Genetic polymorphism in association with susceptibility to tuberculosis: a study in a Pakistani population.
ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis is becoming a global issue with raising occurrences; particularly in developing countries, the situation is alarming. Besides environmental factors, host genetic factors are vital in disease development. A demographical and genotypic analysis in relation to tuberculosis commencement is conducted in a Pakistani population, and genotypic frequency of EBI3 (rs4740) was analyzed. Allelic frequencies of EBI3 (rs4740) were significantly associated with disease susceptibility in the reviewed population. Analysis for EBI3 (rs4740) genotyping showed a significant association of "GG" with reduced risk for disease. Moreover, females and older age found to be more perilous to develop TB while smoking and a family history of TB are additional risk factors for disease development. Further work with a larger population is necessary to identify the true causative variants of tuberculosis.
Project description:Despite low infectious potential of extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB), it poses significant clinical challenges in terms of diagnosis and treatment monitoring. Understanding the main demographical risk factors for disease characteristics of EPTB plays a crucial role in speeding up diagnosis process and improving overall clinical experience. The aim of this study was to investigate the main demographical and clinical risk factors for EPTB among adults and adolescents for the first time in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out on a collection of 902 extrapulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) isolates with demographical and clinical data. All isolates were subjected to spoligotyping and 24-loci based MIRU-VNTR typing. The association between two potential variables was assessed using odd ratios (OR) calculations. Independent risk factors for EPTB and diseases characteristics of EPTB were identified using multivariate regression model analyses. Gender was found to be significantly associated with lymph node, gastrointestinal, central nervous system and urogenital TB. Lymph node TB showed statistical association to age group below 25 years, non-Saudis and South East Asian ethnicity. While gastrointestinal TB demonstrated an association with patients above 60 years old, and Saudis. Multivariate analysis showed that gender is an independent risk factor to urogenital TB (p 0.03) and lymph node TB (p 0.005). On the other hands, South Asian (p 0.01) and South East Asian (p 0.03) ethnicities were both identified as independent risk factors significantly associated with EPTB. MTBC lineages, site of infections, gender, HIV and smear positivity showed no significant association. Nationwide qualitative-studies are highly warranted in the future to further understand the main demographic risk factors for disease characteristics of EPTB.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Host genetic factors affect the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection as well as the progression of the disease. Epiregulin (EREG) belongs to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, which binds to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) to regulate the immune response of the host during infections. Our study aimed to compare EREG levels in tuberculosis (TB) patients and healthy controls and assess whether polymorphisms in EREG increase the risk of TB. METHODS:We used ELISA to determine the plasma EREG level from 30 healthy controls and 50 tuberculosis patients. By evaluating the EREG gene from 624 TB patients and 600 healthy controls, we determined the allelic and genotypic frequencies for association with susceptibility to TB infections in this group. RESULTS:This paper shows that the pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) groups showed a significantly higher plasma EREG level (1014 ± 733.9 pg/ml, 700.2 ± 676.6 pg/ml, respectively) than the healthy controls (277 ± 105.4 pg/ml). The rs2367707 polymorphism was associated with a higher risk of PTB and EPTB (P = 0.00051, P = 0.0012). Analyses of haplotype frequencies found that people with the haplotype CACAT had a higher risk of PTB and EPTB (P = 0.00031, OR = 1.43; P = 0.000053, OR = 1.65). Moreover, the rs6446993 polymorphism of the EREG gene was found to be associated with EPTB (P = 0.00087, OR = 1.54; 95% CI = 1.23-1.94). CONCLUSIONS:Compared to that of healthy controls, the level of EREG in the plasma of TB patients increased significantly. Based on these data, we demonstrated that EREG polymorphisms are genetic factors for susceptibility to TB and various forms of TB.
