LAT, HOXD3 and NFE2L3 identified as novel DNA methylation-driven genes and prognostic markers in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma by integrative bioinformatics approaches.
ABSTRACT: Background: Abnormal DNA methylation of is one of the important mechanisms leading to tumor pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to explore differentially methylated genes that may drive the development of renal clear cell carcinoma through a comprehensive analysis of the TCGA database. Materials and methods: Methylation data and RNA-seq data for clear cell renal cell carcinoma were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Differentially methylated genes and the differential genes associated with survival were then screened by MethylMix R package and univariate Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. Their common genes were then intersected and obtained for further analysis. Correlation of gene expression and methylation levels, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) enrichments, survival curve, and ROC curve plotting for DNA methylation-driven genes were finally performed. The methylation alterations of the three genes were validated via two GEO datasets (GSE70303 and GSE113501), and the genes expression level was verified through two GEO datasets (GSE6344 and GSE53757). Results: Three novel DNA methylation-driven genes LAT, HOXD3 and NFE2L3 were identified in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Expression analysis further revealed that hypomethylation levels of LAT and NFE2L3 showed higher gene expression levels, while HOXD3 exhibited opposite methylation-expression pattern. The CpG sites of LAT (cg16462073), HOXD3 (cg24000528) and NFE2L3 (cg16882373) that may affect respective gene expressions were also identified. For the survival analysis, we found that hypomethylation and over-expression of LAT and NFE2L3 were correlated with poor survival, while hypermethylation and low-expression HOXD3 was correlated with poor survival of clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients. In addition, GSEA KEGG analysis and biological processes of these genes were also enriched for functional analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival and ROC analyses of these genes showed an average risk score of 0.9140593, AUC = 0.692, which suggested a good clinical application value. Finally, the opposite methylation-expression pattern of these three genes were verified in GEO datasets. Conclusions: In this study, we successfully exhibited the potential DNA methylation-driven genes LAT, HOXD3, and NFE2L3 involved in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Moreover, gene functions and prognostic risk models were also elucidated, which facilitated the expansion of the current study on the role of methylation in the pathology process of clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Project description:Background:Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are involved in the pathogenesis of papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC). This study aimed to investigate the potential of methylation-driven genes as biomarkers in determining the prognosis of pRCC by bioinformatics analysis. Methods:DNA methylation and transcriptome profiling data were downloaded from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Methylation-driven genes (MDGs) were obtained using MethylMix R package. A Cox regression model was used to screen for pRCC prognosis-related MDGs, and a linear risk model based on MDG methylation profiles was constructed. A combined methylation and gene expression survival analysis was performed to further explore the prognostic value of MDGs independently. Results:A total of 31 MDGs were obtained. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis identified eight genes (CASP1, CD68, HOXD3, HHLA2, HOXD9, HOXA10-AS, TMEM71, and PLA2G16), which were used to construct a predictive model associated with overall survival in pRCC patients. Combined DNA methylation and gene expression survival analysis revealed that C19orf33, GGT6, GIPC2, HHLA2, HOXD3, HSD17B14, PLA2G16, and TMEM71 were significantly associated with patients' survival. Conclusion:Through the analysis of MDGs in pRCC, this study identified potential biomarkers for precision treatment and prognosis prediction, and provided the basis for future research into the molecular mechanism of pRCC.
