A computational method for design of connected catalytic networks in proteins.
ABSTRACT: Computational design of new active sites has generally proceeded by geometrically defining interactions between the reaction transition state(s) and surrounding side-chain functional groups which maximize transition-state stabilization, and then searching for sites in protein scaffolds where the specified side-chain-transition-state interactions can be realized. A limitation of this approach is that the interactions between the side chains themselves are not constrained. An extensive connected hydrogen bond network involving the catalytic residues was observed in a designed retroaldolase following directed evolution. Such connected networks could increase catalytic activity by preorganizing active site residues in catalytically competent orientations, and enabling concerted interactions between side chains during catalysis, for example, proton shuffling. We developed a method for designing active sites in which the catalytic side chains, in addition to making interactions with the transition state, are also involved in extensive hydrogen bond networks. Because of the added constraint of hydrogen-bond connectivity between the catalytic side chains, to find solutions, a wider range of interactions between these side chains and the transition state must be considered. Our new method starts from a ChemDraw-like two-dimensional representation of the transition state with hydrogen-bond donors, acceptors, and covalent interaction sites indicated, and all placements of side-chain functional groups that make the indicated interactions with the transition state, and are fully connected in a single hydrogen-bond network are systematically enumerated. The RosettaMatch method can then be used to identify realizations of these fully-connected active sites in protein scaffolds. The method generates many fully-connected active site solutions for a set of model reactions that are promising starting points for the design of fully-preorganized enzyme catalysts.
Project description:The side chains of R269 and N270 interact with the phosphodianion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) bound to glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH). The R269A, N270A, and R269A/N270A mutations of GPDH result in 9.1, 5.6, and 11.5 kcal/mol destabilization, respectively, of the transition state for GPDH-catalyzed reduction of DHAP by the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. The N270A mutation results in a 7.7 kcal/mol decrease in the intrinsic phosphodianion binding energy, which is larger than the 5.6 kcal/mol effect of the mutation on the stability of the transition state for reduction of DHAP; a 2.2 kcal/mol stabilization of the transition state for unactivated hydride transfer to the truncated substrate glycolaldehyde (GA); and a change in the effect of phosphite dianion on GPDH-catalyzed reduction of GA, from strongly activating to inhibiting. The N270A mutation breaks the network of hydrogen bonding side chains, Asn270, Thr264, Asn205, Lys204, Asp260, and Lys120, which connect the dianion activation and catalytic sites of GPDH. We propose that this disruption dramatically alters the performance of GPDH at these sites.
Project description:Catalytic antibody 14D9 catalyzes the enantioselective protonation of prochiral enol ethers with high enantioselectivity (>99% ee) and a practical turnover (k(cat) = 0.4 s(-1)), allowing for preparative scale applications. This antibody represents one of the rare examples of catalytic antibodies promoting acid-catalyzed processes. Antibody 14D9 was cloned and expressed as a chimeric Fab fragment in Escherichia coli. Crystal structures of Fab 14D9 as apo form and of its close analog 19C9 in complex with the transition state analog were determined at 2.8-A resolution. A series of site-directed mutagenesis experiments was carried out to probe the role of individual active-site amino acids. Proton transfer to carbon is catalyzed by a hydrogen bond network formed by the side chains of Asp(H101) and Tyr(L36) with a water molecule serving as a relay. The intermediate oxocarbonium ion formed during the protonation step is trapped by the same water molecule, resulting in an overall syn-addition of water to the enol ether's double bond. The enantioselectivity is caused by steric crowding at the active site, mainly because of the side chain of Phe(H84). The 20-fold lower activity of 19C9 compared with 14D9 was traced down to residue Thr(L46), which forms a nonproductive hydrogen bond with the catalytic residue Asp(H101), which competes with the critical Asp(H101)-Tyr(L36) hydrogen bond and therefore reduces catalytic efficiency. The catalytic activity of 19C9 was restored to that of 14D9 by using either site-directed mutagenesis (Thr(L46)Ala) or chain shuffling.
Project description:Kinetic analysis of decarboxylation catalyzed by S154A, Q215A, and S154A/Q215A mutant yeast orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylases with orotidine 5'-monophosphate (OMP) and with a truncated nucleoside substrate (EO) activated by phosphite dianion shows (1) the side chain of Ser-154 stabilizes the transition state through interactions with the pyrimidine rings of OMP or EO, (2) the side chain of Gln-215 interacts with the phosphodianion group of OMP or with phosphite dianion, and (3) the interloop hydrogen bond between the side chains of Ser-154 and Gln-215 orients the amide side chain of Gln-215 to interact with the phosphodianion group of OMP or with phosphite dianion.
