Proteomic characterization and discrimination of Aeromonas species recovered from meat and water samples with a spotlight on the antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila.
ABSTRACT: Aeromonas is recognized as a human pathogen following ingestion of contaminated food and water. One major problem in Aeromonas identification is that certain species are phenotypically very similar. The antimicrobial resistance is another significant challenge worldwide. We therefore aimed to use mass spectrometry technology for identification and discrimination of Aeromonas species and to screen the antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas hydrophila (A. hydrophila). A total of 150 chicken meat and water samples were cultured, and then, the isolates were identified biochemically by the Vitek® 2 Compact system. Proteomic identification was performed by MALDI-TOF MS and confirmed by a microchannel fluidics electrophoresis assay. Principal component analysis (PCA) and single-peak analysis created by MALDI were also used to discriminate the Aeromonas species. The antimicrobial resistance of the A. hydrophila isolates was determined by Vitek® 2 AST cards. In total, 43 samples were positive for Aeromonas and comprised 22 A. hydrophila, 12 Aeromonas caviae (A. caviae), and 9 Aeromonas sobria (A. sobria) isolates. Thirty-nine out of 43 (90.69%) Aeromonas isolates were identified by the Vitek® 2 Compact system, whereas 100% of the Aeromonas isolates were correctly identified by MALDI-TOF MS with a score value ?2.00. PCA successfully separated A. hydrophila, A. caviae and A. sobria isolates into two groups. Single-peak analysis revealed four discriminating peaks that separated A. hydrophila from A. caviae and A. sobria isolates. The resistance of A. hydrophila to antibiotics was 95.46% for ampicillin, 50% for cefotaxime, 45.45% for norfloxacin and pefloxacin, 36.36% for ceftazidime and ciprofloxacin, 31.81% for ofloxacin and 27.27% for nalidixic acid and tobramycin. In conclusion, chicken meat and water were tainted with Aeromonas spp., with a high occurrence of A. hydrophila. MALDI-TOF MS is a powerful technique for characterizing aeromonads at the genus and species levels. Future studies should investigate the resistance of A. hydrophila to various antimicrobial agents.
Project description:DNA fragments were amplified by PCR from all tested strains of Aeromonas hydrophila, A. caviae, and A. sobria with primers designed based on sequence alignment of all lipase, phospholipase C, and phospholipase A1 genes and the cytotonic enterotoxin gene, all of which have been reported to have the consensus region of the putative lipase substrate-binding domain. All strains showed lipase activity, and all amplified DNA fragments contained a nucleotide sequence corresponding to the substrate-binding domain. Thirty-five distinct nucleotide sequence patterns and 15 distinct deduced amino acid sequence patterns were found in the amplified DNA fragments from 59 A. hydrophila strains. The deduced amino acid sequences of the amplified DNA fragments from A. caviae and A. sobria strains had distinctive amino acids, suggesting a species-specific sequence in each organism. Furthermore, the amino acid sequence patterns appear to differ between clinical and environmental isolates among A. hydrophila strains. Some strains whose nucleotide sequences were identical to one another in the amplified region showed an identical DNA fingerprinting pattern by repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence-PCR genotyping. These results suggest that A. hydrophila, and also A. caviae and A. sobria strains, have a gene encoding a protein with lipase activity. Homologs of the gene appear to be widely distributed in Aeromonas strains, probably associating with the evolutionary genetic difference between clinical and environmental isolates of A. hydrophila. Additionally, the distinctive nucleotide sequences of the genes could be attributed to the genotype of each strain, suggesting that their analysis may be helpful in elucidating the genetic heterogeneity of Aeromonas.
