Homologous bd oxidases share the same architecture but differ in mechanism.
ABSTRACT: Cytochrome bd oxidases are terminal reductases of bacterial and archaeal respiratory chains. The enzyme couples the oxidation of ubiquinol or menaquinol with the reduction of dioxygen to water, thus contributing to the generation of the protonmotive force. Here, we determine the structure of the Escherichia coli bd oxidase treated with the specific inhibitor aurachin by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The major subunits CydA and CydB are related by a pseudo two fold symmetry. The heme b and d cofactors are found in CydA, while ubiquinone-8 is bound at the homologous positions in CydB to stabilize its structure. The architecture of the E. coli enzyme is highly similar to that of Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, however, the positions of heme b595 and d are interchanged, and a common oxygen channel is blocked by a fourth subunit and substituted by a more narrow, alternative channel. Thus, with the same overall fold, the homologous enzymes exhibit a different mechanism.
Project description:Cytochrome bd quinol:O2 oxidoreductases are respiratory terminal oxidases so far only identified in prokaryotes, including several pathogenic bacteria. Escherichia coli contains two bd oxidases of which only the bd-I type is structurally characterized. Here, we report the structure of the Escherichia coli cytochrome bd-II type oxidase with the bound inhibitor aurachin D as obtained by electron cryo-microscopy at 3 Å resolution. The oxidase consists of subunits AppB, C and X that show an architecture similar to that of bd-I. The three heme cofactors are found in AppC, while AppB is stabilized by a structural ubiquinone-8 at the homologous positions. A fourth subunit present in bd-I is lacking in bd-II. Accordingly, heme b595 is exposed to the membrane but heme d embedded within the protein and showing an unexpectedly high redox potential is the catalytically active centre. The structure of the Q-loop is fully resolved, revealing the specific aurachin binding. Terminal bd oxidases endow bacterial pathogens with resistance to cellular stressors. The authors report the structure of E. coli bd-II type oxidase with the bound inhibitor aurachin D, providing a structural basis for the design of specifically binding antibiotics.
Project description:We deleted subunits I (<i>cydA</i>) and II (<i>cydB</i>) of the <i>Mycobacterium tuberculosis</i> cytochrome <i>bd</i> menaquinol oxidase. The resulting ?<i>cydA</i> and ?<i>cydAB</i> mutants were hypersusceptible to compounds targeting the mycobacterial <i>bc</i><sub>1</sub> menaquinol-cytochrome <i>c</i> oxidoreductase and exhibited bioenergetic profiles indistinguishable from strains deficient in the ABC-type transporter, CydDC, predicted to be essential for cytochrome <i>bd</i> assembly. These results confirm CydAB and CydDC as potential targets for drugs aimed at inhibiting a terminal respiratory oxidase implicated in pathogenesis.
Project description:Cytochromes bd are ubiquitous amongst prokaryotes including many human-pathogenic bacteria. Such complexes are targets for the development of antimicrobial drugs. However, an understanding of the relationship between the structure and functional mechanisms of these oxidases is incomplete. Here, we have determined the 2.8 Å structure of Mycobacterium smegmatis cytochrome bd by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. This bd oxidase consists of two subunits CydA and CydB, that adopt a pseudo two-fold symmetrical arrangement. The structural topology of its Q-loop domain, whose function is to bind the substrate, quinol, is significantly different compared to the C-terminal region reported for cytochromes bd from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans (G. th) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). In addition, we have identified two potential oxygen access channels in the structure and shown that similar tunnels also exist in G. th and E. coli cytochromes bd. This study provides insights to develop a framework for the rational design of antituberculosis compounds that block the oxygen access channels of this oxidase.
Project description:The cydAB genes from Mycobacterium smegmatis have been cloned and characterized. The cydA and cydB genes encode the two subunits of a cytochrome bd oxidase belonging to the widely distributed family of quinol oxidases found in prokaryotes. The cydD and cydC genes located immediately downstream of cydB encode a putative ATP-binding cassette-type transporter. At room temperature, reduced minus oxidized difference spectra of membranes purified from wild-type M. smegmatis displayed spectral features that are characteristic of the gamma-proteobacterial type cytochrome bd oxidase. Inactivation of cydA or cydB by insertion of a kanamycin resistance marker resulted in loss of d-heme absorbance at 631 nm. The d-heme could be restored by transformation of the M. smegmatis cyd mutants with a replicating plasmid carrying the highly homologous cydABDC gene cluster from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Inactivation of cydA had no effect on the ability of M. smegmatis to exit from stationary phase at 37 or 42 degrees C. The growth rate of the cydA mutant was tested under oxystatic conditions. Although no discernible growth defect was observed under moderately aerobic conditions (9.2 to 37.5 x 10(2) Pa of pO(2) or 5 to 21% air saturation), the mutant displayed a significant growth disadvantage when cocultured with the wild type under extreme microaerophilia (0.8 to 1.7 x 10(2) Pa of pO(2) or 0.5 to 1% air saturation). These observations were in accordance with the two- to threefold increase in cydAB gene expression observed upon reduction of the pO(2) of the growth medium from 21 to 0.5% air saturation and with the concomitant increase in d-heme absorbance in spectra of membranes isolated from wild-type M. smegmatis cultured at 1% air saturation. Finally, the cydA mutant displayed a competitive growth disadvantage in the presence of the terminal oxidase inhibitor, cyanide, when cocultured with wild type at 21% air saturation in an oxystat. In conjunction with these findings, our results suggest that cytochrome bd is an important terminal oxidase in M. smegmatis.
