Isolation, genetic analysis of the first Akabane virus from goat in China.
ABSTRACT: Akabane virus (AKAV) is an important insect-borne virus belonging to the genus Orthobunyavirus, the Peribunyaviridae family. An AKAV defined as GXDH 01 here, was isolated for the first time from blood from a sentinel goat in China in 2016, and its full-length open reading frames (ORFs) were sequenced in this study. Sequence analysis suggested that the isolate GXDH 01 probably had undergone a reassortment incident and acquired L segments from other strain originating from an attenuated vaccine, such as OBE-1. This study aims to provide more understanding as to the origin and epidemiology of AKAV in China.
Project description:Akabane virus (AKAV) (genus Orthobunyavirus, family Peribunyaviridae) is an arthropod-borne virus that causes congenital abnormalities in ruminants. Here, we report the complete genome sequences of two AKAV strains causing nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis in cattle by postnatal infection in Japan.
Project description:We generated a recombinant Akabane virus (AKAV) expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP-AKAV) by using reverse genetics. We artificially constructed an ambisense AKAV S genome encoding N/NSs on the negative-sense strand, and eGFP on the positive-sense strand with an intergenic region (IGR) derived from the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) S genome. The recombinant virus exhibited eGFP fluorescence and had a cytopathic effect in cell cultures, even after several passages. These results indicate that the gene encoding eGFP in the ambisense RNA could be stably maintained. Transcription of N/NSs and eGFP mRNAs of eGFP-AKAV was terminated within the IGR. The mechanism responsible for this appears to be different from that in RVFV, where the termination sites for N and NSs are determined by a defined signal sequence. We inoculated suckling mice intraperitoneally with eGFP-AKAV, which resulted in neurological signs and lethality equivalent to those seen for the parent AKAV. Fluorescence from eGFP in frozen brain slices from the eGFP-AKAV-infected mice was localized to the cerebellum, pons, and medulla oblongata. Our approach to producing a fluorescent virus, using an ambisense genome, helped obtain eGFP-AKAV, a fluorescent bunyavirus whose viral genes are intact and which can be easily visualized.AKAV is the etiological agent of arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in ruminants, which causes considerable economic loss to the livestock industry. We successfully generated a recombinant enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged AKAV containing an artificial ambisense S genome. This virus could become a useful tool for analyzing AKAV pathogenesis in host animals. In addition, our approach of using an ambisense genome to generate an orthobunyavirus stably expressing a foreign gene could contribute to establishing alternative vaccine strategies, such as bivalent vaccine virus constructs, for veterinary use against infectious diseases.
Project description:Akabane virus (AKAV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) are members of the genus Orthobunyavirus, which are transmitted by arthropod vectors with a broad cellular tropism in vitro as well as in vivo Both AKAV and SBV cause arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in ruminants. The main cellular receptor and attachment factor for entry of these orthobunyaviruses are unknown. Here, we found that AKAV and SBV infections were inhibited by the addition of heparin or enzymatic removal of cell surface heparan sulfates. To confirm this finding, we prepared heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG)-knockout (KO) cells by using a clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 system and measured the quantities of binding of these viruses to cell surfaces. We observed a substantial reduction in AKAV and SBV binding to cells, limiting the infections by these viruses. These data demonstrate that HSPGs are important cellular attachment factors for AKAV and SBV, at least in vitro, to promote virus replication in susceptible cells.IMPORTANCE AKAV and SBV are the etiological agents of arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in ruminants, which causes considerable economic losses in the livestock industry. Here, we identified heparan sulfate proteoglycan as a major cellular attachment factor for the entry of AKAV and SBV. Moreover, we found that heparin is a strong inhibitor of AKAV and SBV infections. Revealing the molecular mechanisms of virus-host interactions is critical in order to understand virus biology and develop novel live attenuated vaccines.
