AtNSE1 and AtNSE3 are required for embryo pattern formation and maintenance of cell viability during Arabidopsis embryogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Embryogenesis is an essential process during seed development in higher plants. It has previously been shown that mutation of the Arabidopsis non-SMC element genes AtNSE1 or AtNSE3 leads to early embryo abortion, and their proteins can interact with each other directly. However, the crucial regions of these proteins in this interaction and how the proteins are cytologically involved in Arabidopsis embryo development are unknown. In this study, we found that the C-terminal including the Ring-like motif of AtNSE1 can interact with the N-terminal of AtNSE3, and only the Ring-like motif is essential for binding with three ? motifs of AtNSE2 (homologous to AtMMS21). Using genetic assays and by analysing molecular markers of cell fate decisions (STM, WOX5, and WOX8) in mutant nse1 and nse3 embryos, we found that AtNSE1 and AtNSE3 work non-redundantly in early embryo development, and that differentiation of the apical meristem and the hypophysis fails in the mutants, which have disrupted auxin transportation and responses. However, the upper cells of the suspensor in the mutants seem to have proper embryo cell identity. Cytological examination showed that cell death occurred from the early embryo stage, and that vacuolar programmed cell death and necrosis in the nse1 and nse3 mutant embryos led to ovule abortion. Thus, AtNSE1 and AtNSE3 are essential for maintaining cell viability and growth during early embryogenesis. Our results improve our understanding of the functions of SMC5/6 complex in early embryogenesis in Arabidopsis.
Project description:Early embryonic development generates precursors of all major cell types in Arabidopsis. Among these precursors, the hypophysis divides asymmetrically to form the progenitors of the quiescent center and columella stem cells. A great deal has been learnt about the mechanisms that control the asymmetric division of the hypophysis and embryogenesis at the transcriptional level; however, no evidence of regulation at the co- or post-translational level has been reported. Here, we show that mutation of the catalytic subunit (Naa10) or auxiliary subunit (Naa15) of NatA, an N-terminal acetyltransferase that catalyzes protein N-terminal acetylation, produces an embryo-lethal phenotype. In addition, Naa10 and Naa15 were found to interact physically in planta Further analysis revealed that the observed embryonic patterning defects started at the early globular stage and that the asymmetric division of the hypophysis was irregular; thus, no quiescent center progenitor cells were generated in naa10 and naa15 embryos. We further observed that the polar distributions of auxin and its efflux carrier PIN1 were disturbed in naa10 embryos. Our results suggest that NatA is required for asymmetric division of the hypophysis and early embryonic patterning in Arabidopsis, and provides a link between protein N-terminal acetylation and embryogenesis in plants.
Project description:Early embryo development from the zygote is an essential stage in the formation of the seed, while seedling development is the beginning of the formation of an individual plant. AtNSE1 and AtNSE3 are subunits of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) 5/6 complex and have been identified as non-SMC elements, but their functions in Arabidopsis growth and development remain as yet unknown. In this study, we found that loss of function of AtNSE1 and AtNSE3 led to severe defects in early embryo development. Partially complemented mutants showed that the development of mutant seedlings was inhibited, that chromosome fragments occurred during anaphase, and that the cell cycle was delayed at G2/M, which led to the occurrence of endoreduplication. Further, a large number of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) occurred in the nse1 and nse3 mutants, and the expression of AtNSE1 and AtNSE3 was up-regulated following treatment of the plants with DSB inducer compounds, suggesting that AtNSE1 and AtNSE3 have a role in DNA damage repair. Therefore, we conclude that AtNSE1 and AtNSE3 facilitate DSB repair and contribute to maintaining genome stability and cell division in mitotic cells. Thus, we think that AtNSE1 and AtNSE3 may be crucial factors for maintaining proper early embryonic and post-embryonic development.
Project description:The MAGE (Melanoma-associated antigen) protein family members are structurally related to each other by a MAGE-homology domain comprised of 2 winged helix motifs WH/A and WH/B. This family specifically evolved in placental mammals although single homologs designated NSE3 (non-SMC element) exist in most eukaryotes. NSE3, together with its partner proteins NSE1 and NSE4 form a tight subcomplex of the structural maintenance of chromosomes SMC5-6 complex. Previously, we showed that interactions of the WH/B motif of the MAGE proteins with their NSE4/EID partners are evolutionarily conserved (including the MAGEA1-NSE4 interaction). In contrast, the interaction of the WH/A motif of NSE3 with NSE1 diverged in the MAGE paralogs. We hypothesized that the MAGE paralogs acquired new RING-finger-containing partners through their evolution and form MAGE complexes reminiscent of NSE1-NSE3-NSE4 trimers. In this work, we employed the yeast 2-hybrid system to screen a human RING-finger protein library against several MAGE baits. We identified a number of potential MAGE-RING interactions and confirmed several of them (MDM4, PCGF6, RNF166, TRAF6, TRIM8, TRIM31, TRIM41) in co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Among these MAGE-RING pairs, we chose to examine MAGEA1-TRIM31 in detail and showed that both WH/A and WH/B motifs of MAGEA1 bind to the coiled-coil domain of TRIM31 and that MAGEA1 interaction stimulates TRIM31 ubiquitin-ligase activity. In addition, TRIM31 directly binds to NSE4, suggesting the existence of a TRIM31-MAGEA1-NSE4 complex reminiscent of the NSE1-NSE3-NSE4 trimer. These results suggest that MAGEA1 functions as a co-factor of TRIM31 ubiquitin-ligase and that the TRIM31-MAGEA1-NSE4 complex may have evolved from an ancestral NSE1-NSE3-NSE4 complex.
