Docosahexaenoic acid status at 9 months is inversely associated with communicative skills in 3-year-old girls.
ABSTRACT: The objective of the present observational study was to investigate if the docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status assessed in infant erythrocytes (RBC) at 9 months was associated with the age when the infants reach developmental milestones and their psychomotor function at 3 years of age. Three hundred eleven healthy Danish children were followed from 9 months to 3 years of age (the SKOT cohort). RBC fatty acid composition was analysed by gas chromatography in 272 of the children. Milestone age was collected by questionnaires at 9 and 18 months and psychomotor development at 3 years of age was assessed by the parents using third edition of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ-3). RBC DHA levels ranged from 2.2% to 12.6% of the RBC fatty acids. The age of reaching milestones correlated with psychomotor development, particularly with gross motor function at 3 years. An association between milestones and later personal and social skills was also observed, but only for girls. In girls, RBC-DHA was found to be inversely correlated with communication at 3 years of age (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.86, P = 0.001), but no other associations with psychomotor development or milestones were found. The results from study indicate that DHA status at 9 months may not have a pronounced beneficial effect on psychomotor development in early childhood and that communicative skills at 3 years of age may even be inversely associated with early RBC-DHA levels in girls.
Project description:Little is known about arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) requirements in toddlers. A longitudinal, double blind, controlled trial in toddlers ( n = 133) age 13.4 ± 0.9 months (mean ± standard deviation), randomized to receive a DHA (200 mg/day) and ARA (200 mg/day) supplement (supplement) or a corn oil supplement (control) until age 24 months determined effects on neurodevelopment. We found no effect of the supplement on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development 3rd Edition (Bayley-III) cognitive and language composites and Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (Beery VMI) at age 24 months. Supplemented toddlers had higher RBC phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), and plasma DHA and ARA compared to placebo toddlers at age 24 months. A positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Cognitive composite (4.55 (0.21-9.00), B (95% CI), p = 0.045) in supplemented boys, but not in control boys, was observed in models adjusted for baseline fatty acid, maternal non-verbal intelligence, and BMI z-score at age 24 months. A similar positive relationship between RBC PE ARA and Bayley III Language composite was observed for supplemented boys (11.52 (5.10-17.94), p < 0.001) and girls (11.19 (4.69-17.68), p = 0.001). These findings suggest that increasing the ARA status in toddlers is associated with better neurodevelopment at age 24 months.
Project description:An increase in the proportion of fatty acids with higher numbers of double bonds is believed to increase lipid peroxidation, which augments the risk for many chronic diseases. (n-3) Polyunsaturated fatty acids provide various health benefits, but there is a concern that they might increase lipid peroxidation. We examined the effects of docosahexaenoic acid [22:6 (n-3)] supplementation on lipid peroxidation markers in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) and their associations with red blood cell and plasma fatty acids. Hypertriglyceridemic men (n = 17 per group) aged 39-66 years participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel study. They received no supplements for the first 8 days and then received 7.5 g/day docosahexaenoic acid oil (3 g/day docosahexaenoic acid) or olive oil (placebo) for 90 days. Fasting blood samples were collected 0, 45, and 91 days after supplementation. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation did not change plasma or RBC concentrations of lipid peroxidation markers (total hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid, total hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, total 8-isoprostaglandin F2?, 7?-hydroxycholesterol, 7?-hydroxycholesterol) when pre- and post-supplement values were compared. However, the post-supplement docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration was inversely associated with RBC concentrations of ZE-HODE, EE-HODE, t-HODE, and total 8-isoprostaglandin F2?, (p<0.05). RBC concentration of hydroxycholesterol was also inversely associated with DHA but it did not attain significance (p = 0.07). Our results suggest that increased concentration of DHA in RBC lipids reduced lipid peroxidation. This may be another health benefit of DHA in addition to its many other health promoting effects.
Project description:The role of the long-chain omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in lipid metabolism and inflammation has been extensively studied; however, little is known about the relationship between docosapentaenoic acid (DPA, 22:5 n-3) and inflammation and triglycerides (TG). We evaluated whether n-3 DPA content of red blood cells (RBC) was associated with markers of inflammation (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), and C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting TG prior to n-3 supplementation in two studies (Study 1: n = 115, aged 20-44 years, body mass index (BMI) 20-30 kg/m2, TG = 34-176 mg/dL; Study 2: n = 28, aged 22-65 years, BMI 24-37 kg/m2, TG = 141-339 mg/dL). We also characterized the dose-response effects of n-3 fatty acid supplementation on RBC n-3 DPA after five months of supplementation with fish oil (Study 1: 0, 300, 600, 900, and 1800 mg/day EPA + DHA) and eight weeks of prescription n-3 ethyl esters (Study 2: 0, 850, and 3400 mg/day EPA + DHA). In Study 1, RBC n-3 DPA was inversely correlated with CRP (R2 = 36%, p < 0.001) and with fasting TG (r = -0.30, p = 0.001). The latter finding was replicated in Study 2 (r = -0.33, p = 0.04). In both studies, n-3 supplementation significantly increased RBC n-3 DPA dose-dependently. Relative increases were greater for Study 1, with increases of 29%-61% vs. 14%-26% for Study 2. The associations between RBC n-3 DPA, CRP, and fasting TG may have important implications for the prevention of atherosclerosis and chronic inflammatory diseases and warrant further study.
