Novel Hit Compounds as Putative Antifungals: The Case of Aspergillus fumigatus.
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of invasive fungal infections has been dramatically increased as the size of the immunocompromised population worldwide has grown. Aspergillus fumigatus is characterized as one of the most widespread and ubiquitous fungal pathogens. Among antifungal drugs, azoles have been the most widely used category for the treatment of fungal infections. However, increasingly, azole-resistant strains constitute a major problem to be faced. Towards this direction, our study focused on the identification of compounds bearing novel structural motifs which may evolve as a new class of antifungals. To fulfil this scope, a combination of in silico techniques and in vitro assays were implemented. Specifically, a ligand-based pharmacophore model was created and served as a 3D search query to screen the ZINC chemical database. Additionally, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations were used to improve the reliability and accuracy of virtual screening results. In total, eight compounds, bearing completely different chemical scaffolds from the commercially available azoles, were proposed and their antifungal activity was evaluated using in vitro assays. Results indicated that all tested compounds exhibit antifungal activity, especially compounds 1, 2, and 4, which presented the most promising minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values and, therefore, could be subjected to further hit to lead optimization.
Project description:Azoles are among the most successful classes of antifungals. They act by inhibiting ?-14 lanosterol demethylase in the ergosterol biosynthesis pathway. Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) occurs in about 90% of HIV-infected individuals, and 4 to 5% are refractory to current therapies, including azoles, due to the formation of resistant biofilms produced in the course of OPC. We reasoned that compounds affecting a different target may potentiate azoles to produce increased killing and an antibiofilm therapeutic. 2-Adamantanamine (AC17) was identified in a screen for compounds potentiating the action of miconazole against biofilms of Candida albicans. AC17, a close structural analog to the antiviral amantadine, did not affect the viability of C. albicans but caused the normally fungistatic azoles to become fungicidal. Transcriptome analysis of cells treated with AC17 revealed that the ergosterol and filamentation pathways were affected. Indeed, cells exposed to AC17 had decreased ergosterol contents and were unable to invade agar. In vivo, the combination of AC17 and fluconazole produced a significant reduction in fungal tissue burden in a guinea pig model of cutaneous candidiasis, while each treatment alone did not have a significant effect. The combination of fluconazole and AC17 also showed improved efficacy (P value of 0.018) compared to fluconazole alone when fungal lesions were evaluated. AC17 is a promising lead in the search for more effective antifungal therapeutics.
Project description:BACKGROUND:To evaluate the antimicrobial and microbicidel activity of B. radicata fermentation broth, the broth was purified by DEAE-cellulose and sephadex LC-20 column. The compounds were submitted to spectral analyses (HPLC, FT-IR, 1D and 2D NMR etc.). RESULTS:The purified compounds were identified as the Griseococcin(s) which were naphthoquinone derivatives, the Chemical formula and MW of Griseococcin (1) was determined as C37O10H43N and 661?Da. only Griseococcin (1) has good antimicrobial activity among the Griseococcin(s). The zone of inhibition (ZOI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) or minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of Griseococcin (1) were used to investigate the antimicrobial activity. Antifungal activity of Griseococcin (1) was significant, especially for main pathogenic fungus Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, MFC/MIC of Griseococcin (1) was 1, while MFC/MIC of postive control was greater than 4, the fungicidal effect of Griseococcin (1) was better than that of positive control. CONCLUSIONS:In this paper, the secondary metabolite compound Griseococcin (1) from B. radicata was purified. The purified compound can restrain main pathogens (T. rubrum and T. mentagrophytes) leading to tinea pedis. The antifungal activity of Griseococcin (1) was similar to that of the positive control and the fungicidal effect of Griseococcin (1) was better than that of positive control, it might be suitable for pharmaceutical industries.
