Vitamin D Receptor Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue of Obese Individuals is Regulated by miRNA and Correlates with the Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Level.
ABSTRACT: Background: Given the role that vitamin D (VD) plays in the regulation of the inflammatory activity of adipocytes, we aimed to assess whether obesity changes the expression of VD-related genes in adipose tissue and, if so, to investigate whether this phenomenon depends on microRNA interference and how it may influence the local inflammatory milieu. Methods: The expression of genes encoding VD 1?-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), 24-hydroxylase (CYP24A1) and receptor (VDR), selected interleukins and microRNAs was evaluated by real-time PCR in visceral (VAT) and in subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues of 55 obese (BMI > 40 kg/m2) and 31 normal-weight (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m2) individuals. Results: VDR mRNA levels were higher, while CYP27B1 levels were lower in adipose tissues of obese patients than in those of normal-weight controls (VAT: P = 0.04, SAT: P < 0.0001 and VAT: P = 0.004, SAT: P = 0.016, respectively). The expression of VDR in VAT of obese subjects correlated negatively with levels of miR-125a-5p (P = 0.0006, rs = -0.525), miR-125b-5p (P = 0.001, rs = -0.495), and miR-214-3p (P = 0.009, rs = -0.379). Additionally, VDR mRNA concentrations in visceral adipose tissues of obese subjects correlated positively with mRNA levels of interleukins: 1?, 6 and 8. Conclusions: We observed obesity-associated up-regulation of VDR and down-regulation of CYP27B mRNA levels in adipose tissue. VDR expression correlates with the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and may be regulated by miRNAs.
Project description:Excess adiposity is associated with chronic inflammation, which takes part in the development of obesity-related complications. The aim of this study was to establish whether subcutaneous (SAT) or visceral (VAT) adipose tissue plays a major role in synthesis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Concentrations of interleukins (IL): 1?, 6, 8 and 15 were measured at the protein level by an ELISA-based method and on the mRNA level by real-time PCR in VAT and SAT samples obtained from 49 obese (BMI > 40 kg/m²) and 16 normal-weight (BMI 20-24.9 kg/m²) controls. IL-6 and IL-15 protein concentrations were higher in SAT than in VAT for both obese (p = 0.003 and p < 0.0001, respectively) and control individuals (p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively), while for IL-1? this was observed only in obese subjects (p = 0.047). What characterized obese individuals was the higher expression of IL-6 and IL-15 at the protein level in VAT compared to normal-weight controls (p = 0.047 and p = 0.016, respectively). Additionally, obese individuals with metabolic syndrome had higher IL-1? levels in VAT than did obese individuals without this syndrome (p = 0.003). In conclusion, concentrations of some pro-inflammatory cytokines were higher in SAT than in VAT, but it was the increased pro-inflammatory activity of VAT that was associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Project description:The innate immune cell sensor leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome controls the activation of caspase-1, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1? and IL-18. The NLRP3 inflammasome is implicated in adipose tissue inflammation and the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that adipose tissue inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome are linked to the downregulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) adipogenesis/lipogenesis in obese adolescents with altered abdominal fat partitioning. We performed abdominal SAT biopsies on 58 obese adolescents and grouped them by MRI-derived visceral fat to visceral adipose tissue (VAT) plus SAT (VAT/VAT+SAT) ratio (cutoff 0.11). Adolescents with a high VAT/VAT+SAT ratio showed higher SAT macrophage infiltration and higher expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome-related genes (i.e., TLR4, NLRP3, IL1B, and CASP1). The increase in inflammation markers was paralleled by a decrease in genes related to insulin sensitivity (ADIPOQ, GLUT4, PPARG2, and SIRT1) and lipogenesis (SREBP1c, ACC, LPL, and FASN). Furthermore, SAT ceramide concentrations correlated with the expression of CASP1 and IL1B. Infiltration of macrophages and upregulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome together with the associated high ceramide content in the plasma and SAT of obese adolescents with a high VAT/VAT+SAT may contribute to the limited expansion of the subcutaneous abdominal adipose depot and the development of insulin resistance.
Project description:Background. Abdominal obesity and its relative distribution are known to differ in association with metabolic characteristics and cardiorespiratory fitness. This study aimed to determine an association between fitness level and abdominal adiposity in overweight and obese adults. Methods. 228 overweight and obese individuals were classified as either cardiorespiratory unfit or fit based on their recovery heart rate. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), the visceral-to-subcutaneous adipose tissue ratio (VAT/SAT ratio), and cardiometabolic characteristics were analyzed to examine the relationship between recovery heart rate and abdominal adiposity components. Results. After adjustments for age and sex, significant relationships of recovery heart rate and VAT, SAT, and VAT/SAT ratio were found; however, SAT was not significantly associated after further adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (r = 0.045, P = 0.499), whereas VAT (r = 0.232, P < 0.001) and VAT/SAT ratio (r = 0.214, P = 0.001) remained associated. Through stepwise multiple regression analyses after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, lifestyle factors, mean blood pressure, fasting glucose, HOMA-IR, lipid profiles, and hsCRP, recovery heart rate was identified as an independent variable associated with VAT (? = 0.204, P < 0.001) and VAT/SAT ratio (? = 0.163, P = 0.008) but not with SAT (? = 0.097, P = 0.111). Conclusions. Cardiorespiratory fitness level is independently associated with VAT and the VAT/SAT ratio but not with SAT in overweight and obese adults.
