The CoDiNOS trial protocol: an international randomised controlled trial of intravenous sildenafil versus inhaled nitric oxide for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension in neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a developmental defect of the diaphragm that impairs normal lung development, causing pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH in CDH newborns is the main determinant for morbidity and mortality. Different therapies are still mainly based on 'trial and error'. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is often the drug of first choice. However, iNO does not seem to improve mortality. Intravenous sildenafil has reduced mortality in newborns with PH without CDH, but prospective data in CDH patients are lacking. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:In an open label, multicentre, international randomised controlled trial in Europe, Canada and Australia, 330 newborns with CDH and PH are recruited over a 4-year period (2018-2022). Patients are randomised for intravenous sildenafil or iNO. Sildenafil is given in a loading dose of 0.4?mg/kg in 3?hours; followed by continuous infusion of 1.6?mg/kg/day, iNO is dosed at 20 ppm. Primary outcome is absence of PH on day 14 without pulmonary vasodilator therapy and/or absence of death within the first 28 days of life. Secondary outcome measures include clinical and echocardiographic markers of PH in the first year of life. We hypothesise that sildenafil gives a 25% reduction in the primary outcome from 68% to 48% on day 14, for which a sample size of 330 patients is needed. An intention-to-treat analysis will be performed. A p-value (two-sided) <0.05 is considered significant in all analyses. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethics approval has been granted by the ethics committee in Rotterdam (MEC-2017-324) and the central Committee on Research Involving Human Subjects (NL60229.078.17) in the Netherlands. The principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act and the national rules and regulations on personal data protection will be used. Parental informed consent will be obtained. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NTR6982; Pre-results.
Project description:Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is commonly associated with pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension (PH). PH associated with CDH (CDH-PH) is frequently resistant to conventional pulmonary vasodilator therapy including inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) possibly due to right and left ventricular dysfunction. Milrinone is an intravenous inotrope and lusitrope with pulmonary vasodilator properties and has been shown anecdotally to improve oxygenation in PH. We developed this pilot study to determine if milrinone infusion would improve oxygenation in neonates ≥36 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) with CDH.Data on pulmonary vasodilator management and outcome of CDH patients was collected from 18 university NICUs affiliated with the Neonatal Research Network (NRN) from 2011 to 2012. The proposed pilot will be a masked, placebo-controlled, multicenter, randomized trial of 66 infants with CDH with an oxygenation index (OI) ≥10 or oxygen saturation index (OSI) ≥5. The primary outcome is the oxygenation response, as determined by change in OI at 24 h after initiation of study drug. As secondary outcomes, we will determine oxygenation at 48 h and 72 h post-infusion, right ventricular pressures on echocardiogram and the incidence of systemic hypotension, arrhythmias, intracranial hemorrhage, survival without extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and chronic lung disease (oxygen need at 28 days postnatal age). Finally, we will evaluate the pulmonary and nutritional status at 4, 8 and 12 months of age using a phone questionnaire.Three hundred thirty-seven infants with CDH were admitted to NRN NICUs in 2011 and 2012 of which 275 were ≥36 weeks PMA and were exposed to the following pulmonary vasodilators: iNO (39%), sildenafil (17%), milrinone (17%), inhaled epoprostenol (6%), intravenous epoprostenol (3%), and intravenous PGE1 (1%). ECMO was required in 36% of patients. Survival to discharge was 71%.CDH is an orphan disease with high mortality with few randomized trials evaluating postnatal management. Intravenous milrinone is a commonly used medication in neonatal/pediatric intensive care units and is currently used in 17% of patients with CDH within the NRN. This pilot study will provide data and enable further studies evaluating pulmonary vasodilator therapy in CDH.ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT02951130; registered 14 October 2016.