Project description:SMC5/6 is a highly conserved protein complex related to cohesin and condensin, which are the key components of higher-order chromatin structures. The SMC5/6 complex is essential for proliferation in yeast and is involved in replication fork stability and processing. However, the precise mechanism of action of SMC5/6 is not known. Here we present evidence that the NSE1/NSE3/NSE4 sub-complex of SMC5/6 binds to double-stranded DNA without any preference for DNA-replication/recombination intermediates. Mutations of key basic residues within the NSE1/NSE3/NSE4 DNA-binding surface reduce binding to DNA in vitro. Their introduction into the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome results in cell death or hypersensitivity to DNA damaging agents. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of the hypomorphic nse3 DNA-binding mutant shows a reduced association of fission yeast SMC5/6 with chromatin. Based on our results, we propose a model for loading of the SMC5/6 complex onto the chromatin.
Project description:In eukaryotes, mitochondrion is an essential organelle which is surrounded by a double membrane system, including the outer membrane, intermembrane space and the inner membrane. The translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane (TOM) complex has attracted enormous interest for its role in importing the preprotein from the cytoplasm into the mitochondrion. However, little is understood about the potential biological function of the TOM complex in Arabidopsis. The aim of the present study was to investigate how AtTOM40, a gene encoding the core subunit of the TOM complex, works in Arabidopsis. As a result, we found that lack of AtTOM40 disturbed embryo development and its pattern formation after the globular embryo stage, and finally caused albino ovules and seed abortion at the ratio of a quarter in the homozygous tom40 plants. Further investigation demonstrated that AtTOM40 is wildly expressed in different tissues, especially in cotyledons primordium during Arabidopsis embryogenesis. Moreover, we confirmed that the encoded protein AtTOM40 is localized in mitochondrion, and the observation of the ultrastructure revealed that mitochondrion biogenesis was impaired in tom40-1 embryo cells. Quantitative real-time PCR was utilized to determine the expression of genes encoding outer mitochondrial membrane proteins in the homozygous tom40-1 mutant embryos, including the genes known to be involved in import, assembly and transport of mitochondrial proteins, and the results demonstrated that most of the gene expressions were abnormal. Similarly, the expression of genes relevant to embryo development and pattern formation, such as SAM (shoot apical meristem), cotyledon, vascular primordium and hypophysis, was also affected in homozygous tom40-1 mutant embryos. Taken together, we draw the conclusion that the AtTOM40 gene is essential for the normal structure of the mitochondrion, and participates in early embryo development and pattern formation through maintaining the biogenesis of mitochondria. The findings of this study may provide new insight into the biological function of the TOM40 subunit in higher plants.
Project description:WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX) gene is a plant-specific clade of homeobox transcription factors. Increasing evidences reveal that WOXs play critical roles in early embryogenesis, which involves zygote development, initiation of zygote division, and apical or basal cell lineage establishment. However, how WOXs regulate these developmental events remains largely unknown, and even detailed expression pattern in gametes and early proembryos is not yet available. Here, 13 WOX family genes were identified in Nicotiana tabacum genome. Comparative analysis of 13 WOX family genes with their homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals relatively conserved expression pattern of WUS and WOX5 in shoot/root apical meristem. Whereas variations were also found, e.g., lacking homolog of WOX8 (a marker for suspensor cell) in tobacco genome and the expression of WOX2/WOX9 in both apical cell and basal cell. Transient transcriptional activity analysis revealed that WOXs in WUS clade have repressive activities for their target's transcription, whereas WOXs in ancient and intermediate clade have activation activities, giving a molecular basis for the phylogenetic classification of tobacco WOXs into three major clades. Expression pattern analysis revealed that some WOXs (e.g., WOX 13a) expressed in both male and female gametes and some WOXs (e.g., WOX 11 and WOX 13b) displayed the characteristics of parent-of-origin genes. Interestingly, some WOXs (e.g., WOX2 and WOX9), which are essential for early embryo patterning, were de novo transcribed in zygote, indicating relevant mechanism for embryo pattern formation is only established in zygote right after fertilization and not carried in by gametes. We also found that most WOXs displayed a stage-specific and cell type-specific expression pattern. Taken together, this work provides a detailed landscape of WOXs in tobacco during fertilization and early embryogenesis, which will facilitate the understanding of their specific roles in these critical developmental processes of embryogenesis.