Project description:The recent X-ray structure of the cytochrome bd respiratory oxygen reductase showed that two of the three heme components, heme d and heme b595, have glutamic acid as an axial ligand. No other native heme proteins are known to have glutamic acid axial ligands. In this work, site-directed mutagenesis is used to probe the roles of these glutamic acids, E445 and E99 in the E. coli enzyme. It is concluded that neither glutamate is a strong ligand to the heme Fe and they are not the major determinates of heme binding to the protein. Although very important, neither glutamate is absolutely essential for catalytic function. The close interactions between the three hemes in cyt bd result in highly cooperative properties. For example, mutation of E445, which is near heme d, has its greatest effects on the properties of heme b595 and heme b558. It is concluded that 1) O2 binds to the hydrophilic side of heme d and displaces E445; 2) E445 forms a salt bridge with R448 within the O2 binding pocket, and both residues play a role to stabilize oxygenated states of heme d during catalysis; 3) E445 and E99 are each protonated accompanying electron transfer to heme d and heme b595, respectively; 4) All protons used to generate water within the heme d active site come from the cytoplasm and are delivered through a channel that must include internal water molecules to assist proton transfer: [cytoplasm]???E107???E99 (heme b595)???E445 (heme d)???oxygenated heme d.
Project description:Mycobacteria are obligate aerobes and respire using two terminal respiratory oxidases, an aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase and a cytochrome bd-type menaquinol oxidase. Cytochrome bd is encoded by cydAB from the cydABDC gene cluster that is conserved throughout the mycobacterial genus. Here we report that cydAB and cydDC in Mycobacterium smegmatis constitute two separate operons under hypoxic growth conditions. The transcriptional start sites of both operons were mapped, and a series of cydA-lacZ and cydD-lacZ transcriptional reporter fusions were made to identify regulatory promoter elements. A 51-bp region was identified in the cydAB promoter that was required for maximal cydA-lacZ expression in response to hypoxia. A cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP)-binding site (viz. GTGAN6CCACC) was identified in this region, and mutation of this site to CCCAN6CTTTC abolished cydA-lacZ expression in response to hypoxia. Binding of purified CRP (MSMEG_0539) to the cydAB promoter DNA was analyzed using electrophoretic mobility shift assays. CRP binding was dependent on GTGAN6CCACC and showed cyclic AMP (cAMP) dependency. No CRP site was present in the cydDC promoter, and a 10-bp inverted repeat (CGGTGGTACCGGTACCACCG) was required for maximal cydD-lacZ expression. Taken together, the data indicate that CRP is a direct regulator of cydAB expression in response to hypoxia and that the regulation of cydDC expression is CRP independent and under the control of an unknown regulator.
Project description:Cytochrome <i>bd</i> quinol oxidases, which have a greater affinity for oxygen than heme-copper cytochrome oxidases (HCOs), promote bacterial respiration and fitness in low-oxygen environments, such as host tissues. Here, we show that, in addition to the CydA and CydB subunits, the small protein CydX is required for the assembly and function of the cytochrome <i>bd</i> complex in the enteric pathogen <i>Salmonella enterica</i> serovar Typhimurium. Mutant <i>S</i> Typhimurium lacking CydX showed a loss of proper heme arrangement and impaired oxidase activity comparable to that of a ?<i>cydABX</i> mutant lacking all cytochrome <i>bd</i> subunits. Moreover, both the ?<i>cydX</i> mutant and the ?<i>cydABX</i> mutant showed increased sensitivity to ?-mercaptoethanol and nitric oxide (NO). Cytochrome <i>bd</i>-mediated protection from ?-mercaptoethanol was not a result of resistance to reducing damage but, rather, was due to cytochrome <i>bd</i> oxidase managing <i>Salmonella</i> respiration, while ?-mercaptoethanol interacted with the copper ions necessary for the HCO activity of the cytochrome <i>bo</i>-type quinol oxidase. Interactions between NO and hemes in cytochrome <i>bd</i> and cytochrome <i>bd</i>-dependent respiration during nitrosative stress indicated a direct role for cytochrome <i>bd</i> in mediating <i>Salmonella</i> resistance to NO. Additionally, CydX was required for <i>S</i> Typhimurium proliferation inside macrophages. Mutants deficient in cytochrome <i>bd</i>, however, showed a significant increase in resistance to antibiotics, including aminoglycosides, d-cycloserine, and ampicillin. The essential role of CydX in cytochrome <i>bd</i> assembly and function suggests that targeting this small protein could be a useful antimicrobial strategy, but potential drug tolerance responses should also be considered.<b>IMPORTANCE</b> Cytochrome <i>bd</i> quinol oxidases, which are found only in bacteria, govern the fitness of many facultative anaerobic pathogens by promoting respiration in low-oxygen environments and by conferring resistance to antimicrobial radicals. Thus, cytochrome <i>bd</i> complex assembly and activity are considered potential therapeutic targets. Here we report that the small protein CydX is required for the assembly and function of the cytochrome <i>bd</i> complex in <i>S</i> Typhimurium under stress conditions, including exposure to ?-mercaptoethanol, nitric oxide, or the phagocytic intracellular environment, demonstrating its crucial function for <i>Salmonella</i> fitness. However, cytochrome <i>bd</i> inactivation also leads to increased resistance to some antibiotics, so considerable caution should be taken when developing therapeutic strategies targeting the CydX-dependent cytochrome <i>bd</i>.