Project description:Fungal spoilage is one of the main reasons of economic losses in the food industry, especially in the wine sector. Consequently, the search for safer and new preservation techniques has gained importance in recent years. The objective of this study was to investigate the antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic activity from 28 microorganisms (MO) isolated from red grape. The antifungal activity of a cell free supernatant of fermented medium by the isolated MO (CFS) was tested with the agar diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) assay. Additionally, different antifungal compounds from the CFS were identified and quantified (organic acids, phenolic compounds, and volatile organic compounds). Finally, the most active CFS were tested as red grape bio-preservative agents. Results evidenced that CFS fermented by the strain UTA 6 had the highest antifungal activity, above all isolates, and produced a wide pool of antifungal compounds. The use of UTA 6 CFS as bio-preservative agent showed a reduction of 0.4 and 0.6 log<sub>10</sub> spores per gram of fruit in grapes contaminated by <i>A. flavus</i> and <i>B. cinerea</i>, respectively. Moreover, UTA 6 CFS treatment reduced the occurrence of aflatoxin B<sub>1</sub> and fumonisin (B<sub>2</sub>, B<sub>3</sub>, and B<sub>4</sub>) production in grapes contaminated by 28-100%.
Project description:Fungal infections threaten human health, particularly in immune-compromised patients worldwide. Although there are a large number of antifungal agents available, the desired clinical attributes for the treatment of fungal infections have not yet been achieved. Azoles are the mainstay class of the clinically used antifungal agents. In the current study, the synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, and antifungal activity of certain new oximino ethers Va-n bearing imidazole nuclei are reported. The (E)-configuration of the imine double bond of the synthesized compounds Va-n has been confirmed via single crystal X-ray analysis of compound Vi as a representative example of this class of compounds. The molecular structure of compound Vi was crystallized in the monoclinic, P2?/c, a = 18.7879(14) Å, b = 5.8944(4) Å, c = 16.7621(12) Å, ? = 93.063(3)°, V = 1855.5(2) Å³, Z = 4. The in vitro antifungal activity of the synthesized compounds Va-n were evaluated using diameter of the inhibition zone (DIZ) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays against different fungal strains. Compound Ve manifested anti-Candida albicans activity with an MIC value of 0.050 µmol/mL, being almost equipotent with the reference antifungal drug fluconazole (FLC),while compounds Vi and Vn are the most active congeners against Candida parapsilosis, being equipotent and about twenty-three times more potent than FLC with an MIC value of 0.002 µmol/mL. The results of the current report might support the development of new potent and safer antifungal azoles.
Project description:Isougenol is a phytoconstituent found in several essential oils. Since many natural products are potent antimicrobials, the synthesis of hybrid molecules-combining the chemical skeleton of the phytochemical with synthetic groups-can generate substances with enhanced biological activity. Based on this, the objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal activity of isoeugenol and hybrid acetamides against Candida albicans isolated from the oral cavity. The methodologies used were the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), action on fungal micromorphology, interaction test with nystatin by the checkerboard method and molecular docking study with important enzymes in the maintenance of fungal viability. The synthetic molecules did not demonstrate significant antifungal activity in vitro. The isoeugenol MIC and MFC varied between 128 and 256 µg/mL, being the phytoconstituent able to interfere in the formation of blastoconid and chlamydoconid structures, important in the pathogenic process of the species. The molecular docking study revealed that isoeugenol is a potential inhibitor of the enzymes 14-?-demethylase and delta-14-sterol reductase, interfering in the fungal cell membrane biosynthesis. Thus, this research provides clearer expectations for future pharmacological studies with isoeugenol and derived molecules, aiming at its therapeutic application against infections caused by Candida spp.