Project description:In higher plants, embryo development originated from fertilized egg cell is the first step of the life cycle. The chloroplast participates in many essential metabolic pathways, and its function is highly associated with embryo development. However, the mechanisms and relevant genetic components by which the chloroplast functions in embryogenesis are largely uncharacterized. In this paper, we describe the Arabidopsis EMB1990 gene, encoding a plastid-targeted YlmG protein which is required for chloroplast biogenesis and embryo development. Loss of the EMB1990/YLMG1-1 resulted in albino seeds containing abortive embryos, and the morphological development of homozygous emb1990 embryos was disrupted after the globular stage. Our results showed that EMB1990/YLMG1-1 was expressed in the primordia and adaxial region of cotyledon during embryogenesis, and the encoded protein was targeted to the chloroplast. TEM observation of cellular ultrastructure showed that chloroplast biogenesis was impaired in emb1990 embryo cells. Expression of certain plastid genes was also affected in the loss-of-function mutants, including genes encoding core protein complex subunits located in the thylakoid membrane. Moreover, the tissue-specific genes of embryo development were misexpressed in emb1990 mutant, including genes known to delineate cell fate decisions in the SAM (shoot apical meristem), cotyledon and hypophysis. Taken together, we propose that the nuclear-encoded YLMG1-1 is targeted to the chloroplast and required for normal plastid gene expression. Hence, YLMG1-1 plays a critical role in Arabidopsis embryogenesis through participating in chloroplast biogenesis.
Project description:The suspensor is a temporary supporting structure of proembryos. It has been proposed that suspensor cells also possess embryogenic potential, which is suppressed by the embryo as an effect of the embryo-suspensor interaction. However, data to support this hypothesis are not yet available. In this report, using an in vivo living cell laser ablation technique, we show that Arabidopsis suspensor cells can develop into embryos after removing the embryo proper. The embryo proper plays a critical role in maintaining suspensor cell identity. However, this depends on the developmental stage; after the globular embryo stage, the suspensors no longer possess the potential to develop into embryos. We also reveal that hypophysis formation may be essential for embryo differentiation. Furthermore, we show that, after removing the embryo, auxin gradually accumulates in the top suspensor cell where cell division occurs to produce an embryo. Auxin redistribution likely reprograms the fate of the suspensor cell and triggers embryogenesis in suspensor cells. Thus, we provide direct evidence that the embryo suppresses the embryogenic potential of suspensor cells.
Project description:The SMC5-6 protein complex is involved in the cellular response to DNA damage. It is composed of 6-8 polypeptides, of which Nse1, Nse3 and Nse4 form a tight sub-complex. MAGEG1, the mammalian ortholog of Nse3, is the founding member of the MAGE (melanoma-associated antigen) protein family and Nse4 is related to the EID (E1A-like inhibitor of differentiation) family of transcriptional repressors.Using site-directed mutagenesis, protein-protein interaction analyses and molecular modelling, we have identified a conserved hydrophobic surface on the C-terminal domain of Nse3 that interacts with Nse4 and identified residues in its N-terminal domain that are essential for interaction with Nse1. We show that these interactions are conserved in the human orthologs. Furthermore, interaction of MAGEG1, the mammalian ortholog of Nse3, with NSE4b, one of the mammalian orthologs of Nse4, results in transcriptional co-activation of the nuclear receptor, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1). In an examination of the evolutionary conservation of the Nse3-Nse4 interactions, we find that several MAGE proteins can interact with at least one of the NSE4/EID proteins.We have found that, despite the evolutionary diversification of the MAGE family, the characteristic hydrophobic surface shared by all MAGE proteins from yeast to humans mediates its binding to NSE4/EID proteins. Our work provides new insights into the interactions, evolution and functions of the enigmatic MAGE proteins.
Project description:The Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex plays essential but largely enigmatic roles in chromosome segregation, and facilitates DNA repair. The Smc5-Smc6 complex contains six conserved non-SMC subunits. One of these, Nse1, contains a RING-like motif that often confers ubiquitin E3 ligase activity. We have functionally characterized the Nse1 RING-like motif, to determine its contribution to the chromosome segregation and DNA repair roles of Smc5-Smc6. Strikingly, whereas a full deletion of nse1 is lethal, the Nse1 RING-like motif is not essential for cellular viability. However, Nse1 RING mutant cells are hypersensitive to a broad spectrum of genotoxic stresses, indicating that the Nse1 RING motif promotes DNA repair functions of Smc5-Smc6. We tested the ability of both human and yeast Nse1 to mediate ubiquitin E3 ligase activity in vitro and found no detectable activity associated with full-length Nse1 or the isolated RING domains. Interestingly, however, the Nse1 RING-like domain is required for normal Nse1-Nse3-Nse4 trimer formation in vitro and for damage-induced recruitment of Nse4 and Smc5 to subnuclear foci in vivo. Thus, we propose that the Nse1 RING-like motif is a protein-protein interaction domain required for Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex integrity and recruitment to, or retention at, DNA lesions.