Impact of Nitrogen Fertilizer Levels on Metabolite Profiling of the Lycium barbarum L. Fruit.
ABSTRACT: The yield and quality of goji (Lycium barbarum L.) fruit are heavily dependent on fertilizer, especially the availability of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (N, P, and K, respectively). In this study, we performed a metabolomic analysis of the response of goji berry to nitrogen fertilizer levels using an Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) method. There was no significant difference in the fruit yield or the commodity grade between N0 (42.5 g/plant), N1 (85 g/plant), and N2 (127.5 g/plant). The primary nutrients of the goji berry changed with an increasing nitrogen fertilization. Comparative metabolomic profiling of three nitrogen levels resulted in the identification of 612 metabolites, including amino acids, flavonoids, carbohydrates, organic acids, and lipids/alcohols, among others, of which 53 metabolites (lipids, fatty acids, organic acids, and phenolamides) demonstrated significant changes. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of the relationship between yield and quality of goji berry and nitrogen fertilizer.
Project description:Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) is a highly medicinal value tree species. The yield and nutritional contents of goji fruit are significant affected by fertilizer level. In this study, we analyzed the yield and nutritional contents change of goji fruit, which planted in pot (vermiculite:perlite, 1:2, v:v) in growth chamber under P0 (32.5 g/per tree), P1 (65 g/per tree), and P2 (97.5 g/per tree). Meanwhile, we utilized an integrated Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-MS/MS) to analysis of the response of the metabolome in goji fruit to phosphorus level. The results show that the yield of goji fruits had strongly negative correlation with phosphorus level, especially in the third harvest time. The amino acids, flavonoids, polysaccharides, and betaine contents of goji fruits in the first harvest time had obvious correlated with the level of phosphorus level. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment results indicated that the impact of different phosphorus fertilizer levels on each group mainly involved the biosynthesis of flavonoids. The results provide new insights into the theoretical basis of the relationship between the nutritional contents of goji fruits and phosphorus fertilizer level.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Goji (Lycium spp., 2n?=?24) is a fruit bearing woody plant popular as a superfood for extensive medicinal and nutritional advantages. Fruit size associated attributes are important for evaluating small-fruited goji berry and plant architecture. The domestication traits are regulated quantitatively in crop plants but few studies have attempted on genomic regions corresponding to fruit traits. RESULTS:In this study, we established high-resolution map using specific locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing for de novo SNPs detection based on 305 F1 individuals derived from L. chinense and L. barbarum and performed quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of fruit size related traits in goji berry. The genetic map contained 3495 SLAF markers on 12 LGs, spanning 1649.03?cM with 0.47?cM average interval. Female and male parents and F1 individuals` sequencing depth was 111.85-fold and 168.72-fold and 35.80-fold, respectively. The phenotype data were collected for 2 successive years (2018-2019); however, two-year mean data were combined in an extra year (1819). Total 117 QTLs were detected corresponding to multiple traits, of which 78 QTLs in 2 individual years and 36 QTLs in extra year. Six Promising QTLs (qFW10-6.1, qFL10-2.1, qLL10-2.1, qLD10-2.1, qLD12-4.1, qLA10-2.1) were discovered influencing fruit weight, fruit length and leaf related attributes covering an interval ranged from 27.32-71.59?cM on LG10 with peak LOD of 10.48 and 14.6% PVE. Three QTLs targeting fruit sweetness (qFS3-1, qFS5-2) and fruit firmness (qFF10-1) were also identified. Strikingly, various traits QTLs were overlapped on LG10, in particular, qFL10-2.1 was co-located with qLL10-2.1, qLD10-2.1 and qLA10-2.1 among stable QTLs, harbored tightly linked markers, while qLL10-1 was one major QTL with 14.21 highest LOD and 19.3% variance. As LG10 harbored important traits QTLs, we might speculate that it could be hotspot region regulating fruit size and plant architectures. CONCLUSIONS:This report highlights the extremely saturated linkage map using SLAF-seq and novel loci contributing fruit size-related attributes in goji berry. Our results will shed light on domestication traits and further strengthen molecular and genetic underpinnings of goji berry; moreover, these findings would better facilitate to assemble the reference genome, determining potential candidate genes and marker-assisted breeding.
Project description:Goji fruit (Lycium barbarum L.) has been identified as a polyphenolic compound plant source of noted richness. It also contains polysaccharides, carotenoids, vitamins and minerals, fatty and organic acids. The purpose of the presented research was to produce innovative instant corn gruels with various dry goji berry contents (1, 3 and 5%), to determine the level of included polyphenolic compounds (including individual free phenolic acids) and to assess the antioxidant properties of these functional-food products. A further objective was to identify the optimum value of one of the most important production parameter, the rotational speed of the extruder's screw during gruel processing. The undertaken chromatographic analysis (LC-ESI-MS/MS) showed a wide variety of available phenolic acids. In the samples with 5% addition of fruit, eight phenolic acids were detected, whereas in the corn gruel without additives, only five were noted. The antioxidant activity, the content of free phenolic acids and the sum of polyphenols increased with increase of the functional additive. For all goji content, screw speeds of 100 and 120 rpm rather than 80 rpm resulted in higher polyphenol amounts and greater Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, as well as higher ability to scavenge DPPH.