Project description:Schmallenberg virus (SBV), Akabane virus (AKAV) and Aino virus (AINV) are members of the Simbu serogroup within the genus Orthobunyavirus, family Bunyaviridae, which can cause reproductive disorders including abortion, stillbirth and congenital malformation in ruminants. Because, the clinical signs are similar, confirmatory diagnosis requires viral detection to differentiate infection between these three viruses.In this study, a one-step multiplex reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (one-step mRT-qPCR) was developed for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of SBV, AKAV and AINV.The detection limit of the one-step mRT-qPCR for SBV, AKAV and AINV were 2.4 copies (10 (0.6) TCID 50/ml), 96.2 copies (10 (1.5) TCID 50/ml) and 52.3 copies (10 (1.2) TCID 50/ml), respectively. Various field samples such as bovine serum, bovine whole blood, bovine brain, goat serum and Culicoides were analyzed using the one-step mRT-qPCR and compared with previously published RT-qPCRs. The test results of the field samples were identical for the one-step mRT-qPCR and RT-qPCRs, which showed all samples to be negative for SBV, AKAV and AINV, except for one bovine brain sample (1/123) that was positive for AKAV.The one-step mRT-qPCR allows for the simultaneous detection of three viral pathogens (SBV, AKAV and AINV) that cause reproductive failure.
Project description:We isolated an arbovirus from bovine blood in Indonesia. The arbovirus was obtained from the plasma of a cow showing no clinical symptoms in West Java in February 2014, and was identified as Akabane virus (AKAV) by AKAV-specific RT-PCR and subsequent sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial S segment indicated the AKAV isolate, WJ-1SA/P/2014, was most closely related with two isolates from Israel and Turkey reported in 2001 and 2015, respectively, and that WJ-1SA/P/2014 isolate belongs to AKAV genogroup Ib. This is the first isolation of AKAV from Indonesia.
Project description:A surveillance of Culicoides biting midges with light suction traps was conducted in the northern region of Honshu, main island of Japan, during the summers and autumns of 2009 and 2010. A total of 106 trap collections across 37 cattle farms were investigated for the structure and distribution of Culicoides species. Forty-thousand and one hundred forty-nine specimens of Culicoides biting midges were identified at the species level, and ?19 species were included in the specimens. Culicoides oxystoma, which is a known major vector of Akabane virus (AKAV), appeared not to have expanded in northern Honshu during the surveillance. Of the potential AKAV vectors suggested by a previous laboratory experiment, C. tainanus and C. punctatus widely infested cowsheds across northern Honshu. The AKAV circulation was confirmed by serological surveillance of sentinel cattle in northern Honshu during the summer and autumn of 2010 and, consequently, >200 calves affected by the virus were identified as of spring 2011. Our surveillance demonstrated that C. tainanus and C. punctatus were widely spread and often dominated at cattle farms in/around the seroconverted regions, and our results thus suggest that these species played a critical role in the AKAV transmission in 2010. Because the distribution ranges of C. tainanus and C. punctatus cover almost all of mainland Japan, a potential risk of AKAV transmission might be expected even in areas outside the range of C. oxystoma.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Akabane virus is a member of the genus Orthobunyavirus in the family Bunyaviridae. It is transmitted by hematophagous arthropod vectors such as Culicoides biting midges and is widely distributed in temperate to tropical regions of the world. The virus is well known as a teratogenic pathogen which causes abortions, stillbirths, premature births and congenital abnormalities with arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome in cattle, sheep and goats. On the other hand, it is reported that the virus rarely induces encephalomyelitis in cattle by postnatal infection. A first large-scale epidemic of Akabane viral encephalomyelitis in cattle occurred in the southern part of Japan from summer to autumn in 2006. The aim of this study is to define the epidemiological, pathological and virological properties of the disease. RESULTS: Nonsuppurative encephalomyelitis was observed in cattle that showed neurological symptoms such as astasia, ataxia, opisthotonus and hypersensitivity in beef and dairy farms by histopathological analysis. Akabane viral antigen and genome were consistently detected from the central nervous system of these animals, and the virus was isolated not only from them but also from the blood samples of clinically healthy calves in the epidemic area. The isolates were classified into genogroup I a containing the Iriki strain, which caused encephalitis of calves almost twenty years ago in Japan. Most of the affected cattle possessed the neutralizing antibody against Akabane virus. Seroconversion of the cohabitated and sentinel cattle in the epidemic area was also confirmed during an outbreak of the disease. CONCLUSION: The ecological and epidemiological data we have obtained so far demonstrated that the Akabane virus is not endemic in Japan. No evidence of Akabane virus circulation was observed in 2005 through nation-wide serological surveillance, suggesting that a new strain belonging to genogroup I a invaded southern Japan from overseas in the summer of 2006 and caused an unprecedented epizootic of encephalomyelitis mainly in susceptible calves. It will be necessary to reconsider the vaccine strategy to control the disease effectually.