Project description:Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is approved for use in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) but does not lead to sustained improvement in oxygenation in one-third of patients with PPHN. Inhaled NO is less effective in the management of PPHN secondary to congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), extreme prematurity, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). Intravenous pulmonary vasodilators such as prostacyclin, alprostadil, sildenafil, and milrinone have been successfully used in PPHN resistant to iNO. Oral pulmonary vasodilators such as endothelin receptor antagonist bosentan and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors such as sildenafil and tadalafil are used both during acute and chronic phases of PPHN. In the absence of infection, glucocorticoids may also be effective in PPHN. Many of these pharmacologic agents are not approved for use in PPHN and our knowledge is based on case reports and small trials. Large multicenter randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up are required to evaluate alternate pharmacologic strategies in PPHN.
Project description:Persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is one of the main causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is characterized by sustained elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), preventing an increase in pulmonary blood flow after birth. The affected neonates fail to establish blood oxygenation, precipitating severe respiratory distress, hypoxemia, and eventually death. Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), the only approved pulmonary vasodilator for PPHN, constitutes, alongside supportive therapy, the basis of its treatment. However, nearly 40% of infants are iNO resistant. The cornerstones of increased PVR in PPHN are pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular remodeling. A better understanding of PPHN pathophysiology may enlighten targeted and more effective therapies. Sildenafil, prostaglandins, milrinone, and bosentan, acting as vasodilators, besides glucocorticoids, playing a role on reducing inflammation, have all shown potential beneficial effects on newborns with PPHN. Furthermore, experimental evidence in PPHN animal models supports prospective use of emergent therapies, such as soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activators/stimulators, l-citrulline, Rho-kinase inhibitors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) agonists, recombinant superoxide dismutase (rhSOD), tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) analogs, ?-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), 5-HT2A receptor antagonists, and recombinant human vascular endothelial growth factor (rhVEGF). This review focuses on current knowledge on alternative and novel pathways involved in PPHN pathogenesis, as well as recent progress regarding experimental and clinical evidence on potential therapeutic approaches for PPHN.
Project description:Pulmonary hypertension (PH) contributes to high mortality in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). A better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms underlying the pathology in CDH might allow the identification of prognostic biomarkers and potential therapeutic targets. We report the results from an expression profiling of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in direct post-pulmonary blood flow of 18 CDH newborns. Seven miRNAs differentially expressed in children that either died or developed chronic lung disease (CLD) up to 28 days after birth, compared to those who survived without developing CLD during this period, were identified. Target gene and pathway analyses indicate that these miRNAs functions include regulation of the cell cycle, inflammation and morphogenesis, by targeting molecules responsive to growth factors, cytokines and cellular stressors. Furthermore, we identified hub molecules by constructing a protein-protein interaction network of shared targets, and ranked the relative importance of the identified miRNAs. Our results suggest that dysregulations in miRNAs let-7b-5p, -7c-5p, miR-1307-3p, -185-3p, -8084, -331-3p and -210-3p may be detrimental for the development and function of the lungs and pulmonary vasculature, compromise cardiac function and contribute to the development of CLD in CDH. Further investigation of the biomarker and therapeutic potential of these circulating miRNAs is encouraged.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Extensive vascular remodeling causing pulmonary hypertension (PH) represents a major cause of mortality in patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). The chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a biomarker for the severity of PH and its activation is accompanied by pulmonary influx of monocytes and extensive vascular remodeling. MCP-1 activation can be reversed by application of rosiglitazone (thiazolidinedione). We performed this study to evaluate the role of MCP-1 for the pathogenesis of PH in experimental CDH. We hypothesized that vascular remodeling and MCP-1 activation is accompanied by pulmonary influx of fetal monocytes and can be attenuated by prenatal treatment with rosiglitazone. METHODS:In a first set of experiments pregnant rats were treated with either nitrofen or vehicle on gestational day 9 (D9). Fetal lungs were harvested on D21 and divided into CDH and control. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot (WB), and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used to evaluate MCP-1 expression, activation, and localization. Quantification and localization of pulmonary monocytes/macrophages were carried out by IHC. In a second set of experiments nitrofen-exposed dams were randomly assigned to prenatal treatment with rosiglitazone or placebo on D18+D19. Fetal lungs were harvested on D21, divided into control, CDH+rosiglitazone, and CDH+placebo and evaluated by WB as well as IHC. RESULTS:Increased thickness of pulmonary arteries of CDH fetuses was accompanied by increased systemic and perivascular MCP-1 protein expression and significantly higher amounts of pulmonary monocytes/macrophages compared to controls (p<0.01). These effects were reversed by prenatal treatment with rosiglitazone (p<0.01 vs. CDH+P; control). CONCLUSION:Prenatal treatment with rosiglitazone has the potential to attenuate activation of pulmonary MCP-1, pulmonary monocyte influx, and vascular remodeling in experimental CDH. These results provide a basis for future research on prenatal immunomodulation as a novel treatment strategy to decrease secondary effects of PH in CDH.