Project description:The composition and content of sugar play a pivotal role in goji berry (<i>Lycium barbarum</i> L.) fruits, determining fruit quality. Long-term exposure of goji berry to elevated CO<sub>2</sub> (eCO<sub>2</sub>) was frequently demonstrated to reduce sugar content and secondary metabolites. In order to understand the regulatory mechanisms and improve the quality of fruit in the changing climate, it is essential to characterize sugar metabolism genes that respond to eCO<sub>2</sub>. The objectives of this study were to clone full-length cDNA of three sugar metabolism genes-<i>LBGAE</i> (<i>Lycium barbarum</i> UDP-glucuronate 4-epimerase), <i>LBGALA</i> (<i>Lycium barbarum</i> alpha-galactosidase), and <i>LBMS</i> (<i>Lycium barbarum</i> malate synthase)-that were previously identified responding to eCO<sub>2</sub>, and to analyze sequence characteristics and expression regulation patterns. Sugar metabolism enzymes regulated by these genes were also estimated along with various carbohydrates from goji berry fruits grown under ambient (400 ?mol mol<sup>-1</sup>) and elevated (700 ?mol mol<sup>-1</sup>) CO<sub>2</sub> for 90 and 120 days. Homology-based sequence analysis revealed that the protein-contained functional domains are similar to sugar transport regulation and had a high sequence homology with other Solanaceae species. The sucrose metabolism-related enzyme's activity varied significantly from ambient to eCO<sub>2</sub> in 90-day and 120-day samples along with sugars. This study provides fundamental information on sugar metabolism genes to eCO<sub>2</sub> in goji berry to enhance fruit quality to climate change.
Project description:A greenhouse pot test was conducted to study the impacts of replacing mineral fertilizer with organic fertilizers for one full growing period on soil fertility, tomato yield and quality using soils with different tomato planting history. Four types of fertilization regimes were compared: (1) conventional fertilizer with urea, (2) chicken manure compost, (3) vermicompost, and (4) no fertilizer. The effects on plant growth, yield and fruit quality and soil properties (including microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, [Formula: see text]-N, [Formula: see text]-N, soil water-soluble organic carbon, soil pH and electrical conductivity) were investigated in samples collected from the experimental soils at different tomato growth stages. The main results showed that: (1) vermicompost and chicken manure compost more effectively promoted plant growth, including stem diameter and plant height compared with other fertilizer treatments, in all three types of soil; (2) vermicompost improved fruit quality in each type of soil, and increased the sugar/acid ratio, and decreased nitrate concentration in fresh fruit compared with the CK treatment; (3) vermicompost led to greater improvements in fruit yield (74%), vitamin C (47%), and soluble sugar (71%) in soils with no tomato planting history compared with those in soils with long tomato planting history; and (4) vermicompost led to greater improvements in soil quality than chicken manure compost, including higher pH (averaged 7.37 vs. averaged 7.23) and lower soil electrical conductivity (averaged 204.1 vs. averaged 234.6 ?S/cm) at the end of experiment in each type of soil. We conclude that vermicompost can be recommended as a fertilizer to improve tomato fruit quality and yield and soil quality, particularly for soils with no tomato planting history.
Project description:Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and water are four crucial factors that have significant effects on strawberry yield and fruit quality. We used a 11 that involved 36 treatments with five levels of each of the four variables (N, P, and K fertilizers and water) to optimize fertilization and water combination for high yield and quality. Moreover, we used the SSC/TA ratio (the ratio of soluble solid content to titratable acid) as index of quality. Results showed that N fertilizer was the most important factor, followed by water and P fertilizer, and the N fertilizer had significant effect on yield and SSC/TA ratio. By contrast, the K fertilizer had significant effect only on yield. N×K fertilizer interacted significantly on yield, whereas the other interactions among the four factors had no significant effects on yield or SSC/TA ratio. The effects of the four factors on yield and SSC/TA ratio were ranked as N fertilizer > water > K fertilizer > P fertilizer and N fertilizer > P fertilizer > water > K fertilizer, respectively. The yield and SSC/TA ratio increased when NPK fertilizer and water increased, but then decreased when excessive NPK fertilizer and water were applied. The optimal fertilizer and water combination were 22.28-24.61 g plant-1 Ca (NO3)2·4H2O, 1.75-2.03 g plant-1 NaH2PO4, 12.41-13.91 g plant-1 K2SO4, and 12.00-13.05 L water plant-1 for yields of more than 110 g plant-1 and optimal SSC/TA ratio of 8.5-14.
