ABSTRACT: Airway remodeling is one of the characteristics for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mechanism underlying airway remodeling is associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the small airways of smokers and patients with COPD. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is able to reduce oxidative stress, and to modulate EMT. Here, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on pulmonary EMT in vitro and in vivo. We found that H2S donor NaHS inhibited cigarette smoke (CS)-induced airway remodeling, EMT and collagen deposition in mouse lungs. In human bronchial epithelial 16HBE cells, NaHS treatment also reduced CS extract (CSE)-induced EMT, collagen deposition and oxidative stress. Mechanistically, NaHS upregulated SIRT1 expression, but inhibited activation of TGF-?1/Smad3 signaling in vivo and in vitro. SIRT1 inhibition by a specific inhibitor EX527 significantly attenuated or abolished the ability of NaHS to reverse the CSE-induced oxidative stress. SIRT1 inhibition also abolished the protection of NaHS against CSE-induced EMT. Moreover, SIRT1 activation attenuated CSE-induced EMT by modifying TGF-?1-mediated Smad3 transactivation. In conclusion, H2S prevented CS-induced airway remodeling in mice by reversing oxidative stress and EMT, which was partially ameliorated by SIRT1 activation. These findings suggest that H2S may have therapeutic potential for the prevention and treatment of COPD.
Project description:Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous gaseous signal molecule, regulates many pathologies related to aging. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been shown to protect against mitochondrial dysfunction and other pathological processes, including premature senescence. This study was aimed to investigate whether and how H2S attenuates senescence and apoptosis of alveolar epithelial cells via a SIRT1-dependent mechanism. Our results showed that treatment with sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, attenuated cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence and apoptosis in A549 cells. This was associated with SIRT1 upregulation. SIRT1 activation by a pharmacological activator, SRT1720, attenuated CSE-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in A549 cells. While SIRT1 inhibition by EX 527 or silencing by siRNA transfection significantly attenuated or abolished the ability of NaHS to reverse the CSE-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and the imbalance of mitochondrial fusion and fission. Also, SIRT1 inhibition or silencing abolished the protection of NaHS against CSE-induced cellular senescence and apoptosis. In conclusion, H2S attenuates CSE-induced cellular senescence and apoptosis by improving mitochondrial function and reducing oxidative stress in alveolar epithelial cells in a SIRT1-dependent manner. These findings provide novel mechanisms underlying the protection of H2S against cigarette smoke-induced COPD.
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process associated with airway remodeling in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which leads to progressive pulmonary destruction. Panax ginseng is a traditional herbal medicine that has been shown to improve pulmonary function and exercise capacity in patients with COPD. Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the main active components and was shown to inhibit oxidative stress and inflammation. The present study investigated the hypothesis that ginsenoside Rg1 attenuates EMT in COPD rats induced by cigarette smoke (CS) and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE). Our data showed that CS or CSE exposure increased expression of the mesenchymal marker ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and decreased expression of the epithelial marker epithelial cadherin (E-cad) in both lung tissues and HBE cells, which was markedly suppressed by ginsenoside Rg1. Importantly, CS-induced upregulation of TGF-?1/Smad pathway components, including TGF-?1, TGF-?R1, phospho-Smad2, and phospho-Smad3, was also inhibited by ginsenoside Rg1. Additionally, ginsenoside Rg1 mimicked the effect of SB525334, a TGF-?R1-Smad2/3 inhibitor, on suppression of EMT in CSE-induced HBE cells. Collectively, we concluded that ginsenoside Rg1 alleviates CS-induced pulmonary EMT, in both COPD rats and HBE cells, via inhibition of the TGF-?1/Smad pathway.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by airflow limitation that is progressive and not fully reversible. Cigarette smoking is one of the most commonly and important risk factors for COPD, which contributes to airway remodeling, the outstanding pathological changes in COPD. One potential mechanism which might be important for airway remodeling is the process called epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of EMT in CS-induced COPD are still poorly understood. METHODS:Two Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets (GSE108134 and GSE5058) were combined to identify the key genes involved in COPD. Then, single-gene analysis of Lyn was performed. Lyn expression was confirmed in patients with COPD. 16HBE cells were treated with cigarette smoking extracts (CSE). Wild type (WT) C57BL/6?J mice and Lyn+/+ transgenic mice were exposed to CSE to establish CS-exposed model. Pathological changes were observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining. The expression levels of EMT markers were examined by using western blot and immunofluorescence. The expression and phosphorylation levels of Lyn and Smad2/3 were detected as well. RESULTS:The gain of mesenchymal markers vimentin and ?-SMA with a concomitant loss of E-cadherin was observed in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Meanwhile, cigarette smoking extracts (CSE) induced EMT in 16HBE cells in a time- and dose- dependent manner. Furthermore, by analyzing GEO datasets and using molecular methods, we explored a kinase, Lyn, its expression correlated with the expression of E-cadherin, vimentin and ?-SMA in CS-exposed model. Moreover, we found that EMT induced by CSE was regulated by activated Lyn through phosphorylation of Smad2/3. CONCLUSIONS:In summary, we found that Lyn regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in CS-exposed model through Smad2/3 signaling. As a kinase, Lyn is "druggable", and might provide a therapeutic opportunity for targeting EMT. Therefore, our research might provide a new method to treat COPD by targeting Lyn kinase specifically.