Project description:Peaton virus (PEAV; family Peribunyaviridae, genus Orthobunyavirus) appears to be capable of producing congenital malformations in ruminants; however, its pathogenicity remains unknown given its relatively low incidence. We evaluated the relationship between congenital abnormalities of calves and PEAV infection by serologic, epidemiologic, pathologic, and virologic investigations using specimens from 31 malformed calves in the years 1996-2016 in Japan. Antibody testing was carried out for known teratogenic viruses, including Akabane, Aino, Chuzan, and bovine viral diarrhea viruses, in the precolostral sera of these abnormal calves, but all results were negative. However, all 31 malformed calves were positive for antibodies against PEAV. A PEAV-specific gene was amplified from central nervous system tissues from a stillborn calf delivered in April 2007, and its nucleotide sequence was identical with that of PEAV isolated from healthy sentinel cattle in September 2006. These findings indicate that PEAV can cause bovine congenital anomalies.
Project description:The genus Orthobunyavirus (family Peribunyaviridae, order Bunyavirales) comprises over 170 named mosquito- and midge-borne viruses, several of which cause severe disease in animals or humans. Their three-segmented genomes enable reassortment with related viruses, which may result in novel viruses with altered host or tissue tropism and virulence. One such reassortant, Schmallenberg virus (SBV), emerged in north-western Europe in 2011. Shuni virus (SHUV) is an orthobunyavirus related to SBV that is associated with neurological disease in horses in southern Africa and recently caused an outbreak manifesting with neurological disease and birth defects among ruminants in Israel. The zoonotic potential of SHUV was recently underscored by its association with neurological disease in humans. We here report a reverse genetics system for SHUV and provide first evidence that the non-structural (NSs) protein of SHUV functions as an antagonist of host innate immune responses. We furthermore report the rescue of a reassortant containing the L and S segments of SBV and the M segment of SHUV. This novel reverse genetics system can now be used to study SHUV virulence and tropism, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that drive reassortment events.
Project description:Group C serogroup includes members of the Orthobunyavirus genus (family Peribunyaviridae) and comprises 15 arboviruses that can be associated with febrile illness in humans. Although previous studies described the genome characterization of Group C orthobunyavirus, there is a gap in genomic information about the other viruses in this group. Therefore, in this study, complete genomes of members of Group C serogroup were sequenced or re-sequenced and used for genetic characterization, as well as to understand their phylogenetic and evolutionary aspects. Thus, our study reported the genomes of three new members in Group C virus (Apeu strain BeAn848, Itaqui strain BeAn12797 and Nepuyo strain BeAn10709), as well as re-sequencing of original strains of five members: Caraparu (strain BeAn3994), Madrid (strain BT4075), Murucutu (strain BeAn974), Oriboca (strain BeAn17), and Marituba (strain BeAn15). These viruses presented a typical genomic organization related to members of the Orthobunyavirus genus. Interestingly, all viruses of this serogroup showed an open reading frame (ORF) that encodes the putative nonstructural NSs protein that precedes the nucleoprotein ORF, an unprecedented fact in Group C virus. Also, we confirmed the presence of natural reassortment events. This study expands the genomic information of Group C viruses, as well as revalidates the genomic organization of viruses that were previously reported.