Project description:CD43, a surface glycoprotein, regulates Mycobacterium tuberculosis macrophage binding, replication, and proinflammatory cytokine induction in a murine model. We hypothesized that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the CD43 gene region are associated with human tuberculosis (TB) susceptibility. We performed a case-population study in discovery (352 TB cases and 382 control subjects) and validation cohorts (339 TB cases and 376 control subjects). We examined whether 11 haplotype-tagging SNPs in the CD43 gene region were associated with tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and pulmonary TB (PTB) in Vietnam. Three SNPs from the CD43 gene region were associated with TB susceptibility with a genotypic model. The association fit a recessive genetic model and was greater for TBM than for PTB (for TBM: rs4788172, odds ratio [OR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.59, rs17842268 [OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.29-3.76, and rs12596308 [OR, 2.38; 95% CI, 1.47-3.89]). Among TBM cases, rs17842268 was associated with decreased survival (hazard ratio, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.1-6.5; P = 0.011). In addition, rs12596308 and rs17842268 were associated with focal neurologic deficit at TBM presentation. Our data suggest that CD43 polymorphisms are associated with TB susceptibility, disease manifestations, and worse outcomes. To our knowledge, this is the first report that links CD43 genetic variants with susceptibility and outcome from a disease.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Host genetic variability is an important determinant of the risk of developing TB in humans. Although the association between MBL polymorphisms and TB has been studied in various populations, the results are controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate mannose-binding lectin (MBL) gene polymorphisms with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in a Lur population of Iran. METHODS:In this case-control study, four functional MBL gene polymorphisms (HL, XY, PQ and AB) were genotyped by using PCR Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP) technique in a Lur population living in Lorestan Province, consisting of 100 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) age and sex matched 100 healthy controls (HCs). Association analyses were performed with the SPSS 21 statistical software. RESULTS:We found that MBL (HH) genotype polymorphism significantly was associated with increased susceptibility to TB (35% in patients vs. 22% in controls, P = 0.0417, OR = 1.909, %95 CI = 1.020-3.573). Additionally, H allele showed a significant association with increased risk of TB (56.5% in patients vs. 46% in controls, P = 0.0357, OR = 1.525, %95 CI = 1.028-2.262). Also, the distribution of L allele in patients was significantly lower frequency in TB patients compared to controls (43.5% vs. 54%, P = 0.0357, OR = 0.656, %95 CI = 0.442-0.973). However, the allelic and genotypic frequencies of AB, XY and PQ polymorphisms were not significantly different between the patients and the controls. We couldn't detect any significant differences between haplotypes among TB patients and healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings demonstrated that HH genotype and H allele may increase the susceptibility to pulmonary TB in the Lur population of Iran, although L allele may decrease the susceptibility to pulmonary TB in this population. We suggest that it is necessary to further more studies with larger sample size and other ethnic population.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The epidemiology of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) from 1995 to 2000 in Harris County, TX, has been previously reported. This study was conducted to evaluate the continued trends of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clustering and the role of genotyping in pediatric TB. METHODS:Data came from the Houston Tuberculosis Initiative, a prospective population-based active surveillance and molecular epidemiology project. The study population consisted of TB patients ?18 years of age diagnosed in Harris County, TX, from 2000 to 2004. Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were characterized by insertion sequence 6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism and spoligotyping. RESULTS:One hundred three pediatric TB cases were enrolled in the Houston Tuberculosis Initiative study from 2000 to 2004. Sixty-one (59%) patients had potential source cases. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were available and genotyped for 36 pediatric cases; 27 (75%) were clustered into 22 different genotypes. Of the 20 genotyped patients with a potential source case, 16 (80%) were clustered. Genotypes matched the potential source case in 12 cases. Eleven of the 16 (69%) genotyped patients without a potential source case were clustered. CONCLUSIONS:Compared with pediatric cases between 1995 and 2000, there was a significant increase in the number of patients with unknown potential source cases that were clustered within the Houston Tuberculosis Initiative database. Because genotypic clustering is associated with recent transmission, there appears to be a failure in the identification of potential source cases through contact tracing. Reduced funding of public health departments forces more limited TB control activities and therefore could pose a threat to TB control.
Project description:Several candidate gene studies have provided evidence for a role of host genetics in susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB). However, the results of these studies have been very inconsistent, even within a study population. Here, we review the design of these studies from a genetic epidemiological perspective, illustrating important differences in phenotype definition in both cases and controls, consideration of latent M. tuberculosis infection versus active TB disease, population genetic factors such as population substructure and linkage disequilibrium, polymorphism selection, and potential global differences in M. tuberculosis strain. These considerable differences between studies should be accounted for when examining the current literature. Recommendations are made for future studies to further clarify the host genetics of TB.
Project description:Major contributions from pathogen genome analysis and host genetics have equated the possibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis co-evolution with its human host leading to more stable sympatric host-pathogen relationships. However, the attribution to either sympatric or allopatric categories depends on the resolution or grain of genotypic characterization. We explored the influence on the sympatric host-pathogen relationship of clinical (HIV infection and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis [MDRTB]) and demographic (gender and age) factors in regards to the genotypic grain by using spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) for classification of M. tuberculosis strains within the Euro-American lineage. We analyzed a total of 547 tuberculosis (TB) cases, from six year consecutive sampling in a setting with high TB-HIV coinfection (32.0%). Of these, 62.0% were caused by major circulating pathogen genotypes. The sympatric relationship was defined according to spoligotype in comparison to the international spoligotype database SpolDB4. While no significant association with Euro-American lineage was observed with any of the factors analyzed, increasing the resolution with spoligotyping evidenced a significant association of MDRTB with sympatric strains, regardless of the HIV status. Furthermore, distribution curves of the prevalence of sympatric and allopatric TB in relation to patients' age showed an accentuation of the relevance of the age of onset in the allopatric relationship, as reflected in the trimodal distribution. On the contrary, sympatric TB was characterized by the tendency towards a typical (standard) distribution curve. Our results suggest that within the Euro-American lineage a greater degree of genotyping fine-tuning is necessary in modeling the biological processes behind the host-pathogen interplay. Furthermore, prevalence distribution of sympatric TB to age was suggestive of host genetic determinisms driven by more common variants.