Project description:We evaluated the effects of prenatal docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on offspring development at 18 months of age.Randomized placebo double-blind controlled trial.Cuernavaca, Mexico.We followed up offspring (n = 730; 75% of the birth cohort) of women in Mexico who participated in a trial of DHA supplementation during the latter half of pregnancy. We assessed the effect of the intervention on child development and the potential modifying effects of gravidity, gender, SES, and quality of the home environment.400 mg/day of algal DHA.Child development at 18 months of age measured using the Spanish version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II. We calculated standardized psychomotor and mental development indices, and behavior rating scale scores.Intent-to-treat differences (DHA-control) were: Psychomotor Developmental Index -0.90 (95% CI: -2.35, 0.56), Mental Developmental Index -0.26 (95% CI: -1.63, 1.10) and Behavior Rating Scale -0.01 (95% CI: -0.95, 0.94). Prenatal DHA intake attenuated the positive association between home environment and psychomotor development index observed in the control group (p for interaction = 0.03) suggesting potential benefits for children living in home environments characterized by reduced caregiver interactions and opportunities for early childhood stimulation.Prenatal DHA supplementation in a population with low intakes of DHA had no effects on offspring development at 18 months of age although there may be some benefit for infants from poor quality home environments.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00646360.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A secular trend towards earlier puberty has been observed in girls, while a similar trend has been more uncertain in boys. We estimated current ages at pubertal development in both boys and girls. METHODS:In this population-based cohort study, 14 759 of 22 439 invited boys and girls born from 2000 to 2003 in the Danish National Birth Cohort gave half-yearly self-reported information on puberty from the age of 11.5 years and throughout puberty. This late start of follow-up limits the estimation of age at onset of puberty but not later pubertal milestones. We estimated mean age at attaining the following pubertal milestones in years with 95% confidence intervals (CI): age at menarche, voice break, first ejaculation of semen and Tanner stages for pubic hair development and breast development or genital development. Further, the difference in mean age at menarche between mothers and daughters was estimated. RESULTS:In boys, voice break occurred at 13.1 (95% CI 13.0, 13.1) years, first ejaculation of semen occurred at 13.4 (95% CI 13.3, 13.4) years, and Tanner Genital Stage 5 occurred at 15.6 (95% CI 15.5, 15.6) years. In girls, age at menarche occurred at 13.0 (95% CI 13.0, 13.1) years and Tanner Breast Stage 5 occurred at 15.8 (95% CI 15.7, 15.9) years. Daughters had menarche 3.6 (95% CI 3.1, 4.2) months earlier than their mothers had. CONCLUSION:These data indicate that age at menarche has declined and to some extent support a decline in age at attaining other markers of pubertal development among boys.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We examined the longitudinal associations of age at achieving gross motor milestones and children's development in a US cohort of singletons and twins. METHODS:In the Upstate KIDS study, a population-based study of children born between 2008 and 2010, information on age at achievement of motor milestones and developmental skills was available in 599 children (314 singletons, 259 twins, and 26 triplets). Mothers reported their children's major motor milestones at ?4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 months. At age 4 years, children's development was clinically assessed by using the Battelle Developmental Inventory, Second Edition (BDI-2). Primary analyses by using multivariate linear regressions were conducted in singletons. We also examined the associations in twins. RESULTS:Later achievement of standing with assistance predicted lower BDI-2 scores in singletons in adjusted models (B per SD of age at achievement, -21.9 [95% confidence interval (CI), -41.5 to -2.2]). Post hoc analysis on age of standing with assistance showed that associations were driven by differences in adaptive skills (B = -5.3 [95% CI, -9.0 to -1.6]) and cognitive skills (B = -5.9 [95% CI, -11.5 to -0.4]). Analyses restricted to twins suggested no association between the age at achievement of milestones and total BDI-2 score after adjustment for gestational age and birth weight. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides evidence that the age of achieving motor milestones may be an important basis for various aspects of later child development. In twins, key predictors of later development (eg, perinatal factors) overshadow the predictive role of milestones in infancy.
