Serum Levels of miR-143 Predict Survival in Critically Ill Patients.
ABSTRACT: Background and Aims:Recent data suggested a potential role of miR-143 as a biomarker for systemic inflammation and infection. However, its role in critical illness and sepsis is only poorly understood. Methods:We determined circulating levels of miR-143 in 218 critically ill patients, of which 135 fulfilled sepsis criteria, and compared them to 76 healthy controls. Results were correlated with clinical records. Results:In the total cohort of critically ill patients from a medical intensive care unit (ICU), miR-143 serum levels tended to be lower compared to healthy control samples, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. In ICU patients, serum levels of miR-143 were independent of disease etiology, including the presence of sepsis, or severity of disease. Importantly, low miR-143 serum levels were associated with an unfavorable short- and long-term prognosis in ICU patients. Our study identified different optimal cut-off values at which low miR-143 serum levels predicted mortality with a high diagnostic accuracy. In line with this, concentrations of circulating miR-143 correlated with markers of organ failure such as creatinine, bilirubin, or lactate in our cohort of critically ill patients. Conclusion:Low miR-143 serum levels are indicative for an unfavorable short- and long-term prognosis in critically ill patients admitted to a medical ICU. Our data suggest a previously unrecognized role for miR-143 measurements as a novel prognostic marker in critically ill patients.
Project description:Down-regulation of miR-150 was recently linked to inflammation and bacterial infection. Furthermore, reduced serum levels of miR-150 were reported from a small cohort of patients with sepsis. We thus aimed at evaluating the diagnostic and prognostic value of miR-150 serum levels in patients with critically illness and sepsis.miR-150 serum levels were analyzed in a cohort of 223 critically ill patients of which 138 fulfilled sepsis criteria and compared to 76 healthy controls. Results were correlated with clinical data and extensive sets of routine and experimental biomarkers.Measurements of miR-150 serum concentrations revealed only slightly reduced miR-150 serum levels in critically ill patients compared to healthy controls. Furthermore miR-150 levels did not significantly differ in critically ill patients with our without sepsis, indicating that miR-150 serum levels are not suitable for diagnostic establishment of sepsis. However, serum levels of miR-150 correlated with hepatic or renal dysfunction. Low miR-150 serum levels were associated with an unfavorable prognosis of patients, since low miR-150 serum levels predicted mortality with high diagnostic accuracy compared with established clinical scores and biomarkers.Reduced miR-150 serum concentrations are associated with an unfavorable outcome in patients with critical illness, independent of the presence of sepsis. Besides a possible pathogenic role of miR-150 in critical illness, our study indicates a potential use of circulating miRNAs as a prognostic rather than diagnostic marker in critically ill patients.
Project description:Background:Circulating levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activation receptor (suPAR) have been proposed as a prognostic biomarker in patients with critical illness and sepsis. However, the origin of suPAR in sepsis has remained obscure. We investigated the potential cellular sources of suPAR by analyzing membrane-bound urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR, CD87) and evaluated its clinical relevance in critically ill patients. Methods:We studied 87 critically ill patients (44 with sepsis, 43 without sepsis) from the medical intensive care unit (ICU) in comparison to 48 standard care patients with infections and 27 healthy controls in a prospective single-center non-interventional cohort study. Cellular uPAR expression of different immune cell subsets (by flow cytometry from peripheral blood) and corresponding serum suPAR concentrations were determined upon ICU admission and at day 3. Furthermore, we analyzed the effects of serum from sepsis patients on the activation and uPAR cleavage of primary human neutrophils and macrophages in vitro. Results:In healthy controls, uPAR (CD87) expression was detected on nearly all blood neutrophils and monocytes, but only scarcely on lymphocytes. While uPAR expression on monocytes was maintained in ICU patients, only 58% of neutrophils from critically ill patients expressed uPAR, which was significantly lower than in healthy controls or standard care patients. Concomitantly, serum suPAR levels were significantly increased in ICU patients. We noted a clear inverse correlation between low neutrophilic uPAR and high serum suPAR in standard care and ICU patients, indicating that shedding of uPAR from activated neutrophils represents a main source of suPAR in systemic inflammation. Both low uPAR and high suPAR were closely associated with mortality in critically ill patients. Furthermore, serum from sepsis patients induced uPAR protein expression and subsequent receptor shedding on isolated primary neutrophils, but not on macrophages, in vitro. Conclusions:The inverse correlation between low uPAR surface expression on neutrophils and high serum suPAR in critically ill patients supports that neutrophils are a main source of shed suPAR proteins in systemic inflammation. Furthermore, high suPAR levels and low neutrophilic uPAR expression predict mortality in ICU patients.