Project description:NFE2L3, also known as NFE2L3, is a nuclear transcription factor associated with the pathogenesis and progression of human tumors. To systematically and comprehensively investigate the role of NFE2L3 in tumors, a pan-cancer analysis was performed using multi-omics data, including gene expression analysis, diagnostic and prognostic analysis, epigenetic methylation analysis, gene alteration analysis, immune feature analysis, functional enrichment analysis, and tumor cell functional status analysis. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of NFE2L3 in liver hepatocellular carcinoma (LIHC) was explored. The relationship between NFE2L3 expression and survival prognosis of patients with LIHC was analyzed and a nomogram prediction model was constructed. Our study showed that NFE2L3 expression was upregulated in most cancers, suggesting that NFE2L3 may play an important role in promoting cancer progression. NFE2L3 expression is closely related to DNA methylation, genetic alteration, immune signature, and tumor cell functional status in pan-cancers. Furthermore, NFE2L3 was demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for LIHC, and the nomogram model based on NFE2L3 expression had good prediction efficiency for the overall survival of patients with LIHC. In summary, our study indicated that NFE2L3 may be an important molecular biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of pan-cancer. NFE2L3 is expected to be a potential molecular target for the treatment of tumors.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Promoter methylation has emerged as a promising class of epigenetic biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of renal cell tumors (RCTs). Although differential gene promoter methylation patterns have been reported for the major subtypes (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma), validation of diagnostic performance in independent series have been seldom performed. Herein, we aimed at assessing the diagnostic performance of genes previously shown to be hypermethylated in RCTs in different clinical settings. METHODS:Promoter methylation levels of HOXA9 and OXR1 were assessed by quantitative methylation specific PCR. ROC curves were generated for OXR1, OXR1 combined with MST1R and HOXA9. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were computed, maximizing specificity. Methylation levels were also correlated with clinical and pathological relevant parameters. RESULTS:HOXA9 and OXR1 promoter methylation was disclosed in 73 and 87% of RCTs, respectively. A two-gene methylation panel comprising OXR1 and MST1R identified malignancy with 98% sensitivity and 100% specificity, and clear cell renal cell carcinoma with 90% sensitivity and 98% specificity. HOXA9 promoter methylation allowed for discrimination between oncocytoma and both papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma but only with 77% sensitivity and 73% specificity. Significantly higher OXR1 promoter methylation levels (p = 0.005) were associated with high nuclear grade in ccRCC. CONCLUSIONS:A panel including OXR1 and MST1R promoter methylation allows specific and sensitive identification of renal cell tumors, and, especially, of clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Moreover, higher OXR1 promoter methylation levels associate with clear cell renal cell carcinoma nuclear grade, a surrogate for tumor aggressiveness. Thus, gene promoter methylation analysis might a useful ancillary tool in diagnostic management of renal masses.
Project description:Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) account for over 80% of renal malignancies. The most common type of RCC can be classified into three subtypes including clear cell, papillary and chromophobe. ccRCC (the Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma) is the most frequent form and shows variations in genetics and behavior. To improve accuracy and personalized care and increase the cure rate of cancer, molecular typing for individuals is necessary.We adopted the genome, transcriptome and methylation HMK450 data of ccRCC in The Cancer Genome Atlas Network in this research. Consensus Clustering algorithm was used to cluster the expression data and three subtypes were found. To further validate our results, we analyzed an independent data set and arrived at a consistent conclusion. Next, we characterized the subtype by unifying genomic and clinical dimensions of ccRCC molecular stratification. We also implemented GSEA between the malignant subtype and the other subtypes to explore latent pathway varieties and WGCNA to discover intratumoral gene interaction network. Moreover, the epigenetic state changes between subgroups on methylation data are discovered and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed to delve the relation between specific genes and prognosis.We found a subtype of poor prognosis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma, which is abnormally upregulated in focal adhesions and cytoskeleton related pathways, and the expression of core genes in the pathways are negatively correlated with patient outcomes.Our work of classification schema could provide an applicable framework of molecular typing to ccRCC patients which has implications to influence treatment decisions, judge biological mechanisms involved in ccRCC tumor progression, and potential future drug discovery.
Project description:With the participation of the existing treatment methods, the prognosis of advanced clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is poor. More evidence indicates the presence of methylation in ccRCC cancer cells, but there is a lack of studies on methylation-driven genes in ccRCC. We analyzed the open data of ccRCC in The Cancer Genome Atlas database to obtain ccRCC-related methylation-driven genes, and then carried out pathway enrichment, survival, and joint survival analyses. More important, we deeply explored the correlation between differential methylation sites and the expression of these driving genes. Finally, we screened 29 methylation-driven genes via MethylMix, of which six were significantly associated with the survival of ccRCC patients. This study demonstrated that the effect of hypermethylation or hypomethylation on prognosis is different, and the level of methylation of key methylation sites is associated with gene expression. We identified methylation-driven genes independently predicting prognosis in ccRCC, which offers theoretical support in bioinformatics for the study of methylation in ccRCC and a new perspective for the epigenetic study of ccRCC.