Project description:The present study aimed to isolate Aeromonas from fish sold in the markets as well as in sushi and seafood shops and compare their virulence factors and antimicrobial characteristics with those of clinical isolates. Among the 128 fish isolates and 47 clinical isolates, Aeromonas caviae, A. dhakensis, and A. veronii were the principal species. A. dhakensis isolates carried at least 5 virulence genes, more than other Aeromonas species. The predominant genotype of virulence genes was hlyA lip alt col ela in both A. dhakensis and A. hydrophila isolates, alt col ela in A. caviae isolates, and act in A. veronii isolates. A. dhakensis, A. hydrophila, and A. veronii isolates more often exhibited hemolytic and proteolytic activity and showed greater virulence than A. caviae isolates in Caenorhabditis elegans and the C2C12 cell line. However, the link between the genotypes and phenotypes of the studied virulence genes in Aeromonas species was not evident. Among the four major clinical Aeromonas species, nearly all (99.0%) A. dhakensis, A. hydrophila, and A. veronii isolates harbored bla CphA, which encodes a carbapenemase, but only a minority (6.7%, 7/104) were nonsusceptible to carbapenem. Regarding AmpC ?-lactamase genes, bla AQU-1 was exclusively found in A. dhakensis isolates, and bla MOX3 was found only in A. caviae isolates, but only 7.6% (n = 6) of the 79 Aeromonas isolates carrying bla AQU-1 or bla MOX3 exhibited a cefotaxime resistance phenotype. In conclusion, fish Aeromonas isolates carry a variety of combinations of virulence and ?-lactamase resistance genes and exhibit virulence phenotypes and antimicrobial resistance profiles similar to those of clinical isolates.IMPORTANCE Aeromonas species can cause severe infections in immunocompromised individuals upon exposure to virulent pathogens in the environment, but the characteristics of environmental Aeromonas species remain unclear. Our study showed that several pathogenic Aeromonas species possessing virulence traits and antimicrobial resistance similar to those of Aeromonas isolates causing clinical diseases were present in fish intended for human consumption in Tainan City, Taiwan.
Project description:A total of 227 isolates of Aeromonas obtained from different geographical locations in the United States and different parts of the world, including 28 reference strains, were analyzed to determine the presence of various virulence factors. These isolates were also fingerprinted using biochemical identification and pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Of these 227 isolates, 199 that were collected from water and clinical samples belonged to three major groups or complexes, namely, the A. hydrophila group, the A. caviae-A. media group, and the A. veronii-A. sobria group, based on biochemical profiles, and they had various pulsotypes. When virulence factor activities were examined, Aeromonas isolates obtained from clinical sources had higher cytotoxic activities than isolates obtained from water sources for all three Aeromonas species groups. Likewise, the production of quorum-sensing signaling molecules, such as N-acyl homoserine lactone, was greater in clinical isolates than in isolates from water for the A. caviae-A. media and A. hydrophila groups. Based on colony blot DNA hybridization, the heat-labile cytotonic enterotoxin gene and the DNA adenosine methyltransferase gene were more prevalent in clinical isolates than in water isolates for all three Aeromonas groups. Using colony blot DNA hybridization and PFGE, we obtained three sets of water and clinical isolates that had the same virulence signature and had indistinguishable PFGE patterns. In addition, all of these isolates belonged to the A. caviae-A. media group. The findings of the present study provide the first suggestive evidence of successful colonization and infection by particular strains of certain Aeromonas species after transmission from water to humans.
Project description:Sixty-three nalidixic acid-resistant Aeromonas sp. isolates were obtained from imported shrimp. Phylogenetic analysis of gyrB sequences indicated that 18 were A. enteropelogenes, 26 were A. caviae, and 19 were A. sobria. Double missense mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of gyrA at codon 83 (Ser→Val/Ile) and codon 92 (Leu→Met) coupled with a point mutation of parC at codon 80 (Ser→Ile/Phe) conferred high levels of quinolone resistance in the isolates. A majority of A. enteropelogenes and A. caviae strains harbored toxin genes, whereas only a few A. sobria strains harbored these genes. The fluoroquinolone-resistant Aeromonas spp. exhibited higher cytotoxicity than fluoroquinolone-sensitive, virulent Aeromonas spp. to rat epithelial cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Clinical characteristics (taxonomy, virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance ) of Aeromonas in isolated from extra-intestinal and intestinal infections were investigated to describe epidemiology, associated virulence factors and optimal therapy options. METHODS:Clinical samples (n = 115) of Aeromonas were collected from a general hospital in Beijing between the period 2015 and 2017. Taxonomy was investigate by Multilocus phylogenetic analysis (MLPA), 10 putative virulence factors by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and antimicrobial resistance to 15 antibiotics by use of the microbroth dilution method. RESULTS:The most common species of Aeromonas detected in samples of intestinal tract included; A. caviae (43.9%), A. veronii (35.7%), and A. dhakensis (12.2%). Prevalent species of Aeromonas collected from extra-intestinal infections included; A. hydrophila (29.4%), A. caviae (29.4%), and A. dhakensis (23.5%). A. hydrophila were detected in 1% of stool samples and 29.4% (5/17) of extra-intestinal infections. A. hydrophila strains in extra-intestinal infections were related to malignancy. The most common medical conditions among patients with Aeromonas infections included malignancy and liver-transplant related cholecystitis. Multiple drug resistance (MDR) was prevalent in extra-intestinal isolates (82.3%, 14/17) and was greater than the prevalence in intestinal isolates (30.6%, 30/98) (P < 0.05). Resistant rates of extra-intestinal isolates were 70.6, 35.3, 23.5 and 5.9% for ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin and imipenem, respectively, and were higher than found in previous studies. Despite differences in the number and type of virulence genes among samples of Aeromonas, no significant correlation was found between invasion and virulent genes in intestinal or extra-intestinal infections. CONCLUSIONS:Overall results of this study support a role for Aeromonas spp. as a potential causative infectious agent of gastroenteritis, and malignancy, liver cirrhosis, post liver transplantation in immunocompromised patients. A. hydrophila was more prevalent in samples of extra-intestinal infections when compared to samples of intestinal infections, and was especially prominent in samples of patients presenting with malignancy. Aeromonas isolates from extra-intestinal samples had high rates of drug resistance but 3rd generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides remain as options to treat severe diarrhea. However, increasing MDR of extra-intestinal infection samples warrants monitoring.