Project description:The role of hither-to-fore unrecognized long-range hydrogen bonds between main-chain amide hydrogens and polar side chains on the stability of a well-studied (betaalpha)8, TIM barrel protein, the alpha subunit of tryptophan synthase (alphaTS), was probed by mutational analysis. The F19-D46 and I97-D124 hydrogen bonds link the N terminus of a beta-strand with the C terminus of the succeeding antiparallel alpha-helix, and the A103-D130 hydrogen bond links the N terminus of an alpha-helix with the C terminus of the succeeding antiparallel beta-strand, forming clamps for the respective betaalpha or alphabeta hairpins. The individual replacement of these aspartic acid side chains with alanine leads to what appear to be closely related partially folded structures with significantly reduced far-UV CD ellipticity and thermodynamic stability. Comparisons with the effects of eliminating another main-chain-side-chain hydrogen bond, G26-S33, and two electrostatic side-chain-side-chain hydrogen bonds, D38-H92 and D112-H146, all in the same N-terminal folding unit of alphaTS, demonstrated a unique role for the clamp interactions in stabilizing the native barrel conformation. Because neither the asparagine nor glutamic acid variant at position 46 can completely reproduce the spectroscopic, thermodynamic, or kinetic folding properties of aspartic acid, both size and charge are crucial to its unique role in the clamp hydrogen bond. Kinetic studies suggest that the three clamp hydrogen bonds act in concert to stabilize the transition state leading to the fully folded TIM barrel motif.
Project description:We report the results of a study of the catalytic role of a network of four interacting amino acid side chains at yeast orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase ( ScOMPDC), by the stepwise replacement of all four side chains. The H-bond, which links the -CH2OH side chain of S154 from the pyrimidine umbrella loop of ScOMPDC to the amide side chain of Q215 in the phosphodianion gripper loop, creates a protein cage for the substrate OMP. The role of this interaction in optimizing transition state stabilization from the dianion gripper side chains Q215, Y217, and R235 was probed by determining the kinetic parameter kcat/ Km for 16 enzyme variants, which include all combinations of single, double, triple, and quadruple S154A, Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations. The effects of consecutive Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations on ? G? for wild-type enzyme-catalyzed decarboxylation sum to 11.6 kcal/mol, but to only 7.6 kcal/mol when starting from S154A mutant. This shows that the S154A mutation results in a (11.6-7.6) = 4.0 kcal/mol decrease in transition state stabilization from interactions with Q215, Y217, and R235. Mutant cycles show that ca. 2 kcal/mol of this 4 kcal/mol effect is from the direct interaction between the S154 and Q215 side chains and that ca. 2 kcal/mol is from a tightening in the stabilizing interactions of the Y217 and R235 side chains. The sum of the effects of individual A154S, A215Q, F217Y and A235R substitutions at the quadruple mutant of ScOMPDC to give the corresponding triple mutants, 5.6 kcal/mol, is much smaller than 16.0 kcal/mol, the sum of the effects of the related four substitutions in wild-type ScOMPDC to give the respective single mutants. The small effect of substitutions at the quadruple mutant is consistent with a large entropic cost to holding the flexible loops of ScOMPDC in the active closed conformation.
Project description:Bombyx mori-derived silk fibroin (SF) is a well-characterized protein employed in numerous biomedical applications. Structurally, SF consists of a heavy chain (HC) and a light chain (LC), connected via a single disulfide bond. The HC sequence is organized into 12 crystalline domains interspersed with amorphous regions that can transition between random coil/alpha helix and beta-sheet configurations, giving silk its hallmark properties. SF has been reported to have adhesive properties and shows promise for development of medical adhesives; however, the mechanism of these interactions and the interplay between SF's structure and adhesion is not understood. In this context, the effects of physical parameters (i.e., concentration, temperature, pH, ionic strength) and protein structural changes on adhesion were investigated in this study. Our results suggest that amino acid side chains that have functionalities capable of coordinate (dative) bond or hydrogen bond formation (such as those of serine and tyrosine), might be important determinants in SF's adhesion to a given substrate. Additionally, the data suggest that fibroin amino acids involved in beta-sheet formation are also important in the protein's adhesion to substrates.