Project description:The recent publication of the TCGA Kidney Renal Clear Cell Carcinoma (KIRC) project has provided an immense wealth and breadth of data providing an invaluable tool for confirmation and expansion upon previous observations in a large data set containing multiple data types including DNA methylation, somatic mutation, and clinical information. In clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) many genes have been demonstrated to be epigenetically inactivated by promoter hypermethylated and in a small number of cases to be associated with clinical outcome. This study created two cohorts based on the Illumina BeadChip array used to confirm the frequency of tumor-specific hypermethylation of these published hypermethylated genes, assess the impact of somatic mutation or chromosomal loss and provide the most comprehensive assessment to date of the association of this hypermethylation with patient survival. Hypermethylation of the Fibrillin 2 (FBN2) gene was the most consistent epigenetic biomarker for CCRCC across both cohorts in 40.2% or 52.5% of tumors respectively. Hypermethylation of the secreted frizzled-related protein 1 (SFRP1) gene and the basonuclin 1 (BNC1) gene were both statistically associated with poorer survival in both cohorts (SFRP1 - p =?<0.0001 or 0.0010 and BNC1 - p =?<0.0001 or 0.0380) and represented better independent markers of survival than tumor stage, grade or dimension in one cohort and tumor stage or dimension in the other cohort. Loss of the SFRP1 protein can potentially activate the WNT pathway and this analysis highlighted hypermethylation of several other WNT pathway regulating genes and demonstrated a poorer survival outcome for patients with somatic mutation of these genes. The success of demethylating drugs in hematological malignances and the current trials in solid tumors suggest that the identification of clinically relevant hypermethylated genes combined with therapeutic advances may improve the effectiveness and usefulness of such drugs in clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>To characterize personal driver genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma independent of somatic mutation frequencies.<h4>Methods</h4>Personal cancer driver genes were predicted by Integrated CAncer GEnome Score in 417 patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma using 26 786 somatic mutations from The Cancer Genome Atlas, followed by an integrated investigation on personal driver genes.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 233 personal driver genes were determined by Integrated CAncer GEnome Score. The coexpression network analysis found 5 coexpressed modules. The blue module was significantly negatively correlated with all 5 clinical features, including cancer stage, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, age, and survival status (death). CTNNB1, TGFBR2, KDR, FLT1, and INSR were the hub genes in the blue module. The expression of 79 personal driver genes was significantly associated with clinical outcomes of patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The set of personal driver genes sheds insights into the tumorigenesis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma and paves the way for developing personalized medicine for clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Project description:Sequencing of clear cell renal cell carcinomas identified loss-of-function mutations of SETD2, a gene that encodes a nonredundant methytransferase responsible for histone H3 lysine 36 trimethylation (H3K36me3), and H3K36me3 is progressively deregulated in metastases. However, few data exist regarding the impact of loss of H3K36me3 on outcomes. We assessed the association of SETD2 DNA alterations and mRNA expression with overall survival using The Cancer Genome Atlas clear cell renal carcinoma data (N=411). Additionally, we assessed the association of H3K36 loss of methylation with renal cell carcinoma-specific survival and progression-free survival using an independent cohort at Mayo Clinic (N=1454). Overall survival, renal cell carcinoma-specific survival and progression-free survival were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method, and differences in survival across groups was compared using Cox regression models, adjusted for age and the Mayo SSIGN (stage, size, grade, and necrosis) score. In The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort, SETD2 DNA alterations or mRNA expression was not associated with overall survival (P>0.05). In the Mayo cohort, patients with H3K36me3-negative tumors were two times more likely to experience renal cell carcinoma-specific death than patients with H3K36me3-positive tumors (hazard ratio, 2.23; 95% confidence interval, 1.77-2.81); P<0.0001. After stratifying for the SSIGN score, H3K36me3-negative tumors in the low-risk SSIGN group had a worse renal cell carcinoma-specific survival (hazard ratio, 2.18; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-4.36); P=0.03. Although SETD2 DNA and mRNA alterations are not associated with overall survival, we provide evidence that deregulation of the H3K36me3 axis is associated with a higher risk of renal cell carcinoma-specific death. This association remains significant after stratifying for the SSIGN score, particularly among those patients with low-risk tumors.