Project description:Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the inflammatory destruction of pancreatic ?-cells. In this study, we investigated the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplementation on stimulated inflammatory cytokine production in white blood cells (WBC) from infants with a high genetic risk for T1D.This was a multicenter, two-arm, randomized, double-blind pilot trial of DHA supplementation, beginning either in the last trimester of pregnancy (41 infants) or in the first 5 months after birth (57 infants). Levels of DHA in infant and maternal red blood cell (RBC) membranes and in breast milk were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Inflammatory cytokines were assayed from whole blood culture supernatants using the Luminex multiplex assay after stimulation with high dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 1 µg/mL.The levels of RBC DHA were increased by 61-100% in treated compared to control infants at ages 6-36 months. There were no statistically significant reductions in production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1?, TNF?, or IL-12p40 at any of the six timepoints measured. The inflammatory marker, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), was significantly lower in breast-fed DHA-treated infants compared to all formula-fed infants at the age of 12 months. Three infants (two received DHA) were removed from the study as a result of developing ?two persistently positive biochemical islet autoantibodies.This pilot trial showed that supplementation of infant diets with DHA is safe and fulfilled the pre-study goal of increasing infant RBC DHA levels by at least 20%. Inflammatory cytokine production was not consistently reduced.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Inflammation and inflammatory biomarkers have emerged as integral components and predictors of incident cardiovascular (CV) disease. Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA) have anti-inflammatory properties, and have been variably associated with lower blood pressure, favorable blood lipid changes, and reduced CV events. METHODS AND RESULTS:We examined the cross-sectional association of red blood cell (RBC) fatty acids, representative of body membrane fatty acid composition, with 10 biomarkers active in multiple inflammatory pathways in 2724 participants (mean age 66 ± 9 years, 54% women, 8% minorities) from the Framingham Offspring and minority Omni Cohorts. After multivariable adjustment, the RBC EPA and DHA content was inversely correlated (all P ? 0.001) with 8 biomarkers: urinary isoprostanes (r = -0.16); and soluble interleukin-6 (r = -0.10); C-reactive protein (r = -0.08); tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (r = -0.08); intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (r = -0.08); P-selectin (r = -0.06); lipoprotein-associated phospholipase-A2 mass (r = -0.11) and activity (r = -0.08). The correlations for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 was -0.05, P = 0.006 and osteoprotegerin (r = -0.06, P = 0.002) were only nominally significant. CONCLUSION:In our large community-based study, we observed modest inverse associations between several types of inflammatory biomarkers with RBC omega-3 fatty acid levels. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties.
Project description:It is uncertain whether multiple micronutrients benefit the mental and psychomotor development of young children in developing countries. We conducted a randomised double-blind controlled trial to evaluate the effect of a richly micronutrient-fortified v. a basal fortified porridge on mental and psychomotor development in Zambian infants. Infants (n 743) were randomised at age 6 months to receive either the richly fortified or the basal fortified infant food and were followed up until 18 months of age. All the infants were evaluated monthly for achievement of a series of developmental milestones. The Bayley scales of infant development II were administered to a subsample of 502 infants at 6, 12 and 18 months. Rich micronutrient fortification had no significant benefit on the following: (a) number of developmental milestones achieved (rate ratio at 12 months = 1·00; 95 % CI 0·96, 1·05; P = 0·81, adjusted for sex, socio-economic status and maternal education, with similar results at 15 and 18 months); (b) ages of walking unsupported (hazard ratio (HR) 1·04; 95 % CI 0·88, 1·24; P = 0·63, adjusted for the above covariates) and of speaking three or four clear words (HR 1·01; 95 % CI 0·84, 1·20; P = 0·94, adjusted for the above covariates); (c) mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of the Bayley scales (scores difference adjusted for baseline scores, age at the assessment, sex, socio-economic status, maternal education, language, age and HIV status: MDI 0·3 (95 % CI - 0·5, 1·1), P = 0·43; PDI - 0·1 (95 % CI - 0·9, 0·7), P = 0·78). In conclusion, the results do not support the hypothesis that rich micronutrient fortification improves Zambian infants' mental and motor development.
Project description:Prenatal chemical exposures may adversely affect neurodevelopment, but few studies have examined the persistence of these associations. We examined whether associations between prenatal bisphenol A (BPA) or polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) exposures persist or resolve as children age.We followed 346 mother-child pairs (enrolled 2003-2006) from Cincinnati, OH from pregnancy until children were 8 years old. We measured BPA in urine collected at 16 and 26 weeks gestation and PBDE-47 in serum collected at 16 weeks gestation. We administered repeated measures of children's behavior, mental/psychomotor development, and IQ from ages 1-8 years. We determined if associations of BPA or PBDE-47 with child neurobehavior persisted or resolved as children aged using linear mixed models and estimated neurobehavioral measure reproducibility using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).Higher BPA in girls and higher PBDE-47 in both boys and girls were associated with more externalizing behaviors; these associations persisted from ages 2-8 years (exposure×age interaction p-values?0.36). Higher PBDE-47 concentrations were associated with decreases in MDI from ages 1-3 years (PBDE-47x age interaction p-value=0.03) and persistently lower IQ at ages 5 and 8 years (PBDE-47×age interaction p-value=0.56). Mental/psychomotor abilities had fair reproducibility from ages 1-3 years (ICCs?0.4), cognitive abilities from ages 5 to 8 years had excellent reproducibility (ICCs=0.7-0.8), and parent-reported behaviors from ages 2-8 years had poor to good reproducibility (ICCs=0.38-0.59).Prenatal BPA and PBDE-47 concentrations were persistently associated with more externalizing behaviors. PBDE-47 concentrations were inversely associated with cognitive abilities that strengthened over time.