Project description:Endothelin-1 (ET1) is dysregulated in pulmonary hypertension (PH). It may be important in the pathobiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH).We hypothesized that ET1 levels in the first month would be higher in infants with CDH who subsequently expired or were discharged on oxygen (poor outcome). We further hypothesized that ET1 levels would be associated with concurrent severity of PH.We sampled plasma at 24 to 48 hours, and 1, 2, and 4 weeks of age in 40 prospectively enrolled newborns with CDH. We performed echocardiograms to estimate pulmonary artery pressure at less than 48 hours of age and weekly to 4 weeks. PH was classified in relationship to systemic blood pressure (SBP): less than 2/3 SBP, 2/3 SBP-systemic is related to pressure, or systemic-to-suprasystemic pressure.ET1 levels at 1 and 2 weeks were higher in infants with poor outcome compared with infants discharged on room air (median and interquartile range: 27.2 [22.6, 33.7] vs. 19.1 [16.1, 29.5] pg/ml, P = 0.03; and 24.9 [17.6, 39.5] vs. 17.4 [13.7, 21.8] pg/ml, P = 0.01 at 1 and 2 weeks, respectively). Severity of PH was significantly associated with increasing ET1 levels at 2 weeks (16.1 [13.7, 21.8], 21.0 [17.4, 31.1], and 23.6 [21.9, 39.5] pg/ml for increasing PH class, P = 0.03). Increasing severity of PH was also associated with poor outcome at that time (P = 0.001).Infants with CDH and poor outcome have higher plasma ET1 levels and severity of PH than infants discharged on room air. Severity of PH is associated with ET1 levels.
Project description:The etiology of pulmonary vascular abnormalities in CDH is incompletely understood. Studies have demonstrated improvement in pulmonary vasculature with prenatal therapy in animal models. We hypothesize that prenatal sildenafil may attenuate defective pulmonary vascular development via modulation of vSMC phenotype from undifferentiated, proliferative phenotype to differentiated, contractile phenotype. We utilized the nitrofen model of CDH to examine the effect of IA sildenafil on pulmonary vSMC phenotype during lung development. Timed-pregnant CD-1 mice were gavage fed 25?mg nitrofen or olive oil (control) at E8.5 of gestation. Single IA injections of Sildenafil (Revatio; 10?µL of 4?mg/4?ml solution) or dextrose control were performed at E12.5. Mice were sacrificed on various gestational days for embryonic lung harvest. Markers of vSMC development of undifferentiated and differentiated phenotypes were analyzed by immunostaining and western blot. Across all time points in gestation, nitrofen-treated embryonic lungs demonstrated increased vSMC expression of NOTCH3, Hes-5, PDGFR-?, desmin and ?-SMA and decreased expression of calponin and SMMHC, compared to oil controls. IA dextrose treatment had no effect on expression levels. However, IA Sildenafil treatment resulted in down-regulation of NOTCH3, Hes-5, PDGFR-?, desmin and ?-SMA and upregulation of calponin and SMMHC, comparable to oil controls. In the nitrofen model, vSMC express markers consistent with more undifferentiated proliferative phenotype, resulting in hypermuscularization of intrapulmonary arterioles in CDH. A single dose of IA Sildenafil treatment early in gestation, results in sustained normalization of vSMC phenotype. Pharmacologic modulation of the vSMC phenotype at key gestational points may have therapeutic potential.
