steatohepatitis (NASH) and advanced liver damage, such as that from liver cirrhosis and cancer. Recent studies have shown the benefits of consuming n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for the treatment of NAFLD. In the present study, we investigated and compared the effects of the major n-3 PUFAs-eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6)-in preventing atherogenic high-fat (AHF) diet-induced NAFLD. Mice were fed the AHF diet supplemented with or without EPA or DHA for four weeks. Both EPA and DHA reduced the pathological features of AHF diet-induced NASH pathologies such as hepatic lobular inflammation and elevated serum transaminase activity. Intriguingly, EPA had a greater hepatic triacylglycerol (TG)-reducing effect than DHA. In contrast, DHA had a greater suppressive effect than EPA on AHF diet-induced hepatic inflammation and ROS generation, but no difference in fibrosis. Both EPA and DHA could be effective for treatment of NAFLD and NASH. Meanwhile, the two major n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids might differ in a relative contribution to pathological intermediate steps towards liver fibrosis.
Project description:SCOPE:Dietary fat composition can modulate gene expression in peripheral tissues in obesity. Observations of the dysregulation of growth hormone (GH) in obesity indicate that these effects extend to the hypothalamic-pituitary (H-P) axis. The authors thus determine whether specific high fat (HF) diets influence the levels of Gh and other key gene transcripts in the H-P axis. METHODS AND RESULTS:C57BL/6 mice are fed a lean control diet or a HF diet in the absence or presence of OA, EPA, or DHA ethyl esters. Comparative studies are conducted with menhaden fish oil. The HF diet lowered pituitary Gh mRNA and protein levels, and cell culture studies reveal that elevated insulin and glucose can reduce Gh transcripts. Supplementation of the HF diet with OA, EPA, DHA, or menhaden fish oil do not improve pituitary Gh levels. The HF diet also impaired the levels of additional genes in the pituitary and hypothalamus, which are selectively rescued with EPA or DHA ethyl esters. The effects of EPA and DHA are more robust relative to fish oil. CONCLUSION:A HF diet can affect H-P axis transcription, which can be mitigated in some genes by EPA and DHA, but not fish oil in most cases.
Project description:Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is half of all HF, but standard HF therapies are ineffective. Diastolic dysfunction, often secondary to interstitial fibrosis, is common in HFpEF. Previously, we found that supra-physiologic levels of ?3-PUFAs produced by 12 weeks of ?3-dietary supplementation prevented fibrosis and contractile dysfunction following pressure overload [transverse aortic constriction (TAC)], a model that resembles aspects of remodeling in HFpEF. This raised several questions regarding ?3-concentration-dependent cardioprotection, the specific role of EPA and DHA, and the relationship between prevention of fibrosis and contractile dysfunction. To achieve more clinically relevant ?3-levels and test individual ?3-PUFAs, we shortened the ?3-diet regimen and used EPA- and DHA-specific diets to examine remodeling following TAC. The shorter diet regimen produced ?3-PUFA levels closer to Western clinics. Further, EPA, but not DHA, prevented fibrosis following TAC. However, neither ?3-PUFA prevented contractile dysfunction, perhaps due to reduced uptake of ?3-PUFA. Interestingly, EPA did not accumulate in cardiac fibroblasts. However, FFA receptor 4, a G protein-coupled receptor for ?3-PUFAs, was sufficient and required to block transforming growth factor ?1-fibrotic signaling in cultured cardiac fibroblasts, suggesting a novel mechanism for EPA. In summary, EPA-mediated prevention of fibrosis could represent a novel therapy for HFpEF.
Project description:Dietary supplementation with ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 PUFAs), specifically the fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ?-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ?-3), is known to have beneficial health effects including improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis and modulation of inflammation. To evaluate the efficacy of two different sources of ?-3 PUFAs, we performed gene expression profiling in the liver of mice fed diets supplemented with either fish oil (FO) or krill oil (KO). We found that ?-3 PUFA supplements derived from a phospholipid krill fraction (KO) downregulated the activity of pathways involved in hepatic glucose production as well as lipid and cholesterol synthesis. The data also suggested that KO-supplementation increases the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Surprisingly, an equimolar dose of EPA and DHA derived from FO modulated fewer pathways than a KO-supplemented diet and did not modulate key metabolic pathways regulated by KO, including glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, FO upregulated the cholesterol synthesis pathway, which was the opposite effect of krill-supplementation. Neither diet elicited changes in plasma levels of lipids, glucose, or insulin, probably because the mice used in this study were young and were fed a low-fat diet. Further studies of KO-supplementation using animal models of metabolic disorders and/or diets with a higher level of fat may be required to observe these effects.