Project description:Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas caviae adapt to saline water environments and are the most predominant Aeromonas species isolated from estuaries. Here, we isolated antimicrobial-resistant (AMR) Aeromonas strains (A. hydrophila GSH8-2 and A. caviae GSH8M-1) carrying the carabapenemase blaKPC-2 gene from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent in Tokyo Bay (Japan) and determined their complete genome sequences. GSH8-2 and GSH8M-1 were classified as newly assigned sequence types ST558 and ST13, suggesting no supportive evidence of clonal dissemination. The strains appear to have acquired blaKPC-2 -positive IncP-6-relative plasmids (pGSH8-2 and pGSH8M-1-2) that share a common backbone with plasmids in Aeromonas sp. ASNIH3 isolated from hospital wastewater in the United States, A. hydrophila WCHAH045096 isolated from sewage in China, other clinical isolates (Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Escherichia coli), and wastewater isolates (Citrobacter, Pseudomonas and other Aeromonas spp.). In addition to blaKPC-2 , pGSH8M-1-2 carries an IS26-mediated composite transposon including a macrolide resistance gene, mph(A). Although Aeromonas species are opportunistic pathogens, they could serve as potential environmental reservoir bacteria for carbapenemase and AMR genes. AMR monitoring from WWTP effluents will contribute to the detection of ongoing AMR dissemination in the environment and might provide an early warning of potential dissemination in clinical settings and communities.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Advances in Aeromonas taxonomy have led to the reclassification of aeromonads. Hereon, we aimed to re-evaluate the characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia, including those of a novel species, Aeromonas dhakensis.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>A retrospective study of monomicrobial Aeromonas bacteremia at a medical center in southern Taiwan from 2004-2011 was conducted. Species identification was based on rpoB sequencing. Of bacteremia of 153 eligible patients, A. veronii (50 isolates, 32.7%), A. dhakensis (48, 31.4%), A. caviae (43, 28.1%), and A. hydrophila (10, 6.5%) were the principal causative species. A. dhakensis and A. veronii bacteremia were mainly community-acquired and presented as primary bacteremia, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, or skin and soft-tissue infection, whereas A. caviae was associated with hospital-onset bacteremia. The distribution of the AmpC ?-lactamase and metallo-?-lactamase genes was species-specific: bla(AQU-1), bla(MOX), or bla(CepH) was present in A. dhakensis, A. caviae, or A. hydrophila, respectively, and bla(CphA) was present in A. veronii, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila. The cefotaxime resistance rates of the A. caviae, A. dhakensis, and A. hydrophila isolates were higher than that of A. veronii (39.5%%, 25.0%, and 30% vs. 2%, respectively). A. dhakensis bacteremia was linked to the highest 14-day sepsis-related mortality rate, followed by A. hydrophila, A. veronii, and A. caviae bacteremia (25.5%, 22.2%, 14.0%, and 4.7%, respectively; P = 0.048). Multivariate analysis revealed that A. dhakensis bacteremia, active malignancies, and a Pitt bacteremia score ? 4 was an independent mortality risk factor.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>Characteristics of Aeromonas bacteremia vary between species. A. dhakensis prevalence and its associated poor outcomes suggest it an important human pathogen.