Project description:Gene expression profiling has been shown to provide prognostic information on patients with solitary sporadic renal cell carcinoma. To our knowledge there is no reliable way to differentiate synchronous renal metastasis from bilateral primary tumors in patients with bilateral renal cell carcinoma. We present data using a custom kidney cancer cDNA array that can predict the outcome in patients with unilateral and bilateral renal cell carcinoma.Fresh frozen tissue from 38 clear cell renal cell carcinomas was analyzed using a cancer cDNA array containing 3,966 genes relevant to cancer or kidney development. Median followup was 5.3 years. Cancer recurred in 12 patients (43%) and 11 (39%) had died by the last followup.Using a training data set of 8 tumors a 44 gene expression profile distinguishing aggressive and indolent clear cell renal cell carcinoma was identified. Of 29 single clear cell renal cell carcinomas 16 and 13 were predicted to be indolent and aggressive, respectively, by the gene expression profile. Recurrence-free survival at 5 years was 68% and 42% in these 2 groups, respectively (p = 0.032). Clear cell renal cell carcinoma classified as indolent or aggressive according to SSIGN (stage, size, grade and necrosis) score showed a 5-year recurrence-free survival rate of 78% and 42%, respectively (p = 0.021). On Cox proportional hazards analysis the gene expression profile was not an independent predictor of recurrence-free survival after accounting for SSIGN score. Gene expression profile classification correlated with cancer specific survival at 5 years in 4 of 4 patients with metachronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma but in only 2 of 4 with bilateral synchronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma.Gene expression profiling using a kidney cancer relevant cDNA array can differentiate between aggressive and indolent clear cell renal cell carcinomas. Gene expression profile results may be most useful for unilateral clear cell renal cell carcinoma when results are discordant with predictions of tumor behavior based on standard clinicopathological features. In addition, gene expression profiling can provide prognostic information that may help characterize tumors of unknown clinical stage, such as bilateral metachronous clear cell renal cell carcinoma.
Project description:Macrophage stimulating 1 receptor (MST1R) is a C-MET proto-oncogene family receptor tyrosine kinase. Promoter methylation patterns determine transcription of MST1R variants as hypermethylation of a region upstream of transcription start site (TSS) is associated with lack of MST1R long transcript (MST1R long) and expression of a short transcript with oncogenic potential. Thus, we aimed to investigate MST1R variant transcript regulation in renal cell tumors (RCT) and assess their prognostic potential. We found, in a series of 120 RCT comprising the four main subtypes (clear cell, papillary and chromophobe renal cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma), that higher methylation levels close to TSS were associated with total MST1R expression levels (MST1R total) in primary tumors (p=0.049) and renal cancer cell lines. After demethylating treatment, MST1R long/MST1R total ratio increased, as expected, in two renal cell carcinoma cell lines tested. However, in primary tumors with hypermethylation upstream of TSS, a decrease in MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was not detected, although higher expression ratio of nuclear factor-?B was apparent. Furthermore, survival analysis demonstrated that MST1R long/MST1R total ratio was independently associated with shorter disease-specific and disease-free survival, whereas MST1R total expression associated with shorter disease-specific survival. In conclusion, although promoter methylation patterns seem to determine MST1R global transcription regulation in renal cell carcinoma, other mechanisms might contribute to deregulate MST1R variant expression in RCT. Nevertheless, MST1R total expression and MST1R long/MST1R total ratio modulate the biological and clinical aggressiveness of renal cell carcinoma, as depicted by its prognostic significance, a finding that requires validation in a larger independent series.