Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Congenital Immune Dysregulatory Disorders.
ABSTRACT: Primary immunodeficiency disorders that predominantly affect immune regulation and mechanisms of self-tolerance have come into the limelight, because at least for a subgroup of monogenetic disorders, a targeted therapy has become available. Nevertheless, their management often involves the treatment of severely compromising, refractory, multi-organ autoimmunity, leading to further increased susceptibility to infections and complications of long-term immune suppressive treatment, including the risk of malignancy. While evidence for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) as a curative treatment option for severely affected patients by this disease category accumulates, clear indications, and guidelines for alloHSCT are lacking. Predictive and stratification-relevant tools such as disease activity scores are largely missing and often there is not a consistent genotype-phenotype correlation within the same family to facilitate the decision whether to transplant or not. In this review, we provide a literature-based update on indications and outcomes of alloHSCT for congenital immune dysregulative inborn errors of immunity according to the IUIS classification 2017.
Project description:Congenital disorders of the immune system affecting maturation and/or function of phagocytic leucocytes can result in severe infectious and inflammatory complications with high mortality and morbidity. Further complications include progression to MDS/AML in some cases. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is the only curative treatment for most patients with these diseases. In this review, we provide a detailed update on indications and outcomes of alloHSCT for congenital neutrophil disorders, based on data from the available literature.
Project description:The recent report of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) has provided the categorized list of 354 inborn errors of immunity. We performed a systematic analysis of genes and diseases from the IUIS report with the use of the OMIM, ORPHANET, and HPO resources. To measure phenotypic similarity we applied the Jaccard/Tanimoto (J/T) coefficient for HPO terms and top-level categories. Low J/T coefficients for HPO terms for OMIM or ORPHANET disease pairs associated with the same genes indicated high pleiotropy of these genes. Gene ORGANizer enrichment analysis demonstrated that gene sets related to HPO top-level categories were most often enriched in immune, lymphatic, and corresponding body systems (for example, genes from the category "Cardiovascular" were enriched in cardiovascular system). We presented available data on frequent and very frequent clinical signs and symptoms in inborn errors of immunity. With the use of DisGeNET, we generated the list of 25 IUIS/OMIM diseases with two or more relatively high score gene-disease associations, found for unrelated genes and/or for clusters of genes coding for interacting proteins. Our study showed the enrichment of gene sets related to several IUIS categories with neoplastic and autoimmune diseases from the GWAS Catalog and reported individual genes with phenotypic overlap between inborn errors of immunity and GWAS diseases/traits. We concluded that genetic background may play a role in phenotypic diversity of inborn errors of immunity.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in young children can be a clinical manifestation of various primary immunodeficiency syndromes. Poor clinical outcome is associated with poor quality of life and high morbidity from the complications of prolonged immunosuppressive treatment and malabsorption. In 2012, mutations in the lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA) gene were identified as the cause of an autoimmunity and immunodeficiency syndrome. Since then, several LRBA-deficient patients have been reported with a broad spectrum of clinical manifestations without reliable predictive prognostic markers. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) has been performed in a few severely affected patients with complete or partial response. Herein, we present a detailed course of the disease and the transplantation procedure used in a LRBA-deficient patient suffering primarily from infantile IBD with immune enteropathy since the age of 6?weeks, and progressive autoimmunity with major complications following long-term immunosuppressive treatment. At 12?years of age, alloHSCT using bone marrow of a fully matched sibling donor-a healthy heterozygous LRBA mutant carrier-was performed after conditioning with a reduced-intensity regimen. During the 6-year follow-up, we observed a complete remission of enteropathy, autoimmunity, and skin vitiligo, with complete donor chimerism. The genetic diagnosis of LRBA deficiency was made post-alloHSCT by detection of two compound heterozygous mutations, using targeted sequencing of DNA samples extracted from peripheral blood before the transplantation.
Project description:Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a heterogeneous hyperinflammatory syndrome with different pathways of pathogenesis resulting in similar clinical presentations. It is best defined and understood if presenting in the context of genetic immunodeficiencies associated with defects of lymphocyte cytotoxicity. In these "primary" forms of HLH, cellular and soluble immune effectors are relatively well characterized. While etoposide-based broad cell-directed therapies remain standard of care, more specific therapies targeting these effectors individually are increasingly available. Anti-CD52 as a cell-directed therapy and anti-IFN-gamma, IL-18BP, and JAK-inhibition as cytokine-directed therapies are expected to broaden the therapeutic options, but the precise role of these drugs in first-line and rescue treatment indications remains to be defined. A number of additional inborn errors of immunity are associated with episodes of immune activation fulfilling the clinical criteria of HLH. Impaired pathogen control is a key driver of hyperinflammation in some conditions, while others are characterized by a strong autoinflammatory component. This heterogeneity of disease-driving factors and the variable severity in disease progression in these conditions do not allow a simple adaptation of protocols established for "primary" HLH to HLH in the context of other inborn errors of immunity. Cytokine-directed therapies hold significant promise in these increasingly recognized disorders.