Project description:Introduction:Alterations in miR-155 serum levels have been described in inflammatory and infectious diseases. Moreover, a role for miR-155 in aging and age-related diseases was recently suggested. We therefore analyzed a potential age-dependent prognostic value of circulating miR-155 as a serum-based marker in critical illness. Methods:Concentrations of circulating miR-155 were determined in 218 critically ill patients and 76 healthy controls. Results:By using qPCR, we demonstrate that miR-155 serum levels are elevated in patients with critical illness when compared to controls. Notably, levels of circulating miR-155 were independent on the severity of disease, the disease etiology, or the presence of sepsis. In the total cohort, miR-155 was not an indicator for patient survival. Intriguingly, when patients were subdivided according to their age upon admission to the ICU into those younger than 65 years, lower levels of miR-155 turned out as a strong marker, indicating patient mortality with a similar accuracy than other markers frequently used to evaluate critically ill patients on a medical ICU. Conclusion:In summary, the data provided within this study suggest an age-specific role of miR-155 as a prognostic biomarker in patients younger than 65 years. Our study is the first to describe an age-dependent miRNA-based prognostic biomarker in human diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Identification of patients with increased risk of mortality represents an important prerequisite for an adapted adequate and individualized treatment of critically ill patients. Circulating micro-RNA (miRNA) levels have been suggested as potential biomarkers at the intensive care unit (ICU), but none of the investigated miRNAs displayed a sufficient sensitivity or specificity to be routinely employed as a single marker in clinical practice. METHODS AND RESULTS:We recently described alterations in serum levels of 7 miRNAs (miR-122, miR-133a, miR-143, miR-150, miR-155, miR-192, and miR-223) in critically ill patients at a medical ICU. In this study, we re-analyzed these previously published data and performed a combined analysis of these markers to unravel their potential as a prognostic scoring system in the context of critical illness. Based on the Youden's index method, cut-off values were systematically defined for dysregulated miRNAs, and a "miRNA survival score" was calculated. Patients with high scores displayed a dramatically impaired prognosis compared to patients with low values. Additionally, the predictive power of our score could be further increased when the patient's age was additionally incorporated into this score. CONCLUSIONS:We describe the first miRNA-based biomarker score for prediction of medical patients' outcome during and after ICU treatment. Adding the patients' age into this score was associated with a further increase in its predictive power. Further studies are needed to validate the clinical utility of this score in risk-stratifying critically ill patients.
Project description:Mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), a crucial regulator of necroptotic cell death, was shown to play a role in inflammatory diseases. However, its role as a biomarker in critical illness and sepsis is currently unknown. We analyzed serum levels of MLKL in 136 critically ill patients at admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and after three days of ICU treatment. Results were compared with 36 healthy controls and correlated with clinical and laboratory patients' data. MLKL serum levels of critically ill patients at admission to the ICU were similar compared to healthy controls. At ICU admission, MLKL serum concentrations were independent of disease severity, presence of sepsis, and etiology of critical illness. In contrast, median serum levels of MLKL after three days of ICU treatment were significantly lower compared to those at admission to the ICU. While serum levels of MLKL at admission were not predictive for short-term survival during ICU treatment, elevated MLKL concentrations at day three were an independent negative predictor of patients' ICU survival. Thus, elevated MLKL levels after three days of ICU treatment were predictive for patients' mortality, indicating that sustained deregulated cell death is associated with an adverse prognosis in critical illness.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Members of the adipokine family such as resistin, adiponectin and omentin have recently been described as novel biomarkers with a diagnostic and prognostic role in the context of critically ill patients during intensive care unit (ICU) treatment. Kisspeptin represent another member of this family and has been shown to be closely correlated to different members of the adipokine family in manifold diseases. However, its role in critical illness and sepsis is currently unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Kisspeptin serum concentrations were measured in 133 ICU patients admitted to the medical ICU. Results were compared with 36 healthy controls. RESULTS:Kisspeptin serum levels were elevated in the serum of critically ill patients at admission to the ICU, when compared to healthy controls, and remained increased after 72 hours of ICU treatment. Notably, kisspeptin levels were independent of the presence of sepsis and etiology of critical illness. In line, serum concentrations of kisspeptin were not correlated to concentrations of inflammatory cytokines or established sepsis markers. Serum kisspeptin correlated inversely with the glomerular filtration rate. In contrast to the reported role of other members of the adipokine family, serum levels of kisspeptin were neither predictive for short term survival during ICU treatment nor for patients' overall survival. Kisspeptin levels did not correlate with other adipokines measured in serum, including leptin, resistin, ghrelin, or adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS:Although circulating kisspeptin levels were strongly elevated in ICU-patients, elevated kisspeptin levels were not predictive for an impaired patients' survival.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Extracellular release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) acts as a danger-associated molecular pattern, thereby "alarming" the immune system and promoting systemic inflammation. We investigated plasma HMGB1 concentrations as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker in critical illness. METHODS:Our study included 218 critically ill patients (145 with sepsis, 73 without sepsis), of whom blood samples were obtained at the time-point of admission to the medical intensive care unit (ICU). RESULTS:High mobility group box 1 levels were significantly elevated in critically ill patients (n = 218) compared with healthy controls (n = 66). Elevated HMGB1 plasma levels were independent from the presence of sepsis. Moreover, HMGB1 was not associated with disease severity, organ failure, or mortality in the ICU. We observed a trend toward lower HMGB1 levels in ICU patients with pre-existing obesity, type 2 diabetes and end-stage renal disease patients on chronic hemodialysis. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, our study did not reveal significant associations between HMGB1 levels at ICU admission and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. Due to the pathogenic role of HMGB1 in the late phases of experimental sepsis, future studies might assess the potential value of HMGB1 by measuring its plasma concentrations at later time points during the course of critical illness.