Project description:The crystal structures of N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) in the arginine biosynthetic pathway of Neisseria gonorrhoeae complexed with acetyl-CoA and with CoA plus N-acetylglutamate have been determined at 2.5- and 2.6-A resolution, respectively. The monomer consists of two separately folded domains, an amino acid kinase (AAK) domain and an N-acetyltransferase (NAT) domain connected through a 10-A linker. The monomers assemble into a hexameric ring that consists of a trimer of dimers with 32-point symmetry, inner and outer ring diameters of 20 and 100A, respectively, and a height of 110A(.) Each AAK domain interacts with the cognate domains of two adjacent monomers across two 2-fold symmetry axes and with the NAT domain from a second monomer of the adjacent dimer in the ring. The catalytic sites are located within the NAT domains. Three active site residues, Arg316, Arg425, and Ser427, anchor N-acetylglutamate in a position at the active site to form hydrogen bond interactions to the main chain nitrogen atoms of Cys356 and Leu314, and hydrophobic interactions to the side chains of Leu313 and Leu314. The mode of binding of acetyl-CoA and CoA is similar to other NAT family proteins. The AAK domain, although catalytically inactive, appears to bind arginine. This is the first reported crystal structure of any NAGS, and it provides insights into the catalytic function and arginine regulation of NAGS enzymes.
Project description:FXYD2 is a membrane protein responsible for regulating the function of the Na,K-ATPase in mammalian kidney epithelial cells. Here we report the structure of FXYD2b, one of two splice variants of the protein, determined by NMR spectroscopy in detergent micelles. Solid-state NMR characterization of the protein embedded in phospholipid bilayers indicates that several arginine side chains may be involved in hydrogen bond interactions with the phospholipid polar head groups. The structure and the NMR data suggest that FXYD2b could regulate the Na,K-ATPase by modulating the effective membrane surface electrostatics near the ion binding sites of the pump.
Project description:The N-terminal domain of L9 (NTL9) is a 56-residue mixed ?-? protein that lacks disulfides, does not bind cofactors, and folds reversibly. NTL9 has been widely used as a model system for experimental and computational studies of protein folding and for investigations of the unfolded state. The role of side-chain interactions in the folding of NTL9 is probed by mutational analysis. ?-values, which represent the ratio of the change in the log of the folding rate upon mutation to the change in the log of the equilibrium constant for folding, are reported for 25 point mutations and 15 double mutants. All ?-values are small, with an average over all sites probed of only 0.19 and a largest value of 0.4. The effect of modulating unfolded-state interactions is studied by measuring ?-values in second- site mutants and under solvent conditions that perturb unfolded-state energetics in a defined way. Neither of these alterations significantly affects the distribution of ?-values. The results, combined with those of earlier studies that probe the role of hydrogen-bond formation in folding and the burial of surface area, reveal that the transition state for folding contains extensive backbone structure and buries a significant fraction of hydrophobic surface area, but lacks well developed side-chain-side-chain interactions. The folding transition state for NTL9 does not contain a specific "nucleus" consisting of a few key residues; rather, it involves extensive backbone hydrogen bonding and partially formed structure delocalized over almost the entire domain. The potential generality of these observations is discussed.
Project description:Enzymes are classically proposed to accelerate reactions by binding substrates within active-site environments that are structurally preorganized to optimize binding interactions with reaction transition states rather than ground states. This is a remarkably formidable task considering the limited 0.1-1 A scale of most substrate rearrangements. The flexibility of active-site functional groups along the coordinate of substrate rearrangement, the distance scale on which enzymes can distinguish structural rearrangement, and the energetic significance of discrimination on that scale remain open questions that are fundamental to a basic physical understanding of enzyme active sites and catalysis. We bring together 1.2-1.5 A resolution X-ray crystallography, (1)H and (19)F NMR spectroscopy, quantum mechanical calculations, and transition-state analogue binding measurements to test the distance scale on which noncovalent forces can constrain the structural relaxation or translation of side chains and ligands along a specific coordinate and the energetic consequences of such geometric constraints within the active site of bacterial ketosteroid isomerase (KSI). Our results strongly suggest that packing and binding interactions within the KSI active site can constrain local side-chain reorientation and prevent hydrogen bond shortening by 0.1 A or less. Further, this constraint has substantial energetic effects on ligand binding and stabilization of negative charge within the oxyanion hole. These results provide evidence that subtle geometric effects, indistinguishable in most X-ray crystallographic structures, can have significant energetic consequences and highlight the importance of using synergistic experimental approaches to dissect enzyme function.