Project description:The reliable identification of proteins containing 50 or fewer amino acids is difficult due to the limited information content in short sequences. The 37 amino acid CydX protein in Escherichia coli is a member of the cytochrome bd oxidase complex, an enzyme found throughout Eubacteria. To investigate the extent of CydX conservation and prevalence and evaluate different methods of small protein homologue identification, we surveyed 1095 Eubacteria species for the presence of the small protein.Over 300 homologues were identified, including 80 unannotated genes. The ability of both closely-related and divergent homologues to complement the E. coli ?cydX mutant supports our identification techniques, and suggests that CydX homologues retain similar function among divergent species. However, sequence analysis of these proteins shows a great degree of variability, with only a few highly-conserved residues. An analysis of the co-variation between CydX homologues and their corresponding cydA and cydB genes shows a close synteny of the small protein with the CydA long Q-loop. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the cydABX operon has undergone horizontal gene transfer, although the cydX gene likely evolved in a progenitor of the Alpha, Beta, and Gammaproteobacteria. Further investigation of cydAB operons identified two additional conserved hypothetical small proteins: CydY encoded in CydAQlong operons that lack cydX, and CydZ encoded in more than 150 CydAQshort operons.This study provides a systematic analysis of bioinformatics techniques required for the unique challenges present in small protein identification and phylogenetic analyses. These results elucidate the prevalence of CydX throughout the Proteobacteria, provide insight into the selection pressure and sequence requirements for CydX function, and suggest a potential functional interaction between the small protein and the CydA Q-loop, an enigmatic domain of the cytochrome bd oxidase complex. Finally, these results identify other conserved small proteins encoded in cytochrome bd oxidase operons, suggesting that small protein subunits may be a more common component of these enzymes than previously thought.
Project description:Cytochrome bd-type oxidases play a crucial role for survival of pathogenic bacteria during infection and proliferation. This role and the fact that there are no homologues in the mitochondrial respiratory chain qualify cytochrome bd as a potential antimicrobial target. However, few bd oxidase selective inhibitors have been described so far. In this report, inhibitory effects of Aurachin C (AurC-type) and new Aurachin D (AurD-type) derivatives on oxygen reductase activity of isolated terminal bd-I, bd-II and bo3 oxidases from Escherichia coli were potentiometrically measured using a Clark-type electrode. We synthesized long- (C10, decyl or longer) and short-chain (C4, butyl to C8, octyl) AurD-type compounds and tested this set of molecules towards their selectivity and potency. We confirmed strong inhibition of all three terminal oxidases for AurC-type compounds, whereas the 4(1H)-quinolone scaffold of AurD-type compounds mainly inhibits bd-type oxidases. We assessed a direct effect of chain length on inhibition activity with highest potency and selectivity observed for heptyl AurD-type derivatives. While Aurachin C and Aurachin D are widely considered as selective inhibitors for terminal oxidases, their structure-activity relationship is incompletely understood. This work fills this gap and illustrates how structural differences of Aurachin derivatives determine inhibitory potency and selectivity for bd-type oxidases of E. coli.
Project description:The cytochrome bd oxidases are terminal oxidases that are present in bacteria and archaea. They reduce molecular oxygen (dioxygen) to water, avoiding the production of reactive oxygen species. In addition to their contribution to the proton motive force, they mediate viability under oxygen-related stress conditions and confer tolerance to nitric oxide, thus contributing to the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Here we present the atomic structure of the bd oxidase from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, revealing a pseudosymmetrical subunit fold. The arrangement and order of the heme cofactors support the conclusions from spectroscopic measurements that the cleavage of the dioxygen bond may be mechanistically similar to that in the heme-copper-containing oxidases, even though the structures are completely different.