Project description:Leaf surface fertilization with liquid fertilizer produced from amino acids constitutes a potentially important source of nitrogen and is important for plant production. However, few reports have focused on the plant growth promotion by novel liquid fertilizers created by new amino acid resources, let alone the influence on leaf microbiota. In this study, the effects of liquid fertilizer, created by amino acids hydrolyzed from animal hairs with or without the PGPR strain Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9, on crop yield and leaf microbiota were investigated. The results showed that leaves sprayed with amino acid liquid fertilizer (AA) and liquid biological fertilizer (AA9) persistently increased cowpea yields compared to the control amended with chemical fertilizer (CF). Fertilization with amino acid fertilizer showed no significant difference in microbial composition compared with the CF treatment; however, the introduction of functional microbes altered the microbial composition. Pearson correlation analysis, VPA analysis and SEM models all revealed that the amino acids liquid fertilizer application, but not the functional strain or the altered microbiota, performed as the direct driver attributing to yield enhancement. We conclude that leaf fertilization with a novel amino acid liquid fertilizer can greatly enhance the crop yield and that the addition of beneficial microbes may perform the role in further altering the composition of leaf microbiota.
Project description:Camellia oleifera Abel (C. oleifera) absorb nutrients from surrounding soils and its yield is highly influenced by these nutrients and by fertilizer application. Thus, the soil nutrients play a central role in C. oleifera production. This study investigated the effects of biogas slurry applications on soil nutrients and economic traits of C. oleifera fruits. Five different amounts of biogas slurry (0, 10, 20, 30, or 40 kg/plant/year, three applications per year) were used as fertilizer for C. oleifera plants in 2015 and 2016. The nutrients of rhizosphere soil and the economic traits, including fruit yield, seed rate, and oil yield of C. oleifera fruit, were measured each year. The results showed that fertilization with biogas slurry significantly increased soil organic matter, available nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) both in 2015 and 2016. Increases in soil available N, P, and K were maximal in the highest slurry application group followed by the second highest application group. The oil yield correlated with the content of soil available P in both 2015 and 2016, and with soil organic matter in 2015. Fertilization with biogas slurry decreased the saturated fatty acid content in fruit but had no effect on the unsaturated fatty acid content. In conclusion, fertilization with biogas slurry increased rhizosphere soil nutrients and fruit economic traits of C. oleifera and rates of at least30 kg/plant/year had the most positive effects. This study expands the knowledge of fertilization with biogas slurry in C. oleifera production.
Project description:Plant density and applications of nitrogen fertilizer have been recognized as the main crop management techniques to improve maize yield. The data showed effect of different nitrogen fertilizer rates and plant density on grain yield and yield components of water efficient maize. A Field experiment was conducted during the 2015/16 and 2016/17 planting seasons in two (Taung and Mafikeng) localities of North-West Province, South Africa to evaluate the influence of N fertilizer rates and plant density on grain yield and yield components of Water Efficient Maize (WEMA) variety. The experiment was laid out in split plot fitted into a randomized complete block design with four replicates in each site. The main plot effect was three plant densities (33333, 44444 and 55555 plants/ha) and nitrogen rates (0, 60, 120, 180 and 240 kg N ha-1) constituted the subplot. The parameters measured were grain yield and grain yield components. Data were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) of GenStat 11th edition. Differences in the treatment means were tested by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at 5% level of probability. Regression and correlation analyses were used to determine relationship between grain yield, yield components and nitrogen rates.
Project description:The aim of this study was to compare the effects of four fertilizer applications-control (C), chemical fertilizer (F), compost (O), and in situ earthworm breeding (E)-on the growth, quality and yield of papaya (Carica papaya L.). In this study, 5 g plant-1 urea (CH4N2O, %N = 46.3%) and 100 g plant-1 microelement fertilizer was applied to each treatment. The fertilizer applications of these four treatments are different from each other. The results showed that the E treatment had the highest growth parameters over the whole growth period. At 127 days after transplantation, the order of plant heights from greatest to smallest was E > F > O > C, and the stem diameters were E > F > O > C, with significant differences between all treatments. Soluble-solid, sugar, vitamin C, and protein content significantly increased in the E treatment. In addition, the total acid and the electrical conductivity of the fruit significantly decreased in the E treatment. Fruit firmness clearly increased in the O treatment, and decreased in the F treatment. The fresh individual fruit weights, fruit numbers, and total yields were greatly improved in the F and E treatments, and the total yield of the E treatment was higher than that in the F treatment. In conclusion, the in situ earthworm breeding treatment performed better than conventional compost and chemical fertilizer treatments. Furthermore, in situ earthworm breeding may be a potential organic fertilizer application in orchards because it not only improves the fruit quality and yield but also reduces the amount of organic wastes from agriculture as a result of the activities of earthworms.