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Disruption of cellular antioxidation systems should be an effective method for control of fungal pathogens. Such disruption can be achieved with redox-active compounds. Natural phenolic compounds can serve as potent redox cyclers that inhibit microbial growth through destabilization of cellular redox homeostasis and/or antioxidation systems. The aim of this study was to identify benzaldehydes that disrupt the fungal antioxidation system. These compounds could then function as chemosensitizing agents in concert with conventional drugs or fungicides to improve antifungal efficacy.<h4>Methods</h4>Benzaldehydes were tested as natural antifungal agents against strains of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus, A. terreus and Penicillium expansum, fungi that are causative agents of human invasive aspergillosis and/or are mycotoxigenic. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was also used as a model system for identifying gene targets of benzaldehydes. The efficacy of screened compounds as effective chemosensitizers or as antifungal agents in formulations was tested with methods outlined by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).<h4>Results</h4>Several benzaldehydes are identified having potent antifungal activity. Structure-activity analysis reveals that antifungal activity increases by the presence of an ortho-hydroxyl group in the aromatic ring. Use of deletion mutants in the oxidative stress-response pathway of S. cerevisiae (sod1?, sod2?, glr1?) and two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) mutants of A. fumigatus (sakA?, mpkC?), indicates antifungal activity of the benzaldehydes is through disruption of cellular antioxidation. Certain benzaldehydes, in combination with phenylpyrroles, overcome tolerance of A. fumigatus MAPK mutants to this agent and/or increase sensitivity of fungal pathogens to mitochondrial respiration inhibitory agents. Synergistic chemosensitization greatly lowers minimum inhibitory (MIC) or fungicidal (MFC) concentrations. Effective inhibition of fungal growth can also be achieved using combinations of these benzaldehydes.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Natural benzaldehydes targeting cellular antioxidation components of fungi, such as superoxide dismutases, glutathione reductase, etc., effectively inhibit fungal growth. They possess antifungal or chemosensitizing capacity to enhance efficacy of conventional antifungal agents. Chemosensitization can reduce costs, abate resistance, and alleviate negative side effects associated with current antifungal treatments.
Project description:A series of Schiff bases (3.a-f) bearing benzimidazole moiety was successfully synthesized in ethanol by refluxing Oct-2-ynoic acid (1,3-dihydrobenzimidazole-2-ylidene)amide with substituted amines. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), ultra violet light (UV-VIS), elemental analysis, proton (1H) and carbon (13C) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to characterize the newly synthesized Schiff bases. Micro dilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of the Schiff bases, against 14 human pathogenic bacteria (8 Gram negative and 6 Gram positive) and against 7 fungal strains (5 Aspergillus and 2 Fusarium) representatives. Antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and antitrypanosomal property against Trypanosoma brucei was studied in vitro at a single dose concentration of the Schiff bases. Cytotoxicity of the Schiff bases was assessed against human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cells. Results obtained show that the newly synthesized Schiff bases are very potent antimicrobial agents. Gram negative bacteria Klebsiella pneumonia and Escherichia coli were more affected on exposure to Compounds 3.c-f (MIC 7.8 µg/mL) which in turn exhibited more antibacterial potency than nalidixic acid reference drug that displayed MICs between 64 and 512 µg/mL against K. pneumonia and E. coli respectively. The test compounds also demonstrated high cytotoxic effect against Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus carbonarius as they displayed MFC 7.8 and 15.6 µg/mL. Compound 3.c exhibited the highest fungicidal property from this series with MFC alternating between 7.8 and 15.6 µg/mL against the investigated strains. The malarial activity revealed Compounds 3.c and 3.d as the more potent antiplasmodial compounds in this group exhibiting 95% and 85% growth inhibition respectively. The IC50 of Compounds 3.c and 3.d were determined and found to be IC50 26.96 and 28.31 µg/mL respectively. Compound 3.a was the most cytotoxic agent against HeLa cells in this group with 48% cell growth inhibition. Compounds 3.c, 3.d and 3.f were biocompatible with HeLa cells and displayed low toxicity. With a very low cytotoxic effect against HeLa, compound 3.c stands out to be a very good antiparasitic agent and consideration to further evaluate the candidate drug against others cell lines is necessary.