Project description:Background:Sepsis is the leading cause of mortality in critically ill patients. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a promising marker for identification of bacterial sepsis. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of serum PCT concentration in patients with suspected sepsis admitted to mixed medical-surgical Intensive care unit (ICU). Material and methods:A cross-sectional study conducted at section of Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and ICU. Patients with suspected sepsis were included, serum PCT cut off ?0.5?ng/ml was taken for diagnosing sepsis. Diagnostic accuracy was measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) taking blood culture as gold standard. Furthermore, different cut offs were compared by using receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC). Data analysis was done on SPSS version 20. Results:Median age of the study group (n?=?103) was 48 years (IQR: 22), 60% being males. Out of the 103 patients included 82 patients had PCT levels above the optimal cut off. At a serum PCT cutoff of 0.5??g/L, the sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of sepsis was found to be 93.75% and 43.59% respectively. NPV was higher compared to PPV making PCT a reliable marker to for the screening out of sepsis patients. Furthermore, it was revealed that PCT having an AUC?=?0.70 outperformed WBC (AUC?=?0.5) and CRP (AUC?=?0.6). Conclusion:Elevated PCT concentration is a promising indicator of sepsis in newly admitted critically ill patients capable of complementing clinical signs and routine laboratory parameters.
Project description:Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a promising novel biomarker that correlates with the severity and outcome of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, its prognostic utility during the late course of AKI, especially in patients that require renal replacement therapy (RRT) remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of serum NGAL in patients with established AKI at inception of RRT in the intensive care unit (ICU).Serum NGAL (ELISA methodology) was measured in 109 critically ill patients with AKI at inception of RRT in 7 ICUs of a tertiary care university hospital. The primary outcome studied was 28-day mortality. Secondary outcome measures were ICU length of stay, ventilator-free days, and renal recovery at day 28.There was a significant difference in serum NGAL between healthy subjects (median [interquartile range] 39.0 [37.5-42.75] ng/mL), critically ill patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) (297 [184-490] ng/mL), and critically ill patients with sepsis (708 [365-1301] ng/mL; P < 0.0001), respectively. Multiple linear regression showed that NGAL levels were independently related to the severity of AKI and the extent of systemic inflammation. NGAL levels were higher in non-survivors (430 [303-942] ng/mL) compared to survivors (298 [159-506] ng/mL; P = 0.004). Consistently, Cox proportional hazards regression analysis identified NGAL as a strong independent predictor for 28-day survival (hazard ratio 1.6 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15 - 2.23), P = 0.005).This is the first prospective evaluation of serum NGAL as an outcome-specific biomarker in critically ill patients at initiation of RRT. The results from this study indicate that serum NGAL is as an independent predictor of 28-day mortality in ICU patients with dialysis-dependent AKI.
Project description:Elevated markers of cholestasis are common in response to critical illness, and associated with adverse outcome. The role of illness duration and of nutrient restriction on underlying molecular pathways of such cholestatic responses have not been thoroughly investigated.In a mouse model of surgery- and sepsis-induced critical illness, molecular pathways of cholestasis were investigated up to 7 days. To assess which changes are explained by illness-induced lack of feeding, nutrient-restricted healthy mice were studied and compared with ad libitum fed healthy mice. Furthermore, serum bile acid (BA) concentrations were quantified in 1,114 human patients with either short or long intensive care unit (ICU) stay, matched for type and severity of illness, up to ICU-day-7.In critically ill mice, either evoked by surgery or sepsis, circulating and hepatic BA-levels progressively increased with time from day-3 onward, preceded by unsuppressed or upregulated CYP7A1 and CYP27A1 protein expression. From 30?h onward, nuclear farnesoid-X-receptor-retinoid-X-receptor staining was significantly suppressed in both critically ill groups, followed from day-3 onward by decreased gene expression of the apical exporter BA-specific export pump and increased expression of basolateral exporters multidrug resistance-associated protein 3 (MRP3) and MRP4. Nutrient restriction in healthy mice only partly mirrored illness-induced alterations in circulating BA and BA-transporters, without changing nuclear receptors or synthesis markers expression. Also in human critically ill patients, serum BA increased with time in long-stay patients only, similarly for patients with or without sepsis.Circulating BA concentrations rose days after onset of sepsis- and surgery-induced, critical illness, only partially explained by lack of feeding, preceded by suppressed nuclear feedback-sensors and ongoing BA synthesis. Expression of transporters suggested ongoing reversed BA-flow toward the blood.