Project description:Oxidative stress and inflammation play crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Most patients with COPD show a poor response to corticosteroids. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S ) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of COPD, but its expression and effects in lung tissue from COPD patients are not clear. In peripheral lung tissue samples from 24 patients, we found that compared with nonsmokers, the protein level of cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) was decreased in smokers and COPD patients. CSE mRNA increased but cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) mRNA decreased in COPD patients. H2S donors increased glutathione and superoxide dismutase in CS exposed U937 cells and inhibited CS-induced TNF-α and IL-8 secretion. Dexamethasone alone had no effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced TNF-α release by alveolar macrophages from CS exposed rats, however the combination of dexamethasone and H2S donor significantly inhibited TNF-α release. Thus, H2S metabolism is altered in lung tissue of smokers and COPD patients. Supplementation of H2S protects against CS-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in macrophages and H2S on steroid sensitivity deserves further investigation.
Project description:To investigate the role of H2S in Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a rat model of COPD was established by cigarette smoking (CS) and intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: Control, CS+LPS, CS+LPS+NaHS and CS+LPS+propargylglycine (PPG). Transcription profiling of lung tissue comparing Control with CS+LPS, CS+LPS with CS+LPS+NaHS, and CS+LPS with CS+LPS+PPG. The goal was to determine the impact of H2S on gene expression profiling in rat model of COPD. Overall design: 4 groups, Control vs. CS+LPS; CS+LPS vs. CS+LPS+NaHS; CS+LPS vs. CS+LPS+PPG; each group has 3 replicates.
Project description:Aims. The study aimed to examine whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S) generation changed in the kidney of the ageing mouse and its relationship with impaired kidney function. Results. H2S levels in the plasma, urine, and kidney decreased significantly in ageing mice. The expression of two known H2S-producing enzymes in kidney, cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-?-synthase (CBS), decreased significantly during ageing. Chronic H2S donor (NaHS, 50??mol/kg/day, 10 weeks) treatment could alleviate oxidative stress levels and renal tubular interstitial collagen deposition. These protective effects may relate to transcription factor Nrf2 activation and antioxidant proteins such as HO-1, SIRT1, SOD1, and SOD2 expression upregulation in the ageing kidney after NaHS treatment. Furthermore, the expression of H2S-producing enzymes changed with exogenous H2S administration and contributed to elevated H2S levels in the ageing kidney. Conclusions. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide production in the ageing kidney is insufficient. Exogenous H2S can partially rescue ageing-related kidney dysfunction by reducing oxidative stress, decreasing collagen deposition, and enhancing Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Recovery of endogenous hydrogen sulfide production may also contribute to the beneficial effects of NaHS treatment.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common respiratory disease with high morbidity and mortality. The most important pathophysiological change of COPD is airway obstruction. Airway obstruction can cause airflow restriction and obstructive ventilation dysfunction. Currently, many studies have shown that there is EMT phenomenon in the process of airway remodeling of COPD. Cullin4A (CUL4A) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that interacts with other factors to form the E3 complex. Studies have shown that CLU4A is associated with EMT in non-small cell lung cancer and other cancers. However, its relationship with EMT in COPD has not been reported systematically. In this study, we detected the expression of CUL4A in lung epithelium of COPD patients. In addition, the regulatory effect and mechanism of CUL4A on EMT in COPD were clarified in small airway epithelial cells.<h4>Methods</h4>The expression of CUL4A was assessed by immunohistochemistry in lung epithelium specimens from smokers, non-smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The role of CUL4A on cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human small airway epithelial cells (HSAEpiCs) was assessed by silencing or overexpression CUL4A in vitro. Cigarette smoke is recognized as a high-risk factor in the induction of COPD, and its damage to the airway involves airway damage, airway inflammation and airway remodeling.<h4>Results</h4>The results shown that CUL4A expression in small airway epithelium was significantly increased in patients with COPD. We also observed a significant negative association between CUL4A and FEV<sub>1</sub>%, a useful clinical marker for the diagnosis and evaluation of COPD severity, in small airway epithelial cells. In vitro, CSE-induced EMT is associated with high expression of CUL4A, and targeted silencing of CUL4A with shRNA inhibits CSE-induced EMT in human small airway epithelial cells.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results showed that CUL4A was overexpressed in lung epithelium of COPD patients, and CUL4A could regulate EMT of human small airway epithelium, which revealed a new mechanism of remodeling of small airway epithelium of COPD patients.
