Optimization of agro-residues as substrates for Pleurotus pulmonarius production.
ABSTRACT: The "replacing wood by grass" project can partially resolve the conflict between mushroom production and balancing the ecosystem, while promoting agricultural economic sustainability. Pleurotus pulmonarius is an economically important edible and medicinal mushroom, which is traditionally produced using a substrate consisting of sawdust and cottonseed hulls, supplemented with wheat bran. A simplex lattice design was applied to systemically optimize the cultivation of P. pulmonarius using agro-residues as the main substrate to replace sawdust and cottonseed hulls. The effects of differing amounts of wheat straw, corn straw, and soybean straw on the variables of yield, mycelial growth rate, stipe length, pileus length, pileus width, and time to harvest were demonstrated. Results indicated that a mix of wheat straw, corn straw, and soybean straw may have significantly positive effects on each of these variables. The high yield comprehensive formula was then optimized to include 40.4% wheat straw, 20.3% corn straw, 18.3% soybean straw, combined with 20.0% wheat bran, and 1.0% light CaCO3 (C/N?=?42.50). The biological efficiency was 15.2% greater than that of the control. Most encouraging was the indication that the high yield comprehensive formula may shorten the time to reach the reproductive stage by 6 days, compared with the control. Based on the results of this study, agro-residues may be used as a suitable substitution for sawdust and cottonseed hulls as the main cultivation substrates of P. pulmonarius. These results provide a theoretical basis for the "replacing wood by grass" project on edible mushroom cultivation.
Project description:Granite fines, sand, rice hulls, long wheat straw, and wood shavings were compared as bedding for 60 female dairy calves. Growth, health, stress indices, and behavior of newly born calves, along with physical characteristics and bacterial counts of bedding, were evaluated for 42 d during August to October, 2002. Overall average daily gain and dry matter intake of calves did not differ due to bedding type, although during wk 2 calves housed on rice hulls had the greatest dry matter intake and those housed on wood shavings had the lowest. During wk 2, calves housed on granite fines and sand were treated more often for scours, and calves housed on long wheat straw received the fewest antibiotic treatments (week by bedding material interaction). Granite fines formed a harder surface than other bedding, and calves housed on granite fines scored the dirtiest. When bedding materials were evaluated, sand was scored to be the dirtiest, while pens bedded with rice hulls, long wheat straw, and wood shavings scored cleaner. Long wheat straw had the warmest surface temperature, and rice hulls and wood shavings were warmer than granite fines and sand. Serum cortisol, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulin G concentrations, and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio were not affected by bedding type. On d 0, coliform counts were greatest in rice hulls. After use, coliform counts were greatest in long wheat straw (week by bedding material interaction). On d 42, the concentration of ammonia at 10 cm above the bedding was lowest for long wheat straw. Growth performance of calves bedded for 42 d with 5 bedding types did not differ; however, the number of antibiotic treatments given for scours was greatest on granite fines and sand; coliform counts in the bedding were highest in rice hulls before use and in long wheat straw after 42 d of use.
Project description:Brown blotch disease (BBD) caused by Pseudomonas tolaasii is one of the most devastating diseases of Pleurotus spp. worldwide. Breeding for resistant strains is the most effective method for controlling BBD. To identify resistant germplasm for BBD management, 97 strains comprising 21 P. cf. floridanus, 20 P. ostreatus, and 56 P. pulmonarius were screened by two different methods; namely, inoculation of the pathogen on the mushroom pileus (IMP) and on the spawned substrate (IMSS) under controlled conditions. Out of the 97 strains screened, 22 P. pulmonarius, and four P. cf. floridanus were moderately resistant to BBD using the IMP method. Eleven P. pulmonarius, six P. cf. florida, and one P. ostreatus strains were highly resistant to BBD using the IMSS method. All of the 97 strains showed varying degrees of susceptibility using the IMP method, but eight strains were completely resistant using the IMSS method. Combining these two methods, five strains were highly resistant (four P. pulmonarius and one P. cf. floridanus) and 11 were moderately resistant (eight P. pulmonarius and three P. cf. floridanus). The resistance sources to P. tolaasii identified in P. pulmonarius and P. cf. floridanus could be used for further breeding of Pleurotus spp.