Project description:Beginning in 1970, a committee was constituted under the auspices of the World Health Organization (WHO) to catalog primary immunodeficiencies. Twenty years later, the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) took the remit of this committee. The current report details the categorization and listing of 354 (as of February 2017) inborn errors of immunity. The growth and increasing complexity of the field have been impressive, encompassing an increasing variety of conditions, and the classification described here will serve as a critical reference for immunologists and researchers worldwide.
Project description:Objectives:Infections are a major cause of mortality after allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT), and immune recovery is necessary for prevention. Novel transplant procedures have changed the epidemiology of infections but contemporary data on functional immune recovery are limited. In this pilot study, we aimed to measure immune recovery in the current era of alloHSCT. Methods:Twenty, 13, 11, 9 and 9 alloHSCT recipients had blood collected at baseline (time of conditioning) and 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-months post-alloHSCT, respectively. Clinical data were collected, and immune recovery was measured using immunophenotyping, lymphocyte proliferation, cytokine analysis and antibody isotyping. Results:Median absolute T- and B-cell counts were below normal from baseline until 9- to 12-months post-alloHSCT. Median absolute CD4+ T-cell counts recovered at 12-months post-alloHSCT. Positive proliferative responses to Aspergillus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), influenza and tetanus antigens were detected from 9 months. IL-6 was the most abundant cytokine in cell cultures. In cultures stimulated with CMV, EBV, influenza and tetanus peptides, the CD4+ T-cell count correlated with IL-1? (P = 0.045) and CD8+ T-cell count with IFN? (P = 0.013) and IL-1? (P = 0.012). The NK-cell count correlated with IL-1? (P = 0.02) and IL-17a (P = 0.03). Median serum levels of IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 were normal while IgG4 and IgA were below normal range throughout follow-up. Conclusions:This pilot study demonstrates that immune recovery can be measured using CD4+ T-cell counts, in vitro antigen stimulation and selected cytokines (IFN?, IL-1?, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, IL-31) in alloHSCT recipients. While larger studies are required, monitoring immune recovery may have utility in predicting infection risk post-alloHSCT.
Project description:Since 2013, the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) expert committee (EC) on Inborn Errors of Immunity (IEI) has published an updated phenotypic classification of IEI, which accompanies and complements their genotypic classification into ten tables. This phenotypic classification is user-friendly and serves as a resource for clinicians at the bedside. There are now 430 single-gene IEI underlying phenotypes as diverse as infection, malignancy, allergy, autoimmunity, and autoinflammation. We herein report the 2019 phenotypic classification, including the 65 new conditions. The diagnostic algorithms are based on clinical and laboratory phenotypes for each of the ten broad categories of IEI.
Project description:Inborn errors of immunity are genetic disorders with broad clinical manifestations, ranging from increased susceptibility to infections to significant immune dysregulation, often leading to multiple autoimmune phenomena, lymphoproliferation, and malignancy. The treatment is challenging as it requires careful balancing of immunosuppression in subjects at increased risk of infections. Recently, the improved ability to define inborn errors of immunity pathophysiology at the molecular level has set the basis for the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. Such a "precision medicine" approach is mainly bases on the use of available small molecules and biologics to target a specific cell function. In this article, we summarize the clinical and laboratory features of various recently described inborn errors of immunity associated with immune dysregulation and hyperinflammation in which mechanism-based therapeutic approaches have been implemented.
Project description:Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) of T-cell orgin are rare biologically heterogeneous diseases of mature lymphoid cells manifesting in immunosuppressed patients. Only a few cases of mycosis fungoides diagnosed post allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (alloHSCT) have been described so far. We present a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) post matched unrelated donor alloHSCT who was on long-term immunosuppressive therapy due to graft versus host disease. Three years after an alloHSCT, she developed generalized erythroderma and peripheral blood lymphocytosis. Both skin biopsy and peripheral blood flow cytometry revealed atypical CD4+ T-cell population consistent with diagnosis of Sezary syndrome. Chimerism studies revealed 100% donor engraftment. Therapy with extracorporeal photopheresis resulted in complete response in blood and skin.
Project description:The field of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) is rapidly evolving. Indeed, the number of described diseases is constantly increasing thanks to the rapid identification of novel genetic defects by next-generation sequencing. PIDs are now rather referred to as "inborn errors of immunity" due to the association between a wide range of immune dysregulation-related clinical features and the "prototypic" increased infection susceptibility. The phenotypic spectrum of PIDs is therefore very large and includes several orofacial features. However, the latter are often overshadowed by severe systemic manifestations and remain underdiagnosed. Patients with impaired innate immunity are predisposed to a variety of oral manifestations including oral infections (e.g., candidiasis, herpes gingivostomatitis), aphthous ulcers, and severe periodontal diseases. Although less frequently, they can also show orofacial developmental abnormalities. Oral lesions can even represent the main clinical manifestation of some PIDs or be inaugural, being therefore one of the first features indicating the existence of an underlying immune defect. The aim of this review is to describe the orofacial features associated with the different PIDs of innate immunity based on the new 2019 classification from the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) expert committee. This review highlights the important role played by the dentist, in close collaboration with the multidisciplinary medical team, in the management and the diagnostic of these conditions.