Project description:Background:Recent studies point toward the possible regulatory roles of two lncRNAs; metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) and taurine upregulated gene 1 (TUG1) in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disorders and regulation of lipogenesis and adipogenesis. In an attempt to understand the molecules involved in human obesity pathogenesis, we aimed to evaluate the expression of MALAT1 and TUG1 in visceral adipose tissues (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissues (SAT) of obese women, as compared to normal-weight women. The mRNA expression of possible target genes including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?), PPAR? coactivator-1 alpha (PGC1?), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), fatty acid synthase (FAS), and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) which are involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis were also examined. Methods:This study was conducted on 20 obese [body mass index (BMI)???30 kg/m 2] female participants and 19 normal-weight (BMI?<?25 kg/m 2) female participants. Real-time PCR was performed to investigate the mRNA expression of the above-mentioned genes in VAT and SAT from all participants. Results:The results showed lower mRNA levels of TUG1 in both the VAT and SAT of obese women, compared to normal-weight women. Furthermore, TUG1 expression in SAT positively correlated with BMI, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference, HOMA-IR, and insulin levels, eGFR value, creatinine levels, and hs-CRP in all participants independent of age and HOMA-IR. However, VAT mRNA expression of TUG1 had a positive correlation with obesity indices and HOMA-IR and insulin levels in the whole population. Moreover, SAT mRNA level of TUG1 was positively correlated with SAT gene expression of PGC1?, SREBP-1c, FAS, and ACC independent of age and HOMA-IR. Although mRNA expression of MALAT1 did not differ between two groups for any tissue, it was positively correlated with SAT mRNA levels of SREBP-1c, PPAR?, and their targets; FAS and ACC, as well as with VAT mRNA levels of PGC1?. Conclusions:It seems likely that TUG1 with distinct expression pattern in VAT and SAT are involved in the regulation of lipogenic and adipogenic genes and obesity-related parameters. However, more studies are necessary to establish this concept.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Evidence suggests that visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) should be considered as distinct types of white fat. Although VAT plays a key role in metabolic syndrome (MetS), the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) has been unclear. DahlS.Z-Leprfa/Leprfa (DS/obese) rats, an animal model of MetS, develop adipocyte hypertrophy and inflammation to similar extents in SAT and VAT. We have now investigated the effects of salt loading and SAT removal on cardiac, renal, and VAT pathology in DS/obese rats. METHODS:DS/obese rats were subjected to surgical removal of inguinal SAT or sham surgery at 8 weeks of age. They were provided with a 0.3% NaCl solution as drinking water or water alone for 4 weeks from 9 weeks of age. RESULTS:Salt loading exacerbated hypertension, insulin resistance, as well as left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, inflammation, fibrosis, and diastolic dysfunction in DS/obese rats. It also reduced both SAT and VAT mass but aggravated inflammation only in VAT. Although SAT removal did not affect LV hypertrophy in salt-loaded DS/obese rats, it attenuated hypertension, insulin resistance, and LV injury as well as restored fat mass and alleviated inflammation and the downregulation of adiponectin gene expression in VAT. In addition, whereas salt loading worsened renal injury as well as upregulated the expression of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system-related genes in the kidney, these effects were suppressed by removal of SAT. CONCLUSIONS:SAT removal attenuated salt-induced exacerbation of MetS and LV and renal pathology in DS/obese rats. These beneficial effects of SAT removal are likely attributable, at least in part, to inhibition of both VAT and systemic inflammation.
Project description:Using RNA isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) samples obtained from control and class I, II and III obese patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, we compared the gene expression profiles between SAT and VAT using microarrays and validated the findings by real-time quantitative PCR. Two-condition experiment, SAT vs. VAT tissue. Biological replicates: 8 SAT replicates, 8 VAT replicates.
Project description:The goal of the present study was to identify differences in gene expression between SAT, VAT and EAT depots in Class III severely obese individuals.Human subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues exhibit differential gene expression profiles. There is little information, however, about the other proximal white adipose tissue, epigastric (EAT), in terms of its function and contribution to metabolism.Using RNA from adipose biospecimens obtained from Class III severely obese patients undergoing open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, we compared gene expression profiles between SAT, VAT and EAT, using microarrays validated by real-time quantitative PCR.The three depots were found to share 1907 genes. VAT had the greatest number of genes (66) expressed exclusively in this depot, followed by SAT (23), and then EAT (14). Moreover, VAT shared more genes with EAT (65) than with SAT (38). Further analyses using ratios of SAT/EAT, VAT/EAT and SAT/VAT identified specific as well as overlapping networks and pathways of genes representing dermatological diseases, inflammation, cell cycle and growth, cancer and development. Targeted analysis of genes, having a role in adipose tissue development and function, revealed that Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Gamma Coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1-?) that regulates the precursor of the hormone Irisin (FNCD5) were abundantly expressed in all three fat depots, along with fibroblast growth factors (FGF) FGF1, FGF7 and FGF10, whereas, FGF19 and FGF21 were undetectable.These data indicate that EAT has more in common with VAT, suggesting similar metabolic potential. The human epigastric adipose depot could have a significant functional role in metabolic diseases and should be further investigated.