Project description:Dietary supplementation with ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs), specifically the fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ω-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ω-3), is known to have beneficial health effects including improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis and modulation of inflammation. To evaluate the efficacy of two different sources of ω-3 PUFAs, we performed gene expression profiling in the liver of mice fed diets supplemented with either fish oil or krill oil. We found that ω-3 PUFA supplements derived from a phospholipid krill fraction (krill oil) downregulated the activity of pathways involved in hepatic glucose production as well as lipid and cholesterol synthesis. The data also suggested that krill oil-supplementation increases the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Surprisingly, an equimolar dose of EPA and DHA derived from fish oil modulated fewer pathways than a krill oil-supplemented diet and did not modulate key metabolic pathways regulated by krill oil, including glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, fish oil upregulated the cholesterol synthesis pathway, which was the opposite effect of krill supplementation. Neither diet elicited changes in plasma levels of lipids, glucose or insulin, probably because the mice used in this study were young and were fed a low fat diet. Further studies of krill oil supplementation using animal models of metabolic disorders and/or diets with a higher level of fat may be required to observe these effects. Twenty-one microarrays: three diets (CO, FO, KO) x seven mice per diet x one microarray per mouse
Project description:Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) exert numerous beneficial biological effects and attenuate diet-induced insulin resistance in rodent models. In the present study, the independent, tissue-specific effects of two nutritionally relevant n-3 PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), were characterized in the context of a high-fat diet (HFD). EPA and DHA supplementation (3.2% of total fat) in 6-mo-old male C57BL/6 mice fed an HFD (60% fat) partially mitigated reductions in insulin sensitivity. At 5 wk, the area above the curve below baseline glucose following an intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test was 54.5% lower in HFD than control, whereas HFD + EPA and HFD + DHA showed 27.6% and 17.1% reductions, respectively. At 10 wk, HFD increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity supported by lipid and carbohydrate-based substrates in both liver and skeletal muscle (P < 0.05), with little effect of EPA or DHA supplementation. Whole genome transcriptomic analyses revealed HFD-induced transcriptional changes indicative of inflammation and fibrosis in both liver and muscle. Gene set enrichment analyses indicated a downregulation of transcripts associated with extracellular matrix in muscle (family-wise error rate P < 0.01) and liver (P = 0.04) and in transcripts associated with inflammation in muscle (P = 0.03) in HFD + DHA compared with HFD alone. In contrast, EPA appeared to potentiate some proinflammatory effects of the HFD. In the skeletal muscle, DHA increased the expression of stress-responsive genes, whereas EPA upregulated the expression of transcripts related to cell cycle. Therefore, although both EPA and DHA supplementation during HFD partially preserve insulin signaling, they modulate distinct processes, highlighting their unique biological effects in the context of obesity.
Project description:Dietary intervention and genetic fat-1 mice are two models for the investigation of effects associated with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA). In order to assess their power to modulate the fatty acid and oxylipin pattern, we thoroughly compared fat-1 and wild-type C57BL/6 mice on a sunflower oil diet with wild-type mice on the same diet enriched with 1% EPA and 1% DHA for 0, 7, 14, 30 and 45 days. Feeding led after 14-30 days to a high steady state of n3-PUFA in all tissues at the expense of n6-PUFAs. Levels of n3-PUFA achieved by feeding were higher compared to fat-1 mice, particularly for EPA (max. 1.7% in whole blood of fat-1 vs. 7.8% following feeding). Changes in PUFAs were reflected in most oxylipins in plasma, brain and colon: Compared to wild-type mice on a standard diet, arachidonic acid metabolites were overall decreased while EPA and DHA oxylipins increased with feeding more than in fat-1 mice. In plasma of n3-PUFA fed animals, EPA and DHA metabolites from the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways dominated over ARA derived counterparts.Fat-1 mice show n3-PUFA level which can be reached by dietary interventions, supporting the applicability of this model in n3-PUFA research. However, for specific questions, e.g. the role of EPA derived mediators or concentration dependent effects of (individual) PUFA, feeding studies are necessary.
Project description:Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) block apoptotic neuronal cell death and are strongly neuroprotective in acute and chronic neurodegeneration. Theoretical considerations, indirect data, and consideration of parsimony lead to the hypothesis that modulation of mitochondrial pathway(s) underlies at least some of the neuroprotective effects of n-3 PUFAs. We therefore systematically tested this hypothesis on healthy male FBFN1 rats fed for four weeks with isocaloric, 10% fat-containing diets supplemented with 1, 3, or 10% fish oil (FO). High resolution mass spectrometric analysis confirmed expected diet-driven increases in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6, n-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5, n-3) in sera, liver and nonsynaptosomal brain mitochondria. We further evaluated the resistance of brain and liver mitochondria to Ca(2+) overload and prooxidants. Under these conditions, neither mitochondrial resistance to Ca(2+) overload and prooxidants nor mitochondrial physiology is altered by diet, despite the expected incorporation of DHA and EPA in mitochondrial membranes and plasma. Collectively, the data eliminate one of the previously proposed mechanism(s) that n-3 PUFA induced augmentation of mitochondrial resistance to the oxidant/calcium-driven dysfunction. These data furthermore allow us to define a specific series of follow-up experiments to test related hypotheses about the effect of n-3 PUFAs on brain mitochondria.
Project description:The mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory and antihypertensive effects of long-chain ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 PUFAs) are still unclear. The epoxides of an ?-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid epoxyeicosatrienoic acids also exhibit antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, we hypothesized that the major ?-3 PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may lower the blood pressure and attenuate renal markers of inflammation through their epoxide metabolites. Here, we supplemented mice with an ?-3 rich diet for 3 weeks in a murine model of angiotensin-II-dependent hypertension. Also, because EPA and DHA epoxides are metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH), we tested the combination of an sEH inhibitor and the ?-3 rich diet. Our results show that ?-3 rich diet in combination with the sEH inhibitor lowered Ang-II, increased the blood pressure, further increased the renal levels of EPA and DHA epoxides, reduced renal markers of inflammation (ie, prostaglandins and MCP-1), downregulated an epithelial sodium channel, and upregulated angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 message and significantly modulated cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase metabolic pathways. Overall, our findings suggest that epoxides of the ?-3 PUFAs contribute to lowering systolic blood pressure and attenuating inflammation in part by reduced prostaglandins and MCP-1 and by upregulation of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 in angiotensin-II-dependent hypertension.