Project description:Plants like winter wheat are known for their insufficient N uptake between sowing and the following growing season. Especially after N-rich crops like oilseed rape or field bean, nitrogen retention of the available soil N can be poor, and the risk of contamination of the hydrosphere with nitrate (NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup>) and the atmosphere with nitrous oxide (N<sub>2</sub>O) is high. Therefore, novel strategies are needed to preserve these unused N resources for subsequent agricultural production. High organic carbon soil amendments (HCA) like wheat straw promote microbial N immobilization by stimulating microbes to take up N from soil. In order to test the suitability of different HCA for immobilization of excess N, we conducted a laboratory incubation experiment with soil columns, each containing 8 kg of sandy loam of an agricultural Ap horizon. We created a scenario with high soil mineral N content by adding 150 kg NH<sub>4</sub><sup>+</sup>-N ha<sup>-1</sup> to soil that received either wheat straw, spruce sawdust or lignin at a rate of 4.5 t C ha<sup>-1</sup>, or no HCA as control. Wheat straw turned out to be suitable for fast immobilization of excess N in the form of microbial biomass N (up to 42 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>), followed by sawdust. However, under the experimental conditions this effect weakened over a few weeks, finally ranging between 8 and 15 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup> immobilized in microbial biomass in the spruce sawdust and wheat straw treatment, respectively. Pure lignin did not stimulate microbial N immobilization. We also revealed that N immobilization by the remaining straw and sawdust HCA material in the soil had a greater importance for storage of excess N (on average 24 kg N ha<sup>-1</sup>) than microbial N immobilization over the 4 months. N fertilization and HCA influenced the abundance of ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea as the key players for nitrification, as well as the abundance of denitrifiers. Soil with spruce sawdust emitted more N<sub>2</sub>O compared to soil with wheat straw, which in relation released more CO<sub>2</sub>, resulting in a comparable overall global warming potential. However, this was counterbalanced by advantages like N immobilization and mitigation of potential NO<sub>3</sub><sup>-</sup> losses.
Project description:The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous alkali-treated Brachiaria straw for the cultivation of appropriate species of oyster mushroom. The substrate used in the cultivation of various Pleurotus spp. was soaked for 20min by using two different procedures: (i) 0.5-2.0% Ca(OH)2 in 100L water, and (ii) 50-250L water. As a result, 1% Ca(OH)2 dissolved in 100L water and 3.5kg of Brachiaria straw presented the best production. The most suitable species for the application of the present method were P. pulmonarius and P. sapidus. The success of this technique is directly related to the concentration of Ca(OH)2 and water, the species, and the origin and quality of raw material used as the substrate in the production of oyster mushroom.
Project description:Comparative transcriptional profiling of N. crassa grown on five major crop straws of China (barley, corn, rice, soybean and wheat straws) revealed a highly overlapping group of 430 genes, the Biomass commonly Induced Core Set (BICS). A large proportion of induced carbohydrate-active-enzyme (CAZy) genes (82 out of 113) were also conserved across the five plant straws. Excluding 178 genes within the BICS that were also up-regulated under no-carbon conditions, the remaining 252 genes were defined as the Biomass Regulon (BR). Interestingly, 88 genes were only induced by plant biomass and not by three individual polysaccharides (Avicel, xylan, and pectin); these were denoted as the Biomass Unique Set (BUS). Deletion of one BUS gene, the transcriptional regulator rca-1, significantly improved lignocellulase production using plant biomass as the sole carbon source, possibly functioning via de-repression of the regulator clr-2. Thus, this result suggests that rca-1 is a potential engineering target for biorefineries, especially for plant biomass direct microbial conversion processes. Conidia of Neurospora crass wild type were inoculated at 10^6 conidia/mL into 100 mL 1×Vogel’s salts with 2% (w/w) ground crop straws, barley straw, corn straw, rice straw, soybean straw and wheat straw respectively for 30 h or 2% sucrose for 16 h. Then, mycelia were harvested through filtration and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen.Total RNA from frozen sample was isolated with TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen) and further treated with DNase I (RNeasy Mini Kit, QIAGEN). The qualified RNA was prepared with standard protocol from Shenzhen BGI (China) and sequenced on the Illumina HiSeqTM 2000 platform.