Project description:Eight Aeromonas hydrophila-like arabinose-negative isolates from diverse sources (i.e., river freshwater, cooling-system water pond, diseased wild European eels, and human stools) sampled in Valencia (Spain) during 2004-2005, were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and extensive biochemical testing along with reference strains of most Aeromonas species. These isolates and all reference strains of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis and A. aquariorum showed a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.8-100%, and they all shared an identical phenotype. This matched exactly with that of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis since all strains displayed positive responses to the Voges-Prokauer test and to the use of dl-lactate. This is the first report of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis recovered from environmental samples, and further, from its original isolation in India during 1993-1994. This was accurately identified and segregated from other clinical aeromonads (A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii biovars veronii and sobria, A. trota, A. schubertii and A. jandaei) by using biochemical key tests. The API 20 E profile for all strains included in A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis was 7047125. The prevalence of this species in Spanish sources was higher for water (9.4%) than for feces (6%) or eels (1.3%). Isolates recovered as pure cultures from diseased eels were moderately virulent (LD(50) of 3.3×10(6) CFU fish(-1)) to challenged eels in experimental trials. They were all resistant to ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavuranic acid, cefoxitin, and imipenem, regardless of its source. Our data point to A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis as an emerging pathogen for humans and fish in temperate countries.
Project description:The Staphylococcus pseudintermedius group (SIG) is an emerging threat in veterinary medicine, particularly methicillin-resistant (MRSP) isolates, which are frequently associated with multidrug resistance. Reliable identification of SIG members is critical to establish correct antimicrobial treatments. However, information on the molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance patterns of MRSP in some regions is still limited. This study aimed to assess the antimicrobial resistance of SIG isolates recovered from animals at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Complutense University of Madrid (Spain) during a 10-year period (2007-2016). A total of 139 selected Staphylococcus isolates were subjected to species-level identification by different bioanalytical techniques (PCR, VITEK, MALDI-TOF) and subsequent antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Methicillin-resistant isolates (n = 20) were subjected to whole genome sequencing for further characterization of their antibiotic resistance determinants. Our results showed that there was a good correlation between PCR and MALDI-TOF identification, whereas VITEK showed very divergent results, thus confirming MALDI-TOF as a good alternative for species-level identification of coagulase-positive staphylococci. Notably, S. pseudintermedius, including the epidemic MRSP genotype ST71, was the only SIG species found among canine isolates. In addition, we found a high prevalence of multidrug resistance and resistance to fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins and macrolides. Finally, diverse genes associated with antibiotic resistance were detected among MRSP isolates, although the genetic basis of some of the resistant phenotypes (particularly to fluoroquinolones) could not be determined. In conclusion, our study reveals the circulation of MRSP in the veterinary setting in Spain, thus highlighting the emerging threat posed by this bacterial group and the need for further epidemiological surveillance.
Project description:Most Aeromonas strains isolated from two European rivers were previously found to be resistant to nalidixic acid. In order to elucidate the mechanism of this resistance, 20 strains of Aeromonas caviae (n = 10), A. hydrophila (n = 5), and A. sobria (n = 5) complexes, including 3 reference strains and 17 environmental isolates, were investigated. Fragments of the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes encompassing the quinolone resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Results obtained for the six sensitive strains showed that the GyrA, GyrB, ParC, and ParE QRDR fragments of Aeromonas spp. were highly conserved (> or =96.1% identity), despite some genetic polymorphism; they were most closely related to those of Vibrio spp., Pseudomonas spp., and members of the family Enterobacteriaceae (72.4 to 97.1% homology). All 14 environmental resistant strains carried a point mutation in the GyrA QRDR at codon 83, leading to the substitution Ser-83-->Ile (10 strains) or Ser-83-->Arg. In addition, seven strains harbored a mutation in the ParC QRDR either at position 80 (five strains), generating a Ser-80-->Ile (three strains) or Ser-80-->Arg change, or at position 84, yielding a Glu-84-->Lys modification. No amino acid alterations were discovered in the GyrB and ParE QRDRs. Double gyrA-parC missense mutations were associated with higher levels of quinolone resistance compared with the levels associated with single gyrA mutations. The most resistant strains probably had an additional mechanism(s) of resistance, such as decreased accumulation of the drugs. Our data suggest that, in mesophilic Aeromonas spp., as in other gram-negative bacteria, gyrase and topoisomerase IV are the primary and secondary targets for quinolones, respectively.