Project description:Psychiatric disorders have been widely reported to be associated with systemic inflammation upregulation and adiposity. However, there are no data that link adipose tissue inflammation to these mental disorders. The analysis of adipokines and inflammation-related markers in adipose tissue could help to elucidate the potential association between obesity and mental health. An observational study was conducted in samples of patients consisting of non-obese and obese subjects, who were diagnosed with anxiety or mood disorders. Gene expression of adiponectin (ADIPOQ), leptin (LEP) and inflammatory markers (IL6, IL1B, TNF, CCL2, CSF3, ITGAM, and PLAUR) were determined in visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) adipose tissues. Our results showed that the gene expression of adipokines and inflammation-related markers was higher in the VAT and SAT of obese subjects compared with non-obese subjects. Regarding mental disorders, all the inflammatory genes in the VAT were significantly higher in non-obese subjects with anxiety or mood disorders than in subjects without mental disorders, except for TNF and ITGAM. Additionally, IL6 expression was significantly lower in SAT. In contrast, obese patients diagnosed with anxiety or mood disorders only showed significantly lower expression levels of IL1B in VAT and ADIPOQ in SAT when compared with obese subjects without mental disorders. These data suggest the potential involvement of VAT inflammation in anxiety and mood disorders, involving complex mechanisms which are strongly affected by obesity.
Project description:The current study tested the hypothesis that glucose utilization differs between visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and investigated potential mechanisms for such a finding.VAT burden correlates better with cardiovascular risk than does SAT burden. Beyond volumetric measurement, glucose uptake in adipose tissue (AT) might reflect metabolic activity and provide pathophysiologic insight and aid risk stratification.We retrospectively studied tissue-specific glucose uptake in vivo in clinically obtained whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans in humans. We also assessed glucose uptake in vitro, using stromal vascular cells isolated from SAT and VAT of diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) evaluated the expression of multiple genes involved in cellular glucose metabolism, including glucose transporters (GLUT-1, -3, and -4) and hexokinases (HK-1 and -2) in SAT and VAT of obese C57BL/6 mice.We analyzed whole-body FDG-PET scans from 31 obese and 26 lean patients. VAT exhibited higher FDG uptake compared with SAT (p < 0.0001) independent of age, sex, body mass index, comorbidities, and medications. To investigate mechanisms underlying this observation, we studied glucose uptake in the stromal vascular cell fraction of AT, which is rich in inflammatory cells. Stromal vascular cells from VAT of diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mice exhibited higher glucose uptake than those from SAT (p = 0.01). Evaluation of expression of glucose transporters (GLUT-1, -3, and -4) and hexokinases (HK-1 and -2), revealed increased expression of HK-1 in VAT-derived compared with SAT-derived stromal vascular cells, and also in visceral versus subcutaneous unfractionated AT.In humans in vivo, VAT has increased glucose uptake compared with SAT, as determined noninvasively with FDG PET imaging. Differential stromal metabolic activity may be 1 mechanism underlying differences in metabolic activity of visceral and subcutaneous AT.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: The expansion of adipose tissue is linked to the development of its vasculature. However, the regulation of adipose tissue angiogenesis in humans has not been extensively studied. Our aim was to compare the angiogenesis associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) from the same obese patients in an in vivo model. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adipose tissue samples from visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAT) sites, obtained from 36 obese patients (mean BMI 46.5 kg/m(2)) during bariatric surgery, were layered on chick chorioallantoïc membrane (CAM). RESULTS: Both SAT and VAT expressed angiogenic factors without significant difference for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Adipose tissue layered on CAM stimulated angiogenesis. Angiogenic stimulation was macroscopically detectable, with engulfment of the samples, in 39% and was evidenced by angiography in 59% of the samples. A connection between CAM and adipose tissue vessels was evidenced by immunohistochemistry, with recruitment of both avian and human endothelial cells. The angiogenic potency of adipose tissue was not related to its localization (with an angiogenic stimulation in 60% of SAT samples and 61% of VAT samples) or to adipocyte size or inflammatory infiltrate assessed in adipose samples before the graft on CAM. Stimulation of angiogenesis by adipose tissue was nearly abolished by bevacizumab, which specifically targets human VEGF. CONCLUSIONS: We have established a model to study the regulation of angiogenesis by human adipose tissue. This model highlighted the role of VEGF in angiogenesis in both SAT and VAT.