Project description:This experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of lipid source and fatty acid (FA) profile on intake, performance, carcass characteristics, expression of enzymes, and sensorial analysis of Bos indicus animals offered a high-concentrate diet. On day 0, 96 noncastrated animals were blocked by initial body weight (400 ± 19.3 kg), randomly allocated to 1 of 24 pens (4 animals/pen), and pens were randomly assigned to receive: 1) control: basal diet composed of whole cottonseed and corn germ as lipid substrates (CONT; n = 6), 2) calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA) of soybean: CSFA of soybean oil as replacement for whole cottonseed and corn germ (calcium salts of soybean oil [CSSO]; n = 6), 3) CSFA-Blend: CSFA of palm, cottonseed, and soybean oil as replacement for whole cottonseed and corn germ (calcium salts of vegetable oils [CSVO]; n = 6), and 4) Mix: basal diet containing whole cottonseed, corn germ, and CSVO (MIXT; n = 6). Experiment lasted 108 d and performance, ultrasound measurements, as well as carcass characteristics were evaluated. Additionally, meat FA profile, expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, and sensorial analysis were evaluated. No treatment effects were observed on performance variables, ultrasound, and carcass traits (P ? 0.22), whereas animals receiving CONT had a greater intake of C10:0, C16:0, C16:1 trans-9, C18:1 cis-9, C18:2, C18:3, total FA, monounsatured FA (MUFA), and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) vs. CSSO and MIXT (P < 0.05). Conversely, intake ratios of saturated FA (SFA):MUFA and SFA:PUFA were all reduced for CONT vs. other treatments. Meat obtained from CONT animals had greater colorimetric (L*, a*, and b*) values vs. MIXT (P < 0.01). On meat FA profile, CONT increased C18:0 vs. supplementation with calcium salts (P < 0.02) and supplementation with CSSO yielded greater meat concentrations of C18:1 trans-10 and C18:2 CLA intermediates (P < 0.01). Expression of SREBP-1, SCD, and LPL was downregulated for CSSO (P < 0.05). For sensorial analysis, regular flavor was greater (P = 0.01) for CSSO vs. other treatments, but also greater aroma (P = 0.05) vs. CONT and CSVO. In summary, addition of different lipid sources with varying FA profiles into high-concentrate diets did not affect performance and carcass characteristics of B. indicus animals, but supplementation with calcium salts of soybean oil inhibited the mRNA expression of enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, whereas flavor and aroma were positively affected by this lipid source.
Project description:A meta-analysis was conducted (i) to evaluate broiler response to partial or total substitution of corn by sorghum and millet and (ii) to determine the effect of soybean meal replacement by cottonseed meal in broiler diet. The database included 190 treatments from 29 experiments published from 1990 to 2013. Bird responses to an experimental diet were calculated relative to the control (Experimental-Control), and were submitted to mixed-effect models. Results showed that diets containing millet led to similar performance as the corn-based ones for all parameters, whereas sorghum-based diets decreased growth performance. No major effect of the level of substitution was observed with millet or cottonseed meal. No effect of the level of substitution of sorghum on feed intake was found; however, growth performance decreased when the level of substitution of corn by sorghum increased. Cottonseed meal was substituted to soybean meal up to 40% and found to increase feed intake while reducing growth performance. Young birds were not more sensitive to these ingredients than older birds since there was no negative effect of these ingredients on performance in the starter phase. Results obtained for sorghum pointed out the necessity to find technological improvements that will increase the utilization of these feedstuffs in broiler diet. An additional work is scheduled to validate these statistical results in vivo and to evaluate the interactions induced with the simultaneous inclusions of sorghum, millet and cottonseed meal in broiler feeding.