Project description:Purpose:We characterized the effects of Honokiol (HNK) on Aspergillus fumigatus-caused keratomycosis and the underlying mechanisms. HNK is known to have anti-inflammatory and antifungal properties, but the influence on fungal keratitis (FK) remains unknown. Methods:In ex vivo, minimum inhibitory concentration and Cell Count Kit-8 assay were carried out spectrophotometrically to provide preferred concentration applied in vivo. Time kill assay pointed that HNK was fungicidal and fungistatic chronologically. Adherence assay, crystal violet staining, and membrane permeability assay tested HNK effects on different fungal stages. In vivo, clinical scores reflected the improvement degree of keratitis outcome. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) assay, flow cytometry (FCM), and immunohistofluorescence staining (IFS) were done to evaluate neutrophil infiltration. Plate count detected HNK fungicidal potentiality. RT-PCR, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) verified the anti-inflammatory activity of HNK collaboratively. Results:In vitro, MIC90 HNK was 8 µg/mL (no cytotoxicity), and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC) was 12 µg/mL for A. fumigatus. HNK played the fungistatic and fungicidal roles at 6 and 24 hours, respectively, inhibiting adherence at the beginning, diminishing biofilms formation, and increasing membrane permeability all the time. In vivo, HNK improved C57BL/6 mice outcome by reducing disease severity (clinical scores), neutrophil infiltration (MPO, FCM, and IFS), and fungal loading (plate count). RT-PCR, Western blot, and ELISA revealed that HNK downregulated mRNA and protein expression levels of Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR-2), high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), IL-1?, and TNF-?. Conclusions:Our study suggested HNK played antifungal and anti-inflammatory roles on keratomycosis by reducing survival of fungi, infiltration of leucocytes, and expression of HMGB1, TLR-2, and proinflammatory cytokines, providing a potential treatment for FK.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study evaluated the antifungal activity of cinnamaldehyde on <i>Candida</i> spp. In vitro and in situ assays were carried out to test cinnamaldehyde for its anti-<i>Candida</i> effects, antibiofilm activity, effects on fungal micromorphology, antioxidant activity, and toxicity on keratinocytes and human erythrocytes. Statistical analysis was performed considering ? = 5%.<h4>Results</h4>The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of cinnamaldehyde ranged from 18.91 ?M to 37.83 ?M. MIC values did not change in the presence of 0.8 M sorbitol, whereas an 8-fold increase was observed in the presence of ergosterol, suggesting that cinnamaldehyde may act on the cell membrane, which was subsequently confirmed by docking analysis. The action of cinnamaldehyde likely includes binding to enzymes involved in the formation of the cytoplasmic membrane in yeast cells. Cinnamaldehyde-treated microcultures showed impaired cellular development, with an expression of rare pseudo-hyphae and absence of chlamydoconidia. Cinnamaldehyde reduced biofilm adherence by 64.52% to 33.75% (<i>p</i> < 0.0001) at low concentrations (378.3-151.3 µM). Cinnamaldehyde did not show antioxidant properties.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Cinnamaldehyde showed fungicidal activity through a mechanism of action likely related to ergosterol complexation; it was non-cytotoxic to keratinocytes and human erythrocytes and showed no antioxidant activity.
Project description:Fungal mycoses have become an important health and environmental concern due to the numerous deleterious side effects on the well-being of plants and humans. Antifungal therapy is limited, expensive, and unspecific (causes toxic effects), thus, more efficient alternatives need to be developed. In this work, Copper (I) Iodide (CuI) nanomaterials (NMs) were synthesized and fully characterized, aiming to develop efficient antifungal agents. The bioactivity of CuI NMs was evaluated using <i>Sporothrix schenckii</i> and <i>Candida albicans</i> as model organisms. CuI NMs were prepared as powders and as colloidal suspensions by a two-step reaction: first, the CuI2 controlled precipitation, followed by hydrazine reduction. Biopolymers (Arabic gum and chitosan) were used as surfactants to control the size of the CuI materials and to enhance its antifungal activity. The materials (powders and colloids) were characterized by SEM-EDX and AFM. The materials exhibit a hierarchical 3D shell morphology composed of ordered nanostructures. Excellent antifungal activity is shown by the NMs against pathogenic fungal strains, due to the simultaneous and multiple mechanisms of the composites to combat fungi. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of CuI-AG and CuI-Chitosan are below 50 ?g/mL (with 5 h of exposition). Optical and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analyses demonstrate the capability of the materials to disrupt biofilm formation. AFM also demonstrates the ability of the materials to adhere and penetrate fungal cells, followed by their lysis and death. Following the concept of safe by design, the biocompatibility of the materials was tested. The hemolytic activity of the materials was evaluated using red blood cells. Our results indicate that the materials show an excellent antifungal activity at lower doses of hemolytic disruption.