Project description:Sleep deprivation (SD) induces hippocampal damage. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a neuronal protective factor. Silence information regulating factor 1 (Sirt1) plays an important role in neuroprotection. Therefore, this study was aimed at exploring whether H2S meliorates SD-induced hippocampal damage and whether Sirt1 mediates this protective role of H2S. We found that sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H2S) alleviated SD-generated hippocampal oxidative stress, including increases in the activation of SOD and the level of GSH as well as a decrease in the level of MDA. Meanwhile, we found that NaHS reduced SD-exerted hippocampal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Stress, including downregulations of GRP78, CHOP, and cleaved-caspase-12 expression. Moreover, NaHS reduced the apoptosis in the SD-exposed hippocampus, and this included decreases in the number of apoptotic cells and the activation of caspase-3, downregulation of Bax expression, and upregulation of Bcl-2 expression. NaHS upregulated the expression of Sirt1 in the hippocampus of SD-exposed rats. Furthermore, Sirtinol, the inhibitor of Sirt1, abrogated the protection of NaHS against SD-exerted hippocampal oxidative stress, ER stress, and apoptosis. These results suggested that H2S alleviates SD-induced hippocampal damage by upregulation of hippocampal Sirt1.
Project description:Rationale: Aberrant bronchial epithelium-fibroblast communication is essential for the airway remodeling that contributes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exosomes have emerged as novel mediators of intercellular communication, but their role in cigarette smoke (CS)-induced COPD is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of exosomal miR-21 in the dysfunctional epithelium-fibroblast cross-talk caused by CS. Methods: Normal or CS extract (CSE)-treated human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were co-cultured with bronchial fibroblasts (MRC-5 cells). Exosomes were obtained from culture media or serum by use of commercial kits. The size distribution and concentration of exosomes were analyzed by nanoparticle tracking analysis using a ZetaView particle tracker from ParticleMetrix. Inhibition of miR-21 levels by tail vein injection of antagomir-21 into mice exposed to CS was used to demonstrate the role of miR-21 in airway remodeling leading to COPD in animals. Results: For MRC-5 cells, co-culture with CSE-treated HBE cells or with exosomes derived from CSE-treated HBE cells resulted in the myofibroblast differentiation phenotype. Exosomal miR-21 was responsible for myofibroblast differentiation through hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF-1?) signaling by targeting the von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL); HIF-1? transcriptionally regulated the ?-SMA gene. For mice, downregulation of miR-21 prevented CS-induced airway remodeling. The levels of exosomal miR-21 were high in sera of smokers and COPD patients and inversely correlated with FEV1/FVC. Conclusion: We demonstrate that CS triggers the modification of exosome components and identify miR-21 derived from bronchial epithelial cells as a mediator of myofibroblast differentiation through the pVHL/HIF-1? signaling pathway, which has potential value for diagnosis and treatment of COPD.
Project description:Aims:Insulin and glucocorticoids play crucial roles in skeletal muscle protein turnover. Fast-twitch glycolytic fibres are more susceptible to atrophy than slow-twitch oxidative fibres. Based on accumulating evidence, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a physiological mediator of this process. The regulatory effect of H2S on protein synthesis in fast-twitch fibres was evaluated. Results:A NaHS (sodium hydrosulfide) injection simultaneously increased the diameter of M. pectoralis major (i.e., fast-twitch glycolytic fibres) and activated the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR)/p70S6 kinase (p70S6K) pathway. Dexamethasone (DEX) inhibited protein synthesis, downregulated mTOR and p70S6K phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) protein in myoblasts. The precursor of H2S, L-cysteine, completely abolished the inhibitory effects of DEX. The CSE inhibitor DL-propargylglycine (PAG) completely abrogated the effects of RU486 on blocking the suppressive effects of DEX. The H2S donor NaHS increased the H2S concentrations and abrogated the inhibitory effects of DEX on protein synthesis. Insulin increased protein synthesis and upregulated CSE expression. However, PAG abrogated the stimulatory effects of insulin on protein synthesis and the activity of the mTOR/p70S6K pathway. Innovation:These results demonstrated that CSE/H2S regulated protein synthesis in fast-twitch muscle fibres, and glucocorticoids and insulin regulated protein synthesis in an endogenous CSE/H2S system-dependent manner. Conclusions:The results from the present study suggest that the endogenous CSE/H2S system regulates fast-twitch glycolytic muscle degeneration and regeneration.