Project description:Infants with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) fail to adapt at birth because of persistent pulmonary hypertension (PH), a condition characterized by excessive muscularization and abnormal vasoreactivity of pulmonary vessels. Activation of soluble guanylate cyclase by BAY 41-2272 prevents pulmonary vascular remodeling in neonatal rats with hypoxia-induced PH. By analogy, we hypothesized that prenatal administration of BAY 41-2272 would improve features of PH in the rabbit CDH model. Rabbit fetuses with surgically induced CDH at day 23 of gestation were randomized at day 28 for an intratracheal injection of BAY 41-2272 or vehicle. After term delivery (day 31), lung mechanics, right ventricular pressure, and serum NH2-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were measured. After euthanasia, lungs were processed for biological or histological analyses. Compared with untouched fetuses, the surgical creation of CDH reduced the lung-to-body weight ratio, increased mean terminal bronchial density, and impaired lung mechanics. Typical characteristics of PH were found in the hypoplastic lungs, including increased right ventricular pressure, higher serum NT-proBNP levels, thickened adventitial and medial layers of pulmonary arteries, reduced capillary density, and lower levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase. A single antenatal instillation of BAY 41-2272 reduced mean right ventricular pressure and medial thickness of small resistive arteries in CDH fetuses. Capillary density, endothelial cell proliferation, and transcripts of endothelial nitric oxide synthase increased, whereas airway morphometry, lung growth, and mechanics remained unchanged. These results suggest that pharmacological activation of soluble guanylate cyclase may provide a new approach to the prenatal treatment of PH associated with CDH.
Project description:AIMS:Right heart catheterization (RHC) is indicated in all candidates for heart transplantation (HT). An acute vasodilator challenge is recommended for those with pulmonary hypertension (PH) to assess its reversibility. The effects of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) on pulmonary and systemic haemodynamics have been reported only in small series. Our purpose was to describe the response to iNO in a larger population and its potential clinical implications. METHODS AND RESULTS:From 210 RHC procedures performed between 2010 and 2019, vasodilator challenge with iNO was used in 108 patients, of which 66 had advanced heart failure undergoing assessment for HT (55±11 years old; 74.2% male gender; 43.9% ischaemic cardiomyopathy; left ventricular ejection fraction 28.4 ± 11,4%; and peak VO2 12.1 ± 3.0 mL/kg/min). iNO was administered through a tight-fitting facial mask regardless of baseline pulmonary pressures. Clinical endpoints (all-cause mortality and acute right heart failure) were assessed according to baseline haemodynamic findings over the available follow-up period. There were no side effects from iNO administration. Typical response consisted of a reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance, consequent to an increase in left ventricular filling pressures, no significant change in mean pulmonary artery pressure (resulting in a lower mean transpulmonary gradient) and a mild increase in cardiac ouput. Pulmonary arterial compliance increased significantly, whereas systemic vascular resistance was only mildly affected. In five cases (7.6%), pulmonary vascular resistance increased paradoxically. All-cause mortality and post-HT right heart failure events were overall low and similar in patients without PH or reversible PH. CONCLUSIONS:Vasodilator challenge with iNO is safe in advanced heart failure patients undergoing RHC prior to HT listing. It produces a reasonably predictable haemodynamic response, which occurs predominantly at the pulmonary circulation level. Clinical implications of iNO-induced reversibility may be relevant, but further systematic validation is warranted in larger cohorts.
Project description:Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a congenital anomaly characterized by a defect in the diaphragm. Despite the recent improvements in its treatment, CDH is associated with a high rate of neonatal mortality, which is often related to pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) as well as pulmonary hypertension. A better understanding of the underlying pathological mechanisms of PH in CDH could help establish a new treatment to improve its prognosis. In this study, we investigated serum biological profiles in neonates with CDH. For comprehensive investigation, umbilical cord serum samples were collected from isolated CDH cases (n = 4) and matched healthy controls (n = 4). Samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 697 proteins were detected; of them, 98 were identified as differentially expressed proteins. Among these differentially expressed proteins, complement C1q subcomponent showed the largest fold change, followed by complement C5. In the pathway enrichment analysis, the complement and coagulation cascades expressed the most significant enrichment (p = 2.4 × 10-26). Thus, the complement pathway might play some role in the pathophysiology of CDH.