Project description:Tuberculosis (TB), a chronic disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), is a global health issue across the world. Pakistan ranks fifth among the countries, which are facing, a significantly great number of mortalities and morbidities due to TB. Unfortunately, all previously reported treatments are not successful for the eradication of TB. Here in this study, we report an emerging treatment option for this disease. We have applied immunoinformatics to predict highly conserved B and T-cell epitopes from Mtb, showing significant binding affinities to the frequent HLA alleles in the Pakistani population. A total of ten highly referenced and experimentally validated epitopes were selected from the Immune Epitope Database (IEDB), followed by their conservancy analysis using weblogos. The consensus sequences and variants derived from these sequences were examined, for their binding affinities, with prevalent HLA alleles of Pakistan. Moreover, the antigenic and allergenic natures of these peptides were also evaluated via Vaxijen and AllerTOP, respectively. Consequently, all potentially allergenic and non-antigenic, peptide fragments, were excluded from the analysis. Among all putative epitopes, three CD8?+?T-cell epitopes were selected, as ideal vaccine candidates and, population coverage analysis revealed that the combination of these three peptides was covering, 67.28% Pakistani Asian and 57.15% mixed Pakistani populations. Likewise, eleven linear and six conformational or discontinuous B-cell epitopes were also marked as potential vaccine candidates based on their prediction score, non-allergenic nature, and antigenic properties. These epitopes, however, need the final validation via wet-lab studies. After their approval, these epitopes would be effective candidates for the future designing of epitope-based vaccines against Mtb infections in Pakistan.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a global concern. The proper diagnosis and management of drug-resistant TB are critical for improving treatment outcome. Molecular-based genotypic drug-susceptibility testing (DST) was developed to identify drug-resistant TB; however, discordant results from phenotypic and genotypic DST analyses have alarmed clinicians and raised concerns about the test's utility. Moreover, the characteristics of disputed mutations are not well studied and only based on retrospective study findings. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We describe a 28-month prospective observational cohort study ongoing at two university-affiliated hospitals in South Korea. The cohort study will enrol and evaluate 600 adults with pulmonary TB. Relevant clinical and epidemiological data will be collected prospectively and participants will be evaluated at each hospital during anti-TB treatment to identify factors associated with TB treatment outcomes. Respiratory specimens will be collected at select visits. After generating a well-characterised cohort, patterns of drug resistance on both phenotypic and genotypic DSTs and associated mutations including the disputed mutation will be evaluated. We will also identify various clinical and socioeconomic factors that affect the causes of drug resistance and their clinical outcomes. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:The study protocol is approved by the Institutional Review Boards of Chungbuk National University Hospital and Chungnam National University Hospital. Study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:KCT0002594.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To examine how stratifying persons born outside Canada according to tuberculosis (TB) incidence in their birth country and other demographic factors refines our understanding of TB epidemiology and local TB transmission. BACKGROUND:Population-level TB surveillance programs and research studies in low incidence settings often report all persons born outside the country in which the study is conducted as "foreign-born"-a single label for a highly diverse population with variable TB risks. This may mask important TB epidemiologic trends and not accurately reflect local transmission patterns. METHODS:We used population-level data from two large cohorts in British Columbia (BC), Canada: an immigration cohort (n = 337,492 permanent residents to BC) and a genotyping cohort (n = 2290 culture-confirmed active TB cases). We stratified active TB case counts, incidence rates, and genotypic clustering (an indicator of TB transmission) in BC by birth country TB incidence, age at immigration, and years since arrival. RESULTS:Persons from high-incidence countries had a 12-fold higher TB incidence than those emigrating from low-incidence settings. Estimates of local transmission, as captured by genotyping, versus reactivation of latent TB infection acquired outside Canada varied when data were stratified by birthplace TB incidence, as did patient-level characteristics of individuals in each group, such as age and years between immigration and diagnosis. CONCLUSION:Categorizing persons beyond simply "foreign-born", particularly in the context of TB epidemiologic and molecular data, is needed for a more accurate understanding of TB rates and patterns of transmission.