Project description:Despite the integral role of the soil microbial community in straw decomposition, we still have a limited understanding of the complex response of microbial community to long-term of crop straw return in rotation system. Here we report on the structural and functional response of the soil bacterial and fungal community to more than 10 years of straw return in wheat-corn rotation system. Compared with single-season straw return, soil microbial phosphor lipid fatty acids (PLFAs) and catabolic activity were improved more greatly with double-season straw return. The relative abundance of bacteria and fungi decreased with double-season straw return, but increased with single-season straw return. The copiotrophic bacteria were more represented in the soils with corn straw return, while oligotrophic groups were more represented in soils with wheat straw return. Compared with wheat straw return, lower fungal community diversity and higher abundance of fungal pathogen (identified to be Leptosphaeria) were observed with corn straw return, especially at high return rates. Redundancy analysis showed that soil available potassium (P?=?0.008) and ratio of C to N (P?=?0.048) significantly affected the soil bacterial community, while soil electric conductivity (P?=?0.04) was the significant factor impacting soil fungal community. It suggests that full corn straw return might have positive impact on soil mineral nutrient but negative impact on soil fungal community diversity and pathogenic risk, mainly due to the change in soil electric conductivity.
Project description:Supplementation of the growing substrate by nitrogenous additives has been known to improve the production of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) P. Kumm. (1871)). However, the application of nano-additives has not been reported in such cultivation yet. The study investigated the effect of nano-urea added in two different doses (3 g and 5 g per kg substrate), once (at spawning or after first flush) or twice (at spawning and after first flush) to the growing substrate consisting of wheat straw and spent oyster substrate (1:1, w/w). Results showed that the application of nano-urea once has induced the highest number of mushroom flushes (four flushes) despite the dose applied. Contrarily to early findings, where high doses of nitrogen have caused inhibition of mushroom growth and production, nano-urea application has had better effects when applied twice. With 5 g/kg, it induced the shortest period between the first and the third flush (15 days). With 3 g/kg, it resulted in the highest biological and economic yields at the third flush (332.7 g/bag and 283.1 g/bag respectively), in total (973.4 g/bag and 854.0 g/bag respectively), the highest biological efficiency (109.6%), and pileus diameter/stipe length ratio (2.8). Experimental findings of the current study may be potentially applied at commercial scale.
Project description:Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most harmful mycotoxin that occurs as natural contaminant of agricultural commodities, particularly maize. Practical solutions for detoxification of contaminated staples and reduction of agricultural wastes are scarce. We investigated the capability of the white-rot and edible fungus Plerotus eryngii (king oyster mushroom) to degrade AFB1 both in vitro and in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation, using a substrate similar to that routinely used in mushroom farms. In malt extract broth, degradation of AFB1 (500 ng/mL) by nine isolates of P. eryngii ranged from 81 to 99% after 10 days growth, and reached 100% for all isolates after 30 days. The growth of P. eryngii on solid medium (malt extract-agar, MEA) was significantly reduced at concentrations of AFB1 500 ng/mL or higher. However, the addition of 5% wheat straw to the culture medium increased the tolerance of P. eryngii to AFB1 and no inhibition was observed at a AFB1 content of 500 ng/mL; degradation of AFB1 in MEA supplemented with 5% wheat straw and 2.5% (w/v) maize flour was 71-94% after 30 days of growth. Further, AFB1 degradation by P. eryngii strain ITEM 13681 was tested in a laboratory-scale mushroom cultivation. The mushroom growth medium contained 25% (w/w) of maize spiked with AFB1 to the final content of 128 μg/kg. Pleurotus eryngii degraded up to 86% of the AFB1 in 28 days, with no significant reduction of either biological efficiency or mushroom yield. Neither the biomass produced on the mushroom substrate nor the mature basidiocarps contained detectable levels of AFB1 or its metabolite aflatoxicol, thus ruling out the translocation of these toxins through the fungal thallus. These findings make a contribution towards the development of a novel technology for remediation of AFB1- contaminated corn through the exploitation of the degradative capability of P. eryngii and its bioconversion into high nutritional value material intended for feed production.